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Stream Net - Fisheries management
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Fisheries Management
Date & country: 27/04/2012, US
Words: 903


A-run steelhead
Summer steelhead crossing Bonneville Dam on or before August 25.

Abatement
Reducing the degree or intensity of, or eliminating, pollution.

Abdominal pelvics
Pelvic fins located on the abdomen far behind the pectoral fins; pelvic bones do not attach to pectoral girdle.

Abiota
Those non-living factors which are present in and affect the characteristics of a given ecosystem.

Ablation
The process by which ice and snow waste away as a result of melting and/or evaporation.

Absolute Recruitment
The number of fish which grow into the catchable size range in a unit of time (usually a year).

Abundance Index
Information obtained from samples or observations and used as a measure of the weight or number of fish which make up a stock.

Accessory pelvic appendage
A tapered fleshy lobe above the base of the pelvic fin.

Acclimate
The adaptation of an organism to environmental changes.

Acclimation pond
Concrete or earthen pond or a temporary structure used for rearing and imprinting juvenile fish in the water of a particular stream before their release into that stream.

Acid Rain
Rainfall with a pH of less than 7.0. Long-term deposition of these acids is linked to adverse effects on aquatic organisms and plant life in areas with poor neutralizing (buffering) capacity.

Acidic
The condition of water or soil that contains a sufficient amount of acid substances to lower the pH below 7.0.

Acre
A measure of area equal to 43,560 square feet (4,046.87 square meters). One square mile equals 640 acres.

Acre-foot (af)
The volume of water that will cover one acre to a depth of 1 foot.

Adaptation
Changes in an organism's structure or habits that allow it to adjust to its surroundings.

Adaptive management
The process of implementing policy decisions as scientifically driven management experiments that test predictions and assumptions in management plans, and using the resulting information to improve the plans.

Adaptive management areas
Landscape units designated for development and testing of technical and social approaches to achieving desired ecological, economic, and other social objectives.

Adfluvial
Possessing a life history trait of migrating between lakes or rivers and streams.

Adipose fin
A small fleshy fin with no rays, located between the dorsal and caudal fins.

Adult equivalent population
The number of fish that would have returned to the mouth of the Columbia River in the absence of any prior harvest.

Adult Fish Counts
A fish-viewing window is at the upstream end of most fish ladders. Observers count the number of fish, by species and size, passing the window for 50 minutes of every hour for 16 hours per day. Extrapolations are made for the hours and minutes not counted to provide an estimate of daily adult fish passage for each dam. In general, separate counts are made for adults and jacks (precocious males that can be identified by their smaller size).

Adult Fish Ladders
The main-stem hydroelectric dams on the Columbia and lower Snake Rivers have fish ladders that allow adults to pass the dams on their upstream spawning migration.

Aeration
Any active or passive process by which intimate contact between air and liquid is assured, generally by spraying liquid in the air, bubbling air through water, or mechanical agitation of the liquid to promote surface absorption of air.

Aeration Tank
A chamber used to inject air into water.

Aerobic
Characterizing organisms able to live only in the presence of air or free oxygen, and conditions that exist only in the presence of air or free oxygen. Contrast with Anaerobic.

Affluent (Stream)
A stream or river that flows into a larger one; a Tributary.

Age
The number of years of life completed, here indicated by an arabic numeral, followed by a plus sign if there is any possibility of ambiguity (age 5, age 5+)1.

Age specific survival rate
The average proportion of individuals in a particular are group that survive for a given period.

Age-class
A group of individuals of a certain species that have the same age.

Alevin
The developmental life stage of young salmonids and trout that are between the egg and fry stage. The alevin has not absorbed its yolk sac and has not emerged from the spawning gravels.

Allele
An alternate form of a gene.

Allocation
Division of the fish resource among harvesters and needs for reproduction

Allopatric
Occurring in different geographic regions. See parapatric and sympatric.

Allozymes
Alternate forms of an enzyme produced by different alleles and often detected by protein electrophoresis.

Alluvial
Deposited by running water.

Alluvium
Sediment or loose material such as clay, silt, sand, gravel, and larger rocks deposited by moving water.

Alternative
One of several policies, plans, or projects proposed for making decisions.

Anabranch
A diverging branch of a river which re-enters the main stream.

Anadromous
Fish that hatch rear in fresh water, migrate to the ocean (salt water) to grow and mature, and migrate back to fresh water to spawn and reproduce.

Anal fin
The fin located on the ventral median line and behind the anus.

