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INSEE - National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies
Category: General
Date & country: 24/06/2011, FR
Words: 750

A hypermarket is a self-service retail store deriving more than one-third of its sales from food and having a sales floor area of 2,500 m² or more.

Immediate placement centre
Immediate placement centres take in minors for whom immediate accommodation has been ordered by youth judges and as a priority for juvenile delinquents. This accommodation should make it possible to respond to an emergency situation, characterised by the impossibility for certain minors to remain in their family and social environment, particularly when they have just committed an offence and temp...

Under the terms of the definition adopted by the High Council for Integration, an immigrant is a person who is born a foreigner and abroad, and resides in France. Persons who were born abroad and of French nationality and live in France are therefore not counted. Conversely, certain immigrants may have become French while others remain foreign. The foreign and immigrant populations are therefore n...

Import price competitiveness
Import price competitiveness is measured by calculating the ratio of import prices to producer prices on the domestic market. A rise in the indicator corresponds to an improvement in the competitiveness of the country.

Imports of goods and services
All goods and services supplied by non-residents to residents, either free of charge or in return for payment.

In-school population
The in-school population includes the pupils in initial education in schools under the aegis of National education but also those under the aegis of other ministries (Agriculture, Food, Fishing and Rurality, Solidarity, Health and family, etc.).

Inactive person
Conventionally, inactive persons are defined as being persons who are neither in employment nor unemployed: young people under the age of 14, students, retired people, persons engaged in activities in the household, persons with an incapacity for employment, etc.

Incidence rate
In epidemiology, the incidence rate represents the rate of new cases of a condition observed within a given period – affected population – in relation to the total population within which these cases have arisen (in the same period) – the target population. It is one of the most essential criteria for determining the prevalence and speed of manifestation of a disease.

Income inter-decile ratio
Income inter-decile ratios are used to evidence the disparities (or differences) between the richest and the poorest.

Income poverty
An individual (or a household) is considered to be poor when living in a household where the standard of living is below the poverty line. The INSEE, like EUROSTAT, measures income poverty in a relative manner whereas other countries (such as the United States and Canada) adopt an absolute approach. In the approach in relative terms, the line is determined in relation to the distribution of the s...

Index database of natural persons
INSEE maintains a national index listing natural persons, as well as the general electoral roll. Both are managed via the same information system: the index database of natural persons. These services, framed by various regulatory texts, give INSEE a central role in the management of population registers for administrative purposes: certifying the civil status of individuals, assigning them regist...

Index of imported commodities
INSEE publishes monthly price indices for commodities (foodstuffs, agro-industrial products and minerals) which allow observation of the changes in current raw material prices. Individual price data for each commodity observed is also available. Similar resources are the wheat price and other price indices calculated by other institutes. Prices of crude oil (Brent) and refined petroleum products a...

Individual or collective building
Buildings are distinguished according to their individual (house) or collective character. A house corresponds to a building with one dwelling and having its own entrance. There are two types of houses : - pure individual (single-family house resulting from a construction operation and having only one residence) ; - grouped individual (single-family house resulting from a construction operation ...

Individual training leave / CIF
The purpose of the individual training leave (CIF) is to enable all employees, during their professional lives, to attend, on their initiative and on an individual basis, training sessions, while benefiting from total or partial coverage of their compensation and of training costs. The training sessions attended in this framework are independent from their participation in internships including in...

Industrial economy
Generally speaking, the industrial economy concerns those activities combining factors of production (facilities, supplies, work, knowledge) to produce material goods intended for the market. A distinction is generally made between manufacturing industry and extraction industries, but the precise perimeter of industry in each statistical operation is given by the list of the items taken into accou...

Industrial production index/ IPI
The industrial production index (IPI) is a statistical instrument that measures variations in the quantities produced by industry. If we refer to the traditional classification of economic activities in three sectors, the IPI concerns the so-called secondary sector: factories, construction sites, mines and quarries. The products that are monitored are to be found at all the levels in the manufactu...

