Copy of `Forest of Leeds - Forestry terms`

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Forest of Leeds - Forestry terms
Category: Animals and Nature > Forestry in Leeds
Date & country: 28/03/2011, UK
Words: 85


Ameliorate
To improve or enhance the landscape by means of management for the benefit of wild life and the local community.

Ancient Semi-Natural Woodland
(ASNW) Ancient semi natural woodland has the greatest value for wildlife and hence as a community forest. It has a significant proportion of the native species present and has been continuously wooded at least 400 years.

Ancient Woodland
An area which has been continuously wooded since at least the year 1600, irrespective of any management which may have taken place.

Arboretum
A botanical collection of trees, that are normally for public viewing.

Arisings
In forestry, this is the accumulation of waste material during tree work and may include woody material, such as branches, plus shelters, stakes and ties removed after they have served their purpose.

Bat Roost Boxes
Specially designed roosting boxes for bats which are erected in woodlands where there are no natural roosting sites. These boxes can not be used by birds due to the position of the entrance and they encourage bats to recolonise areas of woodland.

Beating Up
The replacement of trees that have died within the first year or two of planting. Depending upon the spacing of the original planting, a certain amount of losses can be expected and disregarded. However, losses over this accepted level should be replaced to ensure that the original management plan can be fulfilled.

Broadleaves
Broadleaved trees may be deciduous (e.g. English Oak) or evergreen (e.g. Holly). They are distinctive in having broad, flat leaves, often veined, as opposed to needle or scale bearing trees.

Canopy Layer
The uppermost layers of foliage, generally referring to the most mature, taller tree species within a woodland.

Capability Brown
A famous landscaper of the mid to late 18th century known as Lancelot 'Capability' Brown. His work has left a lasting impact on many estates and a lasting legacy of his design can be seen in the landscape of the Temple Newsam Estate in Leeds.

Carr
Woodland on wet or water-logged ground, often dominated by alder.

Charcoal
Charcoal is one of the products derived from coppice woodland. It is formed when the wood is heated under conditions where there is insufficient oxygen for complete combustion to take place. The decline in the market for charcoal is one of the principle reasons for the decline in coppice management. Nowadays, charcoal is mostly used as barbecue fue...

Cleaning
Dense natural regeneration and closely planted stands often benefit from cleaning shortly after the stand has been fully established. This involves cutting out a proportion of course grown young trees which are impeding the growth of others around them. In natural regeneration it may also involve the re-spacing of tightly growing trees in order to ...

Common Rights of Access
This implies rights of access to common land. However, common land is generally privately owned and limited rights of access and uses (e.g. grazing, fishing, firewood collection, etc) exist for 'commoners'. The public have access to some, but not all common land. Local inhabitants or the general public may also enjoy the rights of access over certa...

Community Woodland
A form of multi-functional woodland that is managed with the needs of the local community as a priority. Often the community will be encouraged to get involved with management planning and practise, and therefore contribute to the way their woods develop into the future.

Conifers
Conifers are cone bearing trees. Common conifers are Pine, Spruce and Cypress, (e.g. Leyland Cypress often used in hedges) and Cedars. The Yew tree is also classed within the conifer family despite producing berries rather than cones. Coniferous trees are distinctive in having needles as opposed to leaves and being evergreen rather than deciduous, ...

Coppice
Coppice is a traditional management technique utilising the re-growth from the cut stumps (stools) of certain broadleaved trees. As a system of woodland management this involves the repeated cutting on a short rotation basis of between 5 and 20 years, the length of rotation being determined by the end product. The technique may yield an abundance o...

Coup
A coup is a unit of coppice that is felled at one time. For example a coppice rotation with a 6 year cycle may have 6 coupes which are felled in order so that there is a harvest of timber every year for the coppice worker to market.

Definitive Footpaths
These footpaths are legally recorded on definitive maps showing the public's rights of way. Local Authorities are responsible for recording them and if a way is shown on the map then it is conclusive evidence of public rights along the way, unless there has been a legally authorised change.

Desire Lines
Discernible paths that have been worn into the ground by regular pedestrian use, and are not officially public rights of way.

Establishment Management
A management regime aimed at encouraging the establishment of trees on an area of open land or woodland clearing. Techniques involve ground preparation, prevention of competition from weeds, mulching and protection from grazing animals.

