Copy of `USGS - Caterpillars of the Eastern Forest`

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USGS - Caterpillars of the Eastern Forest
Category: Animals and Nature
Date & country: 30/06/2013, US
Words: 57


Abdomen
10 segments of body that immediately follow the claw-bearing thoracic segments.

Addorsal
close to the dorsal midline (see subdorsal).

Anal comb
a pronged structure just above the anus, and below the anal plate, used to eject frass away from the feeding site.

Anal plate
dorsal hardened area on the last (10th) abdominal segment.

Anal proleg
proleg arising from the last abdominal segment.

Annulated
ringed; body segments with shallow creases running around each segment as in many hornworms and loopers.

Antenna
elongate sensory structure just forward from the eyes.

Band
pattern running around segments perpendicular to the body axis or more or less vertical markings on head.

Crochets
hooklike structures on the abdominal prolegs used to grasp substrate.

Deciduous
detaching readily.

Dorsal
along the back or upper side of the caterpillar.

Dorsum
back or upper side of the caterpillar.

Eversible
capable of being turned inside out or everted.

Extrusible
capable of being protruded or enlarged.

Frass
pelletlike excrement.

Granulose
appearing grainy; with sandlike texture.

Gregarious
occurring in groups (because female lays eggs in clusters). Many species are gregarious in the early instars, but eventually disperse and become solitary.

Hypoproct
Fleshy spur ventral to anus in loopers (Geometridae), especially in those that rest on twigs (see paraproct).

Imbricate
overlapping, like the scales of a snake.

Instar
one of the larval stages. Most species have 5 or 6 instars before molting to the pupal stage.

Integument
cuticle or skin of caterpillar.

Intersegmental
between adjacent segments; intersegmental coloration is often concealed when caterpillar is foreshortened.

Labrum
upper lip; the flaplike plate that rests over the jaws.

Larva
caterpillar; immature feeding stage of butterflies and moths and other insects with complete metamorphosis.

Lash
long tuft or fascicle of grouped setae.

Lateral
along sides, typically at level of the spiracles.

Medial
running along or near the body midline.

Midabdominal prolegs
prolegs arising from third to sixth abdominal segments.

Middorsal
along dorsal midline of body.

Midventral
along ventral midline of body.

Paraproct
small, fleshy protuberances on either side of anus in loopers (Geometridae), often held against substrate (see hypoproct).

Polyphagous
eating plants from more than 1 or 2 plant families.

Prothoracic shield
dorsal plate atop the first thoracic segment.

Prothorax
first thoracic segment; segment to which head attaches.

Scolus (scoli)
elongate projection, often branched and hardened, from body wall bearing minute spines.

Seta (setae)
hairlike outgrowth from head or body.

Setal base
hardened plate at base of seta; pinaculum.

Spatulate
widened at the apex like a spatula.

Specialist
feeding on species in a single plant genus or 2 closely related host genera.

Spinule
minute spine, often broadened at base.

Spinulose
bearing numerous minute spines or cuticular outgrowths.

Spiracles
lateral, oval to round openings of respiratory system found on the first thoracic and first 8 abdominal segments.

Spiracular
adjacent to or passing through the spiracles.

Stemmata
lateral eyes, typically cluster of 6 on each side of head.

Stripe
pattern that runs longitudinally along body axis.

Subapical
back from or below the apex.

Subdorsal
to either side of the dorsal midline (see addorsal).

Subspiracular
below level of spiracles and well above prolegs (see subventer).

Subventral
area above level of legs and prolegs but below subspiracular area (see subspiracular)

Supraspiracular
above level of spiracles.

Thorax
consists of 3 segments immediately behind head that bear true, claw-bearing legs.

Transverse
running around a body segment, perpendicular to body axis.

Triangle
triangular plate located between the eyes and above the mouth (Figure 2); elsewhere called frontal triangle or frons.

Truncated
appearing cut or squared off.

Tussocks
dense tufts of setae, often appearing truncated and of 1 length.

Urticating
causing itching or burning sensation to the skin and eyes, often caused by entry of poison-filled spines (whose tips often break off).

Vertex
dorsal or top portion of head.