Industrial property protection
Protection is triggered by the date of filing. There are three forms of protection of industrial property rights : - national : this is an application for protection covering French territory. The procedure for issuance or registration is carried out by the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) ; - European : application for protection under the European procedure for the issuance of p...

Industrial tribunal
The elected industrial tribunal is a court of first instance responsible for judging individual disputes related to a work or apprenticeship contract, between employers and employees or apprentices: dismissal, salary dispute, leave, etc. The elected industrial tribunal is made up of non-professional elected judges, its members, who are, in equal numbers, employers and employees. In the event of a ...

The industry usually indicates all the complementary activities which contribute, of upstream downstream, to the realization of a finished product. So we speak about electronics industry (from silicon to the computer including the components) or of automobile industry (from steel to the vehicle including the equipments). The industry intégre generally several branches

Industry producing capital goods
The industries producing capital goods cover activities producing durable goods used mainly to produce other goods. These industries correspond to the code EE in the NES classification, the summary economic classification which was in use until december 2007 : - shipbuilding, aeronautics and rail construction ; - mechanical equipment ; - electrical and electronic equipment. There is no such grou...

Infant mortality
Infant mortality designates the deaths of infants aged under one year.

Infant mortality rate
The infant mortality rate is the ratio between the number of infants dying before the age of one and all live-born children.

Inflation is the loss of purchasing power of currency, expressed through a general and lasting increase in prices. It must be distinguished from the increase in the cost of living. The loss of value of currency units is a phenomenon that affects the national economy, regardless of the different categories of agents. . Most of the time, to evaluate the rate of inflation, we use the consumer price i...

Initial Budget Law
The Law defining and authorising all the resources and charges of the State for each calendar year. The Draft Budget Law (PLF) must be passed before the beginning of the year to which it refers, and comprises two distinct parts : - In the first part, it authorises the collection of public resources and includes the ways and means to ensure financial balance. This part ends with the article on ba...

Initiation class
These classes were created to receive, on a full-time or part-time basis, non-French speaking pupils.

The latest version of the Oslo Manual defines four categories of innovations : - products or services (for a commercial or service company) : creation of a new product or a new commercial offering or service ; - processes: implementation of new techniques for the production of goods or of services ; - organisation: quality circles are an example of this ; - marketing: for example, franchising or ...

Inpatient care
Inpatient care includes all short and long-stay services (treatment and accommodation) provided by hospitals in the public and private sectors. Inpatient care includes practitioners’ fees payable when a patient receives a course of inpatient treatment entirely in the private sector; external consultations with staff from public hospitals are not included.

Input-output table
The Input-Output Table (TES) is one of the tables in the national accounts. It analyses each of the products in the classification by origin (domestic production or imports) and destination (final consumption, exports, investments). For each product, the table establishes the resources-uses accounting balance. Production + Imports + Customs duty + Commercial margins + VAT charged on products = In...

Institutional sectors
The various protagonists of economic life are grouped in sets considered to be relevant. The so-called institutional units constitute the basic units of the national accounts. They are units likely to have active people, to underwrite commitments, to commit to economic activities and to undertake operations with other units. The institutional sectors include the institutional units with similar ec...

Institutional unit
A basic economic decision-making centre characterised by the uniqueness of its behaviour and its decision-making autonomy in the fulfilment of its main function. A resident unit is said to be institutional when it has decision-making autonomy in the fulfilment of its main function and it has a full set of accounts, or at least would be able to establish meaningful accounts from the economic or leg...

Insurance companies
Set of financial companies and quasi-corporations the main function of which consists in providing financial intermediation services resulting from the pooling of risks.

Intellectual property
Intellectual property covers industrial, literary and artistic property. The purpose of industrial property is to protect and exploit inventions, innovations and creations. Industrial property rights are in principle acquired by the filing of a patent, a design, a model or a brand. Industrial property rights give a monopoly of exploitation (protected by legal action against infringement) and const...