Analytical watershed
For planning purposes, a drainage basin subdivision used for analyzing cumulative impacts on resources.

Anerobic
Characterizing organisms able to live and grow only where there is no air or free oxygen, and conditions that exist only in the absence of air or free oxygen.

Angler day
One person angling for any part of 1 day.

Annual operating plan
A yearly plan for operating reservoirs on the Columbia River. Such a plan is specifically required by the Columbia River Treaty and by the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement.

Annulus
A mark or ring that forms annually on the otoliths, scales, and other bones of fish, that correspond to the annual period of slow growth that fish go through. Annuli are used by fish managers to determine age and growth of fish.

Approach velocities
Water velocities at or near the face of a fish screen.

Appropriate
To authorize the use of a quantity of water to an individual requesting it.

Aquaculture
The controlled cultivation and harvest of aquatic plants or animals (e.g., edible marine algae, clams, oysters, and salmon).

Aquaduct
A pipe or conduit made for bringing water from a source.

Aquatic ecosystem
Any body of water, such as a stream, lake or estuary, and all organisms and nonliving components within it, functioning as a natural system.

Aquatic habitat
Habitat that occurs in free water.

Aquifer
An underground layer of rock or soil containing ground water.

Arch Dam
Curved masonry or concrete dam, convex in shape upstream, that depends on arch action for its stability; the load or water pressure is transferred by the arch to the Abutments.

Artificial production
(or Artificial propagation) Spawning, incubating, hatching or rearing fish in a hatchery or other facility constructed for fish production.

Artificial propagation
Any assistance provided by man in the reproduction of Pacific salmon. This assistance includes, but is not limited to, spawning and rearing in hatcheries, stock transfers, creation of spawning habitat, egg bank programs, captive broodstock programs, and cryopreservation of gametes.

Assessment level
Categories of the level of complexity of and data available for each assessment included in this document; index of abundance (INDEX), yield-per-recruit analysis (YIELD), analysis of the age structure of the catch (AGE STRUCTURE), analysis including the relationship between recruitment and spawning stock size (SPAWNING STOCK) and assessment that allows prediction of future (one or two years ahead) stock sizes and catches (predictive). These levels are detailed in the subsection titled Kinds of Assessments.

At-risk fish stocks
Stocks of anadromous salmon and trout that have been identified by professional societies, fish management agencies, and in the scientific literature as being in need of special management consideration because of low or declining populations.

Attraction
Drawing fish to dam fishways or spillways through the use of water flows.

Augmentation (of stream flow)
Increasing steam flow under normal conditions, by releasing storage water from reservoirs.

Availability
1. The fraction of a fish population which lives in regions where it is susceptible to fishing during a given fishing season . This fraction receives recruits from or becomes mingled with the non-available part of the stock at other seasons, or in other years. (Any more or less completely isolated segment of the population is best treated as a separate stock.) 2. Catch per unit of effort.

Average megawatt (aMW)
The average amount of energy (in megawatts) supplied or demanded over a specified period of time; equivalent to the energy produced by the continuous operation of one megawatt of capacity over the specified period.

B-run steelhead
Summer steelhead crossing Bonneville Dam after August 25.

Biological reference points
Fishing mortality rates that may provide acceptable protection against growth overfishing and/or recruitment overfishing for a particular stock. They are usually calculated from equilibrium yield-per-recruit curves, spawning stock biomass-per-recruit curves and stock recruitment data. Examples are F0.1, Fmax and Fmed.

Biomass
The total quantity (at any given time) of living organisms of one or more species per unit of space (species biomass), or of all the species in a biotic community (community biomass).

Birth-pulse population
A population assumed to produce all of its offspring at an identical and instantaneous point during the annual cycle.

Blocked areas
Areas in the Columbia River Basin where hydroelectric projects have created permanent barriers to anadromous fish runs. These include the areas above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams, the Hells Canyon Complex and other smaller locations.

Blowdown
Trees felled by high winds.

Board feet (BF)
Lumber or timber management term. The amount of wood contained in an unfinished board 1 inch think, 12 inches long, and 12 inches wide.

Bog
Freshwater wetlands that are poorly drained and characterized by a buildup of peat.

Boreal Forest
A northern forest, as in the boreal forest Biome, characterized by evergreen conifers and long winters. The boreal forest, also referred to as a Taiga, is found in the northern parts of North America, Europe, and Asia.

Bottleneck
A sharp reduction of a breeding population's size to a few individuals. The genetic consequences of a bottleneck, especially the loss of genetic variability, depend on both its magnitude and its duration.