Felling
This is the cutting down of a tree from its base, leaving a stump. There are a number of techniques used to do this and a number of tools that can be utilised, such as a chainsaw, bowsaw or axe.

Fen
A low, marshy or flooded area of land.

Fly Tipping
This is the dumping of rubbish, commercial or domestic, on common or private land without the consent of the owner.

Formative Pruning
Formative pruning is a technique to ensure the tree develops a single, straight stem by removing major forks at an early stage in the trees growth. Dead, dying and diseased limbs are ideally removed first to promote a healthy and safe form.

Glades
Woodland glades are areas within woodlands that can vary in size from 10 sq m to several hectares and are clear of mature trees. There is no continuous canopy cover over the ground and this allows a unique woodland glade flora to develop. This situation is unique because these plants are not shade tolerant and so cannot live under the closed canopy...

Grade II Listed Landscape
Gardens and parks with historic features pre-dating 1940 may be included in the national register of gardens and parks of special historic interest (English Heritage Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England). A Grade II listed landscape is described as : Parks and gardens which by reason of their historic layout, featur...

Grassland
Permanent grassland has a distinctive flora (predominantly grasses), fauna and soil profile. It constitutes a major world vegetation type occurring where there is sufficient moisture for grass growth and where conditions prevent the growth of trees.

Green Corridor
A "green corridor" is an area of natural habitat within the urban environment. They provide easy access for species of plants and animals to spread throughout the city, often linking areas of high wildlife value such as semi-natural woodland.

Green Wood
This is wood that is 'fresh', that is, taken straight from a felled tree or a branch that has been removed from the tree. The wood still holds a vast amount of water and because of this is easier to work with, softer and still retaining its natural, living shape. When green wood is dried, it can crack and split due to shrinkage from the loss of moi...

Greenbelt
Greenbelts restrict the growth of built up areas by preventing neighbouring conurbations from merging and they consist of 'green' woodlands, open spaces and parks. The Leeds greenbelt helps to preserve the special character of Leeds and its surrounds and provides a highly visual amenity resource to the public.

Ha Ha
A boundary wall, normally found in old country park gardens, consisting of a ditch, with a wall on its inner side below ground level. This provides a physical barrier to keep livestock out of formal grounds whilst allowing uninterrupted views over a pastoral scene.

Hardwood
Hardwood refers to the timber of broadleaved trees.

Hedgerows
Hedgerows are principally boundary markers and barriers to keep livestock in and intruders out of peoples' property. They are lines of close grown trees and shrubs which are cut or pruned at regular intervals to encourage dense re-growth and tidy appearance.

Historic Parkland
A descriptive term for a type of landscape characterised by large areas of open space with carefully planted trees. There are fine views and the feeling of being surrounded by countryside. Such parkland can be seen at Roundhay Park and Temple Newsam, Farnley Hall and Oulton Park. These areas are unique because the trees are planted and maintained f...

Humphrey Repton
Humphrey Repton was an influential Landscape Architect who lived during the late Eighteenth and early Nineteenth century. He initially followed in the footsteps of the great Lancelot "Capability" Brown but, later developed his own distinctive style. As with all great designers he had his critics, who also had their day and as a result much park lan...

Invasive Species
Native or non-native plants that invade and attempt to dominate an area already colonised by other plant species. As they can be very aggressive, existing plants and trees can suffer from being over shaded and become suppressed, die or self-set seeds may not germinate due to space restrictions and shade. Examples of invasive species are Japanese Kn...

Leaf Litter
Leaf litter refers to leaves that have fallen from the canopy of trees, shrubs and other flora that remain on the woodland floor. This is an essential part of the woodland ecosystem as it allows nutrients from the soil that are used by plants to be recycled back into the soil upon degradation.

Leeds Country Way
A 60 mile recreational footpath route around Leeds is the main element of the scheme, but later developments will include radial paths into the City Centre, loop walks off the main route and spur paths to other recreational facilities. The 'Way' has been brought into being by the Countryside Unit of West Yorkshire Metropolitan County Council's Recr...

Leeds Nature Area
(LNA) Site of local or district wide importance for the enjoyment, study or conservation of wildlife, geological features and landforms. In neighbourhoods lacking such sites those with the greatest potential are designated.