Intensity in carbon
The intensity in carbon is the ratio between CO2 emissions and the production of the company.

Inter-decile ratios
The deciles of a distribution enable calculation of the inter-decile ratios : - the ratio D9/D1 evidences the difference between the top and bottom of the distribution. It is one of the measurements of the inequality of the distribution ; - the ratio D9/D5 compares the top of the distribution to the median value ; - the ratio D5/D1 compares the median to the bottom of the distribution.

In financial parlance, an interest means direct ownership (in one’s own name)of shares in another company. When the voting rights attached to these shares surpass 50%, the holder is said to have a controlling interest. When the rights held directly are not sufficient to give the holder a controlling interest, but in practice they do give control when combined with the shares held by companies al...

Interests are a form of income from property received by the owners of the following financial assets: deposits, securities (other than shares), loans and other accounts receivable. The interests paid by households are the following : - interests on short-term loans (consumer loans) ; - interests on long-term loans (home loans). The interests received by households are the following : - intere...

Intermediate consumption
The value of goods and services that have been transformed or fully consumed during the production process. The wear of fixed assets is not taken into account; it is recorded in fixed-capital consumption.

Intermunicipal authority
The intermunicipal authority allows municipalities to join together within a public establishment, either to provide certain services (household waste collection, public transport, etc.) or to elaborate economic development or planning projects. Since the Law of 1999, municipalities may not join more than one intermunicipal cooperation establishment with its own tax system.

International Labour Office / ILO
The International Labour Office (ILO) is a UN agency in charge of general issues related to labour in the world. It is located in Geneva. It harmonises concepts and definitions relative to labour and employment, in particular those relative to the working population and to the unemployed.

International residence centre
An international residence centre has double vocation: place of accommodation and catering, it is also a cultural place. Its concept is based on conviviality, meeting and international exchanges. It therefore has important collective spaces for discovery and encounter. It possesses a double approval Ministère de la Jeunesse et des Sports et Ministère de l'Éducation Nationale.

All the interconnected worldwide networks that enable computers and servers to communicate effectively via a common communication protocol (IP). Its main services are the web, FTP, messaging and discussion groups.

Investment income (local finances)
This consists of contributions and subsidies such as the VAT compensation funds (FCTVA), the general equipment grant (DGE) and other investment subsidies and loans.

Investment rate (national accounts)
The ratio of investment to value-added.

In order to prepare for the dissemination of the 1999 population census, INSEE developed a system for dividing the country into units of equal size, known as IRIS2000. In French, IRIS is an acronym of ‘aggregated units for statistical information’, and the 2000 refers to the target size of 2000 residents per basic unit. Since that time IRIS (the term which has replaced IRIS2000) has represent...

Irreducible period
The irreducible period is part of the custodial sentence which consists of a lapse of time during which the convict cannot benefit from any favour (release on parole, reduction of sentence, placement outside of jail, etc.).

Isolated town
When an urban unit is constituted by a single municipality, we called it an isolated town.

Job seekers
Job seekers are persons who register with Pôle Emploi. These job seekers are registered with Pôle Emploi in different categories of job applications according to their availability, the desired type of contract and the desired amount of working time.

Judicial jurisdiction
These jurisdictions are responsible for judging disputes between private individuals and persons being tried for criminal law offences.

Judicial review
Judicial review (pronounced by the examining magistrate, the judge of freedoms and detention or the juvenile affairs judge) may be ordered against any person under investigation for a felony or a misdemeanour, as soon as a prison sentence is incurred. This person is then subject to certain obligations (periodic reporting, agreement not to visit certain places or certain people, payment of bail, et...

This term refers to a tribunal or a court. There are two types of jurisdictions, administrative jurisdictions and judicial jurisdictions.

Competent body to judge felonies in the first instance and on appeal. It is made up of three magistrates and nine jury members in the first instance and twelve jury members on appeal. The jury members are randomly drawn from the electoral rolls.