Boulder
A large substrate particle that is larger that cobble, >256 mm in diameter.

Brackish
Having a somewhat salty taste, especially from containing a mixture of seawater and fresh water.

Brackish Water
Generally, water containing dissolved minerals in amounts that exceed normally acceptable standards for municipal, domestic, and irrigation uses. Considerably less saline than sea water. Also, Marine and Estuarine waters with Mixohaline salinity (0.5 to 30 due to ocean salts). Water containing between 1,000-4,000 parts per million (PPM) Total Dissolved Solids TDS). The term brackish water is frequently interchangeable with Saline Water. The term should not be applied to inland waters.

Braided stream
A complex tangle of converging and diverging stream channels (Anabranches) separated by sand bars or islands. Characteristic of flood plains where the amount of debris is large in relation to the discharge.

Braiding (of River Channels)
Successive division and rejoining of riverflow with accompanying islands.

Brood stock
Adult fish used to propagate the subsequent generation of hatchery fish.

Brood year
The year in which the eggs were spawned

Broodline
The generation of pink salmon that reproduces every other year. Because of the lack of variable age structure in this species, even-year pink salmon are reproductively isolated from odd-year pink salmon.

Brook
A natural stream of water, smaller than a river or creek; especially a small stream or rivulet which breaks directly out of the ground, as from a spring or seep; also, a stream or torrent of similar size, produced by copious rainfall, melting snow and ice, etc.; a primary stream not formed by tributaries, though often fed below its source, as by rills or runlets; one of the smallest branches or ultimate ramifications of a drainage system.

Buccal
Pertaining to the cheeks or the cavity of the mouth.

Buffer strip
A barrier of permanent vegetation, either forest or other vegetation, between waterways and land uses such as agriculture or urban development, designed to intercept and filter out pollution before it reaches the surface water resource.

Buoyancy
The tendency of a body to float or rise when submerged in a fluid.

Bureau of Reclamation
An agency that administers some parts of the federal program for water resource development and use in western states. The Bureau of Reclamation owns and operates a number of dams in the Columbia River Basin, including Grand Coulee and several projects on the Yakima River.

Button-up fry
A salmonid fry that has not completely absorbed its yolk sac and has emerged from its spawning gravel.

Buttress Dam
A dam consisting of a watertight upstream face supported at intervals on the downstream side by a series of buttresses.

Bypass system
A channel or conduit in a dam that provides a route for fish to move through or around the dam without going through the turbine units.

Bypass Systems
Juvenile salmonid bypass systems consist of moving screens lowered into turbine intakes to divert fish away from turbines at hydroelectric dams. Fish move into a channel that transports them safely around the dam. Bypassed fish are then typically returned directly to the river below the dam, although some Columbia River Basin dams have facilities to load bypassed fish into barges or trucks for transport to a release site downstream from all the dams. PIT-tag detectors interrogate all PIT-tagged fish passing through the bypass system. In addition, the systems are equipped with subsampling capabilities that allow hands-on enumeration and examination of a portion of the collection for coded-wire tags (CWT), brands, species composition, injuries, etc. Recovery information at bypass systems is used to develop survival estimates, travel time estimates, and run timing; to identify problem areas within the bypass system; and as the basis for flow management decisions during the juvenile migrations.

Canal
A constructed open channel for transporting water.

Canopy
A layer of foliage in a forest stand. This most often refers to the uppermost layer of foliage, but it can be used to describe lower layers in a multistoried stand. Leavs, branches and vegetation that are above ground and/or water that provide shade and cover for fish and wildlife.

Canopy closure
The degree to which the canopy (forest layers above one's head) blocks sunlight or obscures the sky.

Captive brood stock
Fish raised and spawned in captivity.

Captive broodstock program
A form of artificial propagation involving the collection of individuals (or gametes) from a natural population and the rearing of these individuals to maturity in captivity. For listed species, a captive broodstock is considered part of the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) from which it is taken.

Carnivorous
Feeding on animal tissues.

Carrying capacity
The maximum number of organisms that a certain habitat can sustain over the long term.

Cartilaginous fishes
A major group of fishes including sharks and rays.

Cascade
A short, steep drop in stream bed elevation often marked by boulders and agitated white water.

Catadromous
Refers to fishes that migrate from fresh water to salt water to spawn or reproduce such as the American eel.

Catch
The act of landing a fish at which point the fisher has the option of releasing or retaining it.

Catch Curve
A graph of the logarithm of number of fish taken at successive ages or sizes.