Lower Aire Valley
The Lower Aire Valley is the area to the south east of the city as defined by the course of the River Aire. It encompasses Rothwell colliery, Woodlesford and Water Haigh plantations as well as Oulton Park with its mature park land.

Marsh
Consists of low land that becomes flooded in wet weather and is usually watery at all times.

Meadow
Meadowland is essentially grassland, however it is very rich in herbs due to the cutting regime under which it is kept. Real meadows such as those found at Town Close Hills Nature Reserve in Kippax, are quite rare because they do not offer the most productive grazing for cattle. Consequently they are "improved" to encourage the growth of highly pro...

Multi-functional Woodland
An urban woodland must provide amenity facilities to a wide selection of people. Walkers, cyclists, picnickers and wildlife enthusiasts all have different requirements. The heritage of the wood must also be preserved including any archaeological sites, or areas of great value to nature conservation. In addition to this, the landscape must be consid...

National Vegetation Classification
The National Vegetation Classification (Rodwell, 1991) provides an in-depth description and classification of woodlands within Britain. This is based on an assessment of all the vascular plants, bryophytes and larger lichens present in a stand, as well as the trees and shrubs.

Natural Regeneration
New trees that have grown from naturally sown seeds. They may be the progeny of trees in an existing woodland or the result of seed dispersal to non wooded areas. Natural regeneration is dependant upon the tree species present, the dispersal powers of the seed and their trees environment. The seeds of trees use various methods of dispersal. The Syc...

Nature Reserves
Nature reserves often contain rare and endangered flora and fauna which may be further protected by designation from a government body, often English Nature, through the SSSI (Sites of Special Scientific Interest) programme. This means the area is of recognised value and it is given a greater degree of protection.

Open Ground
This is an area of land within a woodland that is free of trees and where there is no natural regeneration occurring. This may be due to water logging or aggressive plants such as Bracken. Glades and rides are also open ground but may be temporary unless they are maintained by management.

Orchard
Orchards are plots of land planted with fruit trees which are managed so as to produce an abundance of good quality fruit. Specialist techniques of pruning and management have been passed down for many generations and the keeping of orchards is now undergoing a resurgence with the help of grants and advice available to community orchard projects.

Permissive Footpath
A permitted footpath that is not a public right of way. A route that can be used by the public through the permission of the land owner.

pH
pH describes how acidic or alkaline a substance is. pH is measured on a scale of 1-15. A pH of 1 is the most acidic and toxic to most forms of life whilst at the opposite end of the spectrum a pH of 15 is the most alkaline and also toxic to life. A pH of 7 is called neutral.

Pinetum
A plantation of pines or other conifers that is used for research or for amenity purposes, similar to an arboretum.

Pioneer Species
Pioneer tree species are those which colonise an area of cleared land before any other species. Species such as Birch and Scots Pine, which are tolerant of adverse soil and climate conditions, may act as a 'nurse crop'. That is, they may initially colonise an area to eventually produce suitable conditions for tree species of later successional stag...

Plantation
Woodland entirely planted that may or may not be managed for the commercial exploitation of the trees timber. It may contain native or exotic (non native) species. Plantations can be classed as ancient if they occupy an area that has been continuously wooded for 400 years but they may not be classed as semi natural.

Plantation on Ancient Woodland Site
(PAWS) Areas of plantation within ancient woodlands. Although the wood as a whole may still be classed as ancient if it has been continuously wooded, areas of plantation cannot be classed as semi natural or ancient.

Pole
A tree harvested during the first or second thinnings of a woodland. Poles are already established and will have been growing for many years, although they are not yet mature.

Protected Species
Various species of animal, plant or other forms of life may be 'protected' by law under the discretion of different organisations. Under these rulings, it may be an offence to damage or kill these life forms. For example, Tree Preservation Orders protect specific trees from wilful damage or death and fines can be incurred in the these events.

Public Bridleway
This is a highway over which the right of way is on foot, on a horse, donkey or mule and on a bicycle (including 'mountain bikes'). Cyclists must give way to walkers and riders. A horse, donkey or mule may also be led. There may also be a right to drive animals other than horses. It is a criminal office to drive a motor vehicle on a bridleway.