Juvenile affairs judge
A judge of the court of first instance, specialised in juvenile affairs in civil cases (minors in danger) and criminal cases (juvenile delinquents). They take assistance and protection measures for minors up to 18 years of age. In criminal matters, the juvenile affairs judge is both examining magistrate and sentencing judge, acting either alone or as president of the juvenile court.

Juvenile court
The court responsible for judging minors prosecuted for 5th-class offences or misdemeanours. This court is also competent to judge felonies by minors aged under 16. This court is composed of the juvenile affairs judge (who presides), and two non-professional assessors, selected for the interest they have demonstrated in childhood matters, and the list of which is set by decree for each juvenile co...

Kish Individual
Amongst the members of a household eligible for a given survey (for example, individuals aged 15 or over), the ‘Kish’ individual is the one who is chosen by chance to respond to the survey questionnaire. It is possible to select more than one Kish individual. The method for selecting the individual is taken from the name of the inventor of the concept, American statistician Leslie KISH, a spec...

Known species
The National Natural Heritage Inventory kept by the National Natural History Museum (MNHN) enumerates the known species of flora and fauna in Metropolitan France, broken down into : - extinct species (for fauna, since the Holocene period) ; - (fully or partly) protected species on the national, regional or departmental levels, within the framework of the protection of species ; - endangered speci...

Kyoto Protocol
To combat climate change, two major agreements were adopted at international level: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) adopted in 1992 in Rio, and the Kyoto Protocol adopted in 1997. At the Earth Summit in Rio, the UNFCCC provided for a conference with the parties each year. The aim is to stabilise the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level ...

Labour Cost Survey
The Labour Cost Survey measures the average annual cost of an employee, and the cost per hour actually worked, and evaluates the various components of this cost (for the employer).

Labour force (national accounts)
The labour force is defined for the purposes of the national accounts as including all the persons of both sexes above a defined age who, over a specified reference period, provide the labour required for production activities (as used in the definition of production in the national accounts system, or SCN). It includes all persons fulfilling the conditions to be considered as persons with a job (...

Labour force (population census)
The labour force in the sense of the population census includes persons who declare to : - exercise a profession (salaried or not), even part-time ; - help a member of their family in their work (even unpaid) ; - be apprentices, paid interns, etc ; - be unemployed and looking for a job ; - be a student or retired but be employed ; - be national servicemen (when that situation existed).

Labour Force Survey / LFS
Conducted by the INSEE since 1950, the Labour Force Survey is the statistical source used to measure unemployment in the sense of the ILO. It also provides data on the professions, on the activity of women and young people, working hours and casual employment. It provides a clearer vision of the situation of the unemployed and changes in working situations. Since 2003, the Labour Force Survey has ...

Large district
The notion of a large district is defined as a grouping of several adjoining statistical blocks within the same municipality. When the municipality is divided into several cantons, the boundaries of the districts may not correspond to the boundaries of the cantons. The size of districts is highly variable. It must meet certain population norms. For example, a municipality of 20,000 inhabitants wil...

Large enterprise
A large enterprise is a company employing over 5,000 people. A company with fewer than 5,000 employees but an annual turnover greater than 1.5 billion Euros and a balance sheet total of more than 2 billion Euros is also considered to be a large enterprise.

Large family
A family is said to be large when it has three children or more.

Learning level
- Levels I and II: having completed a degree, a post-graduate qualification or a Grande Ecole diploma ; - Level III: having completed a two-year diploma (BTS, DUT) ; - Level IV: having completed secondary education or dropped out of education after the Ba

Legal marital status
The concept of marital status refers to the conjugal status of a person in the eyes of the law: single, married, widowed, divorced. In Census surveys, the legal marital status corresponds to that declared by the respondents. There may therefore be differences between the responses given and the legal status of the person in question. The free union or the connection by Pacs does not constitute a l...

