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Sobaba - Weight loss glossary
Category: Health and Medicine > Weight Loss Glossary
Date & country: 30/08/2013, US
Words: 218


Abdomen
The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and the pelvis. The abdomen is separated anatomically from the chest by the diaphragm, the powerful muscle spanning the body cavity below the lungs.

Abdominal
Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and the pelvis. The abdomen is separated anatomically from the chest by the diaphragm, the powerful muscle spanning the body cavity below the lungs.

Addiction
A chronic relapsing condition characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and abuse and by long-lasting chemical changes in the brain. Addiction is the same irrespective of whether the drug is alcohol, amphetamines, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, or nicotine. Every addictive substance induces pleasant states or relieves distress.

Adipocytes
The scientific term for Fat Cells, being various types of specialized cells found in adipose tissue used for fat storage. One could perhaps say this it is a rather obese term for Fat Cells.

Adipose
The fat found in Adipose tissue.

Adipose tissue
A specialized type of tissue for storing cellular fat.

Adjustable Gastric Banding
A surgical procedure in which a band made of special material is placed around the stomach near its upper end, creating a small pouch and a narrow passage into the larger remainder of the stomach. It can be tightened or loosened over time to change the size of the passage.

Aloe
Herbal product derived from the aloe plant, it is often added to herbal weight loss products. However, it has not been shown to effectively promote permanent weight loss.

Amino acids
The essential building blocks of Proteins, nine of which cannot be manufactured by the body and therefor have to be obtained through food intake.

Anastomosis
The connection formed when sewing together two pieces of stomach and/or intestine. In a gastric bypass there are two anastamoses. The first is the connection between the new stomach pouch and the small intestine, called a gastro-jejunostomy, and the second is the connection between the small intestine coming from the bypassed stomach and the small intestine coming from the new stomach pouch, called a jejuno-jejunostomy. Another term for anastamosis is Stoma.

Anorectic drugs
Pharmaceutical drugs designed as appetite suppressants to reduce calorie intake.

Anorexia Nervosa
A psychophysiological disorder characterized by an abnormal fear of becoming obese and therefor a distorted self-image. This results in an unwillingness to eat leading to severe weight loss. It can also be accompanied by vomiting, excessive exercise and other physiological changes.

Appetite Suppressants
Medications that act upon the brain, tricking it into believing that it is not hungry or that it

Aromatherapy
massage is a soothing scented massage using essential oils extracted from plants that are known for their healing properties.

Artery
A vessel that carries blood high in oxygen content away from the heart to the farthest reaches of the body. Since blood in arteries is usually full of oxygen, the hemoglobin in the red blood cells is oxygenated. The resultant form of hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin) is what makes arterial blood look bright red.

ASBS
The American Society for Bariatric Surgery. http://www.asbs.org

Aspartame
A man-made sweetener with almost no calories used in place of sugar.

Atkins Diet
A high- protein, high- fat, low- carbohydrate weight-loss diet popularized by Dr. Robert C. Atkins that allows for unrestricted amounts of meat, cheese and eggs while severely restricting carbohydrates, including sugar, bread, pasta, milk, fruits and vegetables. The Atkins diet is based on the theory that eating carbohydrates stimulates the production of insulin, which in turn leads to hunger, eating, and weight gain. The theory is that people on the Atkins diet experience reduced appetite and their bodies use stored fat for energy versus burning glucose from ingested carbohydrate. Burning fat for energy is supposedly lead to weight loss.

Bariatric
Pertaining to weight (from the same root as in barometer measuring the weight of air) Bariatric surgery (such as gastric bypass) may be performed by bariatric surgeons. Bariatric physicians are usually internists who specialize in non-surgical weight management.

Bariatric
The branch of medicine dealing with the causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity, both pharmacological and surgical.

Baseline
For the purposes of this weight loss glossary

Binge Eating Disorder
An eating disorder involving uncontrolled eating of large amounts of food but without vomiting or laxative purging.

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
A body composition test that works by sending a small electrical signal through the body, enabling the amount of fat, muscle and other lean tissue to be measured.

