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Diet and Health Net - Health glossary
Category: Health and Medicine > Dieting Glossary
Date & country: 27/04/2012, US
Words: 59


Amino acids
The nitrogen containing units from which proteins are formed. There are 22 known amino acids....

Antioxidant
A substance that protects molecules from oxidation by getting oxidized itself....

Bingeing
An eating spree....

Bioavailability
The extent to which the body can utilise a particular nutrient....

Calorie
Energy unit; a single calorie is the amount heat needed to increase the temperature of one gram of water by one degree centigrade....

Carotene
An orange-yellow pigment usually found in vegetables. A precursor of vitamin A....

Cation
A positively charged ion....

Cellulose
An insoluble fibre. Part of the cell walls of all plant cells....

Cholesterol
A fatty substance (lipid) found in animal tissue and fat....

Co-enzyme
A substance, usually made out of a vitamin, associated with many enzymes and essential for their function....

Cohort
A group of people who are followed in a scientific study....

Complex carbohydrate
Polysaccharides comprised of starches and dietary fibres....

Diet
The kind of food eaten by any animal to maintain or improve its state of health....

Disaccharides
are two sugars linked together

Diuretic
A substance that increases the flow of urine from the body....

DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid
the nucleic acid in chromosomes that is part of the chemical basis for hereditary characteristics....

Dyspnea
Breathing difficulties....

Enzyme
A protein substance that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions....

Epithelial Tissue
forming the outer layer of body surface....

Essential amino acids
Nine amino acids that can not be synthesized by mammals and are therefore dietarily essential....

Esters
An organic compound produced by reaction between acid and alcohol....

Fat soluble vitamins
need fat for proper assimilation and are more easily stored in the body....

Fatty acids
are lipids, (organic compounds with limited solubility in water), that can be directly utilized as a source of energy by most body cells....

Fringe
The unofficial or unconventional school of thought about diet and nutrition....

Heme iron
Iron found in haemoglobin. It is an easily absorbed dietary iron....

Hemodynamic
The status of the body's blood system....

Hydrolysis
Decomposition of organic compound with water....

Hypercholesterolemic
Excessive quantity of cholesterol in the blood and tissues....

Hyperglycaemia
An elevated concentration of glucose in the blood....

Hyperkalemia
Acute intoxication of potassium, from intakes of about 18 g for adults. Can prove fatal because it can cause cardiac arrest....

Hypertriglyceridemic
Excessive quantity of fatty acids....

Hypoglycaemia
Low blood sugar levels, often causing confusion, light headedness and irritability....

Intestinal bacteria
Microscopic organisms found in the colon that can help with the assimilation of certain nutrients....

Lipids
Group of chemicals, usually fats, that do not dissolve in water, but dissolve in ether....

Lipoproteins
Lipid-protein particles that are carried through the blood stream....

Macrobiotic
A very restrictive diet, containing mainly whole grains, considered by its advocates to promote health....

Metabolism
Summary of all chemical events in our body's cells....

Mono-unsaturated fats
containing a single double bond, usually found in plant products....

Monosaccharides
are single sugars

Neurotransmitter
A chemical that transmits signals between the nerve cells and the brain....

Non-heme iron
Iron that is less easily absorbed by the body and is influenced by the composition of the diet. Vitamin C, meat, and fish enhance the absorption while tannic acid and phytic acid reduce iron absorption....

Nutrient density
The amount of and availability of nutrients found in a single food....

Oedema
Swelling due to the retention of fluids in the tissues....

Oxalates
Organic chemical found in certain foods that can combine with calcium to form calcium oxalate, an insoluble chemical the body can not use....

Parenteral Nutrition
Intravenous solution containing nutrients....

Phytate
A substance found inside the husk of whole grains and cereals that binds certain minerals making them unavailable....

Polysaccharides
Are many sugars linked together

Polyunsaturated fats
Highly unsaturated fat, usually of plant origin....

Quack
A fraudulent or ignorant pretender to medical skill....

Recommended Dietary Allowance
The levels of intake of essential nutrients judged by the Food and Nutrition Board, on the basis of scientific knowledge, to be adequate to meet the nutrient needs of all healthy persons....

Renal
Functioning of the kidneys....

Retinol
Naturally occurring compounds with some vitamin A activity, usually of animal origin....

Saturated fats
A type of fat found in animal products, usually solid at room temperature. Tends to raise blood cholesterol levels....

Simple carbohydrates
Are monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and disaccharides (sucrose, maltose and lactose)....

Simple sugar
Fructose and glucose which are more easily absorbed and utilized by the body....

Solutes
Trace elements or minerals dissolved in a substance....

Subcutaneous body fat
Fat found under the skin....

Unsaturated fats
Usually liquid at room temperature, and primarily found in vegetable products. Saturated fats which are usually solid are found more often in animal products....

Western Diet
The diet followed by most people in the Western World, consisting mainly of processed foods, junk foods and fast foods with a high sodium, sugar and saturated fat content and a low nutrient density....