Legal populations
The generic term ‘legal populations’ includes the municipal population of each municipality along with its population counted apart and its total population, which is the sum of the two previous figures. Legal populations are defined by decree No.2003-485 published in the Journal Officiel of June 8th 2003, concerning population censuses. They are now updated and certified by decree every year...

Legal status
Natural persons and corporate bodies have a legal status. Natural persons acquire their legal status at birth and lose it upon their death. A corporate body is created by the private will of its member(s) materialised by the signing of articles of association and its listing with the Business Register for a company and with the Prefecture for an association. It ends when it is wound up. The legal ...

Legal unit
A legal unit is a legal entity of public or private law. This legal entity can be: - A legal entity, whose existence is recognized by the law independently of the persons or institutions which possess it or are members; - A natural person, who, as independent, can exercise an economic activity. It must be declared to the competent administrative bodies (court registries, social security, tax offi...

Legal working hours
The legal limit on working hours is 35 hours per week, or 1607 per year. This reference limit applies to all companies, regardless of size. It is a threshold above which overtime hours are calculated. It is not a minimum time limit (workers may be employed on a part-time basis), nor a maximum limit: overtime is permitted, as long as the maximum limits are respected, beyond which employees cannot b...

Legislative district
Legislative districts are the territorial framework in which each MP is elected to the National Assembly, these MPs being elected by direct universal suffrage for a renewable term of 5 years (except if the legislature is interrupted by a dissolution, article 24 of the Constitution). Legislative districts are designated by a serial number within each department. The institution of parliamentary el...

Until 2006, a child born out of marriage could be legitimised by the marriage of its biological parents. A child born out of marriage and not recognised by its biological father could also be legitimised by the marriage of its mother to a man who was not its biological father, if the latter had recognised the child before the marriage. Likewise, a child could be legitimised by the marriage of its ...

Leisure centre
Leisure centres are collective structures without accommodation that operate outside of school hours for groups of 8 to 300 children or adolescents. They operate at least 15 days per year. This category of centre for minors was in force until 31 August 2006. Since then, collective educational structures for minors have been divided up differently.

Life expectancy
Life expectancy at birth (or at age 0) represents the average lifetime - in other words the average age at death - of an imaginary generation subject to the mortality patterns of the year in question. It characterises mortality irrespective of age structure. It is a particular case of life expectancy at age x. For a given year, this expectancy represents the average age at death of the individuals...

Limited-term employment
Limited-term employment includes fixed-term contracts, temporary jobs, internships and assisted contracts, and apprenticeships.

Loans (local finances)
Loans correspond to the overall volume of loans of over one year contracted during the fiscal year. By convention, this involves financing recorded for a duration greater than one year (long- and medium-term loans).

Local allowance
The percentage applied to a gross salary in order to calculate the local allowance varies according to the zone in which the municipality where the agent works is classified : 3% in the first zone or Corsica, 1% in the second, and 0% in the third. There is also a bottom value : any agent with an index lower than a certain threshold receives a local allowance corresponding to that index. The list ...

Local court
A local court is made up of just one, non-professional judge who is the local magistrate responsible for settling civil matters concerning sums of no more than € 4,000 and criminal offences of 1st to 4th class.

Local employment agency / ALE
Local employment agencies (ALEs) represent the territorial intervention framework of Pôle Emploi. French territory has been gradually divided into ALE jurisdiction zones; these zones correspond to the geographic area where Pôle Emploi locally proposes its services to job seekers and employers. Most often, ALEs are made up of a group of whole municipalities, but there may be several ALEs in a lar...

Local taxation
Local taxation comprises direct taxation : property tax on buildings, land tax, tax on furnished accommodation, professional tax (until 2009), domestic refuse collection tax, and indirect taxation : succession duty, vehicle registration , part of domestic tax on petroleum products or special tax on insurance policies…. The professional tax deleted on January 1st, 2010 was replaced by other ta...

Localised tax revenues (System)
The Localised tax revenues system is an exhaustive operation drawing on income declarations (tax declarations). Localised tax revenues are established on the basis of the income declaration forms of natural persons and the local council tax form provided by the INSEE’s General Directorate for Public Finances. This data allows us to produce local statistics on the tax revenues of households at in...