Blood
The familiar red fluid in the body that contains white and red blood cells, platelets, proteins, and other elements. The blood is transported throughout the body by the circulatory system. Blood functions in two directions

Blood Glucose
The main sugar that the body makes from the food in the diet. Glucose is carried through the bloodstream to provide energy to all cells in the body. Cells cannot use glucose without the help of insulin.

Blood Sugar
Blood glucose.

BMI
(Body mass index)

Body Composition Test
A test used to determine the current percentage of body fat a person has.

Body Mass Index (BMI)
Body Mass Index. This index is a measure of weight that accounts for height. The higher the BMI, the greater the percentage of body fat, in general. The calculation for BMI is weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. The BMI is not the most accurate way to estimate obesity

Bontril SR
An appetite suppressant that works by stimulating the nervous system.

Bowel
Another name for the intestine. The small bowel and the large bowel are the small intestine and large intestine, respectively.

Bulimia Nervosa
An eating disorder involving episodic binge eating followed by feelings of guilt, depression, and self-condemnation. It also often involves measures to prevent weight gain, such as self-induced vomiting, excessive laxatives, dieting, or fasting.

Calipers
A metal or plastic tool similar to a compass used to measure the diameter of an object. The skin fold thickness in several parts of the body can be measured with skin calipers to determine the lean body mass. This may be done in medicine, physical anthropology, health clubs, and athletic facilities.

Calorie
A unit of food energy. In nutrition terms, the word calorie is used instead of the more precise scientific term kilocalorie which represents the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a liter of water one degree centigrade at sea level. The common usage of the word calorie of food energy is understood to refer to a kilocalorie and actually represents, therefore, 1000 true calories of energy. A calorie is also known as cal, gram calorie, or small calorie.

Calories
A unit of measurement for the amount of energy that is released from food upon oxidation by the body. Also the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1

CALSURG
The Center for Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery. The premiere advanced laparoscopic surgical center in Orange County, California. CALSURG manages The N.E.W. Program of Orange County, the headquarters of The N.E.W. Program, Inc.

Cancer
An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, in some cases, to metastasize (spread).

Capsule
Capsule has many meanings in medicine including the following

Carbohydrates
A group of organic compounds, including sugars, starches and fiber, that is a major source of energy for animals.

Carbohydrates
Mainly sugars and starches, together constituting one of the three principal types of nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Carbohydrates can also be defined chemically as neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Catecholamine
A chemical in the brain that affects mood and appetite.

Cellulite
The dimples and bumps in the skin, usually around the thighs and buttocks, caused when the natural structure of the skin is stretched by Fat cells growing too large.

Center of Excellence
The American Society for Bariatric Surgery and several insurance companies are developing the concept of a Center of Excellence. A Center of Excellence will be required to demonstrate a low complication, a comprehensive program and long-term patient follow-up. This is an attempt to promote quality care in bariatric surgery and curtail Chop Shops.

Chitosan (KITE-o-san)
A dietary supplement made from chitin, a starch found in the skeleton of shrimp, crab and other shellfish. It has not been shown to contribute to permanent weight loss.

Cholesterol
A type of fat that circulates in your blood. It comes from two sources

Cholesterol
The most common type of steroid in the body, cholesterol has gotten something of a bad name. However, cholesterol is a critically important molecule.

Chop Shop
A hospital or center that focuses mainly on doing the fastest or easiest procedure on the greatest number of patients, often involving surgeons and other specialists with little genuine interest and training in the treatment of obesity. These are programs that are only superficially comprehensive.

Chromium
This is thought to affect the breakdown of carbohydrates. Several studies have failed to show any benefit in weight loss after taking this drug.

Chronic
This important term in medicine comes from the Greek chronos, time and means lasting a long time. For the purposes of this weigh loss glossary, it is often used as in chronic obesity or chronic diabetes, for example.

Clinical Trials
Trials to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medications or medical devices by monitoring their effects on large groups of people.

Clinically Severe Obesity
The newer term for morbid obesity.

Co-morbidity
Any disease that is associated with, or a result of, another disease. Co-morbidities of obesity include diabetes, hypertension and high cholesterol. For a more complete listing, click here.

Colon
The part of the large intestine that runs from the cecum to the rectum as a long hollow tube that serves to remove water from digested food and let the remaining material, solid waste called stool , move through it to the rectum and leave the body through the anus.