Long-Term Illnesses / ALD
The long-term illness (affections de longue durée - ALD) provision was put in place when the social security system was first established, to deal with patients suffering from a chronic condition which requires prolonged treatment and a particularly expensive course of therapy. A list confirmed by decree specifies 30 conditions (ALD30); patients suffering from these illnesses are not required to ...

Long-term job seekers
Long-term job seekers are those who have been registered with Pôle Emploi for more than one year.

Long-term unemployed person
A long-term unemployed person is a person who has been unemployed for more than one year.

Long-term unemployment rate
The long-term unemployment rate is the number of long-term unemployed as a proportion of the labour force as a whole.

Loss of French nationality
More often than not, the loss of French nationality is deliberate and made by declaration or by a decision of the public authorities. Nevertheless, in very specific cases, it may be involuntary (judgement, forfeiture) or result from the implementation of the Strasbourg Convention of May 6, 1963 (dual nationality). Two categories of the loss of French nationality can be distinguished : - losses o...

Low wage
By convention, low wages are wages lower than two-thirds of the median salary in the population.

Madrid system
The Madrid System offers the holder of a trademark the possibility to have their trademark protected in several countries by filing a single application directly to their national or regional Office. This system is administered by the World Intellectual property Organisation (WIPO) in Geneva, Switzerland. An international trademark registered in this way produces the same effects in the countries...

Maghreb countries
Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia.

Main residence
A main residence is accommodation usually occupied as the main home of the household. There is therefore equality between the number of main residences and the number of households.

Management account (local finances)
An account prepared by the public accounting officer, tracing the authority's debit and credit.

Management savings (local finances)
The surplus of actual operating income over actual operating costs except interests of the debt. This amount may cover all or part of actual investment expenditure (repayment of loans as a priority, with the rest going towards capital spending).

Manager of the agricultural holding
The manager is the natural person who oversees the routine management of the agricultural holding. In the case of a company, where several people can hold this function, the manager is the person who has the greatest responsibility, the others being defined as co-managers.

Manufacture of motor vehicles
Manufacture of motor vehicles concerns specialised equipment manufacturers, as well as the manufacturers of private vehicles, recreational vehicles, commercial vehicles and bodywork. This activity therefore covers the whole sector, including upstream manufacture of engines and mechanical parts providing they are destined for motor vehicles. Manufacture of motor vehicles closely combines integrated...

Manufacturing industry
The manufacturing industries are industries transforming goods, that is, mainly manufacturing industries in their own right, but they also concern the repair and installation of industrial equipment and subcontracting operations for third parties. This activity corresponds to section C in NAF rev. 2 : - Manufacture of food products - Manufacture of beverages - Manufacture of tobacco products - Ma...

Margin rate (national accounts)
Ratio of gross operating margin to added value.

Market goods and services
Market goods and services are generally intended to be sold on the market at a price calculated to cover their production cost. Market goods and services are all goods and services produced by market activity branches, all imported goods and services with the exception of those that are directly purchased externally by the government in the framework of its routine operations and by households, an...

Market production
Production sold or intended to be sold on the market. It includes : - products sold at an economically significant price (i.e. a price covering over 50% of the production costs) ; - bartered products ; - products used to make payments in kind, including the remuneration of employees in kind ; - products delivered by a local economic business unit to another local economic business unit belonging ...

Market services
A unit is considered to render market services when it sells them (totally or partially) at economically significant prices.

Market value of land
The survey on the market value of farmland measures the prices in the most common transactions for plough lands and natural meadows available for sale (for plots of at least one hectare) and for orchards and vines (no size threshold). This survey is carried out by the Statistics and Forecasting Department (SSP) of the Ministry of Agriculture.

Marriage probability
The marriage probability at a given age measures the probability, for unmarried persons at that age, of getting married before the following age.