Compulsive Overeating
Also known as Binge Eating.

Dexfenfluramine
A weight loss drug, in a class of drugs called anorectics which decrease appetite. This drug, sold in the US under the brand name Redux, was withdrawn from the US market in 1997, and has since been withdrawn worldwide and is no longer available because of its association with abnormal heart valve findings, primarily aortic regurgitation.

Didrex
An appetite suppressant that works by stimulating the nervous system.

Diet
The food and drink a person or animal consumes in their normal life, and a regulated eating plan for medical reasons or as a measure to promote weight loss.

Diet
What a person eats and drinks. For the purposes of this weight loss glossary, any type of eating plan.

Disease
Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs).

Disruption sequence
The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.

Diuretics
A drug that increases the discharge of urine, used to move fluid through the body quickly as a form of purging..

Dumping Syndrome
The unpleasant sensation that occurs after eating food that is high in concentrated sugar or simple carbohydrates. This only occurs in patients who have had a Roux-en-Y operation. Symptoms often include lightheadedness, heart palpitations, sweating and diarrhea and last 15 minutes.

Dumping Syndrome
Whereby stomach contents move too rapidly through the small intestine. Symptoms include nausea, weakness, sweating, faintness, and, occasionally, diarrhea after eating, as well as the inability to eat sweets without becoming so weak and sweaty that the patient may have to lie down until the symptoms pass.

Duodenum
The first 12 centimeters of intestine after the stomach. Bile and pancreatic juices enter from the liver and pancreas into the duodenum. Iron and Calcium is partially absorbed here. This area is bypassed during the Gastric Bypass and during the Duodenal Switch.

Dysphagia
Food sticking in the esophagus after eating. This is abnormal.

EGD
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy. This endoscopic procedure is performed by a gastroenterologist or surgeon by placing a lighted flexible scope into the mouth, down the esophagus, and into the stomach and duodenum. The procedure is generally performed with the patient awake, but lightly sedated.

Endoscopy
The use of a narrow tubular camera and lens to look inside a person. This usually refers to procedures performed by gastroenterologists to look inside the stomach or colon. In general, Endoscopy refers to any procedure where a physician uses a tubular, narrow camera to visualize, or perform procedures, inside the body.

Energy expenditure
For the purposes of this weight loss glossary, the amount of energy, measured in calories, that a person uses. Calories are used by people to breath, circulate blood, digest food, and be physically active.

Esophagus
The tube that connects the pharynx (throat) with the stomach. The esophagus lies between the trachea (windpipe) and the spine. It passes down the neck, pierces the diaphragm just to the left of the midline, and joins the cardiac (upper) end of the stomach.

Estrogen
Estrogen is a female hormone produced by the ovaries. Estrogen deficiency can lead to osteoporosis.

Exercise
A physical or mental activity used as a method of maintaining or improving a level of fitness. An important part of an overall weight loss plan of action.

Fad Diets
Fashionable or Trendy diets that may or may not actually help in reducing weight. These diets should be used with caution and a professional medical opinion sought.

Fastin
A brand name for Phentermine previously manufactured by Smith Kline Beecham but no longer available.

Fat
1 Along with proteins and carbohydrates, one of the three nutrients used as energy sources by the body. The energy produced by fats is 9 calories per gram. Proteins and carbohydrates each provide 4 calories per gram. 2 Total fats; the sum of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can help reduce blood cholesterol when substituted for saturated fats in the diet. 3 A slang term for obese or adipose. 4 In chemistry, a compound formed from chemicals called fatty acids. These fats are greasy, solid materials found in animal tissues and in some plants. Fats are the major component of the flabby material of a body, commonly known as blubber.

Fat
Animal tissue containing glycerol and fatty acids. Also used to describe someone who has too much fat and is therefor plump or obese.

Fatigue
A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency of accomplishment, usually accompanied by a feeling of weariness and tiredness. Fatigue can be acute and come on suddenly or chronic and persist.

Fatty Acids
Molecules that are long chains of lipid-carboxylic acid found in fats and oils and in cell membranes as a component of phospholipids and glycolipids. (Carboxylic acid is an organic acid containing the functional group -COOH.)

FDA
The Food & Drug Administration is the US Federal agency responsible for the regulation of biotechnology food products.

FDA
The Food and Drug Administration, an agency within the U.S. Public Health Service, which is a part of the Department of Health and Human Services.

Fenfluramine
A weight loss drug, in a class of drugs called anorectics which decrease appetite. This drug, sold in the US under the brand name Pondimin, was withdrawn from the US market in 1997, and has since been withdrawn worldwide and is no longer available because of its association with abnormal heart valve findings, primarily aortic regurgitation.

Gallbladder
A pear-shaped organ just below the liver that stores the bile secreted by the liver. During a fatty meal, the gallbladder contracts, delivering the bile through the bile ducts into the intestines to help with digestion. Abnormal composition of bile leads to formation of gallstones, a process termed cholelithiasis. The gallstones cause cholecystitis, inflammation of the gallbladder.

Gastrectomy
Removal of all, or part, of the stomach. The only weight loss operation in which a gastrectomy is performed is a duodenal switch.

Gastric
Having to do with the stomach, as in gastric bypass surgery.

Gastric Banding
In this procedure, a band made of special material is placed around the stomach near its upper end, creating a small pouch and a narrow passage into the larger remainder of the stomach. Has effectively replaced gastric bypass surgery as a healthier surgical option.

Gastric Bypass
An operation in which a surgeon creates a new tubular pathway for the movement of fluids and/or other substances in the body.

Gastrointestinal
Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large intestines.

Gastrointestinal Tract
The tube that extends from the mouth to the anus in which the movement of muscles and release of hormones and enzymes digest food. The gastrointestinal tract starts with the mouth and proceeds to the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum and, finally, the anus. Also called the alimentary canal, digestive tract and, perhaps most often in conversation, the GI tract.

Generic Drug
A drug whose patent has expired thus enabling it to be manufactured by any company. Phentermine is an example of a Generic Drug.

Genes
The basic biological units of heredity. Segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) needed to contribute to a function.

Genetic
Having to do with genes and genetic information.

Genetic Disease
A disease caused by an abnormality in an individual's genome.

Glucose
The simple sugar (monosaccharide) that serves as the chief source of energy in the body. Glucose is the principal sugar the body makes. The body makes glucose from proteins, fats and, in largest part, carbohydrates. Glucose is carried to each cell through the bloodstream. Cells, however, cannot use glucose without the help of insulin. Glucose is also known as dextrose.

Health
As officially defined by the World Health Organization, a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Health
The overall condition of an organism at a given time in regard to soundness of body or mind and freedom from disease or abnormality.

Healthy weight
For the purposes of this weight loss glossary, compared to overweight or obese, a body weight that is less likely to be linked with any weight-related health problems such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, or others. A body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 up to 25 refers to a healthy weight, though not all individuals with a BMI in this range may be at a healthy level of body fat; they may have more body fat tissue and less muscle. A BMI of 25 up to 30 refers to overweight and a BMI of 30 or higher refers to obese.

Heart
The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. It is positioned in the chest behind the sternum (breastbone; in front of the trachea, esophagus, and aorta; and above the diaphragm muscle that separates the chest and abdominal cavities. The normal heart is about the size of a closed fist, and weighs about 10.5 ounces. It is cone-shaped, with the point of the cone pointing down to the left. Two-thirds of the heart lies in the left side of the chest with the balance in the right chest.

Hemorrhagic
Pertaining to bleeding or the abnormal flow of blood.

Hernia
Any situation where organs or tissue passes through a small opening from the side or position where it belongs to the other side where it doesn.t belong. Usually used to describe a defect in the abdominal muscle that allows abdominal contents to bulge through. An internal hernia is a bulge of intestine through a small, internal opening inside the abdomen. Symptoms are often vague abdominal pain.

Hernia
The protrusion of a loop of an organ or tissue through a weakened opening. Ten to 20 percent of patients who have weight-loss surgery develop a hernia.

High Blood Pressure
Also known as hypertension, high blood pressure is, by definition, a repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg -- a systolic pressure above 140 with a diastolic pressure above 90.