Public Footpath
Is a 'highway' over which the right of way is on foot only. It is a civil wrong to ride a bicycle or a horse on a footpath and the user could be sued by the landowner for trespass or nuisance. It is also a criminal offence to drive a motorised vehicle on a footpath.

Public Open Space
An area of open 'green space' with a number of uses, e.g. passive recreation. However, not all areas are accessible or have rights of way for public use, and restrictions can vary from site to site.

Public Right of Way
(PROW) A public right of way gives access to an area of land to any member of the public. The right of access to the land only extends to the boundaries of the footpath however and land owners may prosecute for trespass should people stray from the path. A public right of way contrasts a permissive path where access is granted on...

Ranger Service
The Countryside Rangers of the Parks and Countryside Division of Leeds City Council have broad knowledge of the countryside and greenspace of the city and its habitats, fauna and flora.

Re-spacing Work
When trees are planted in a new woodland or allowed to regenerate naturally they often start to crowd each other as they grow. This can result in tall, leggy trees and make access to the wood very difficult. Trees are removed selectively so that those remaining will grower faster, healthier, produce better quality timber or improve the amenity valu...

Recent Woodland
Woodland that has been planted or "self set" since 1600 AD and so cannot be classed as ancient. This covers all wooded areas younger than 400 years and depending on the species present and the distribution of size and age this woodland may be classed as semi natural.

Reclaimed Land/Reclamation Site
Land that has been previously maintained in an artificial state, e.g. industrial site, waste/slag heaps or simply built upon, but has been "reclaimed" and is being managed to promote a reversion to a more natural state, e.g. woodland or agricultural land. There may be special circumstances such as toxic waste or pollution to consider.

Rides
Rides are swathes of cleared tree cover cut into woodlands. They may be formed incidentally along the edges of forest tracks and access routes, by clearance for power cables, for silvicultural operations or by habitat creation programmes. They provide similar conditions and habitats as glades. With unique non shade tolerant flora and associated bir...

Sapling
A young tree, larger than a seedling but smaller than a pole.

Scheduled Ancient Monument
(SAM) Scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 (as amended), English Heritage designates sites with a protected status that have monuments of historical merit. For example, earthworks, colliery workings, settlements etc.

Scrub
Scrub land is covered with a mixture of shrub and ground flora. It may contain mature trees but must be predominantly saplings, shrubs and non woody plants. It provides a habitat for open space loving species, particularly invertebrates. It may be present as a result of woodland clearance in which case it will be temporary, reverting back to woodla...

Secondary Woodland
Woodland that is growing on a site that was not previously wooded, for example, woodlands on previous industrial sites, agricultural land or demolished building sites.

Seedling
A young plant, with particular reference to those grown from seed as opposed to cuttings.

Semi Natural Woodland
Semi natural woodland may or may not be ancient but must contain a significant number of native species of tree and ground flora that would be expected on a given soil type. It will also have been subject to a low intervention management policy allowing natural conditions to develop.

Shelter Belt
A group of trees and/or shrubs that acts as a screen from winds and other weather. They are generally used on sites that need particular protection, such as plant nurseries, buildings or open land adjacent to large areas of open space on their windward side.

Silviculture
Meaning 'wood culture', it is the growing and tending of trees, as in forestry operations on plantations.

Softwood
Softwood refers to the timber of coniferous trees.

South Leeds Heritage Trail
The South Leeds Heritage Trail has been created by Leeds City Council to provide a glimpse of the industrial past of the region. Section one covers the Middleton Park and Middleton Broom areas which at one time led the world in coal production and mining technology. However the area has roots deeper into time. Once covered by the original wild wood...

Storey
Refers to different growing layers within a woodland. For example, the understorey refers to the foliage layers beneath the canopy layer.

Tannin
One of a group of complex organic compounds that may be found in certain tree barks (particularly oak in Britain) and oak galls, which are used in leather production and ink manufacture.

Thinning
Woodlands as they grow may become crowded as it is often the case that more trees are planted than are predicted to survive. At intervals during a woodlands development foresters will selectively remove trees to create the desired density and remove any sick or malformed trees. This process is known as thinning and allows the remaining trees to dev...

Tree Preservation Order
This is a protection placed on single or groups of trees by the local council. This preservation order states that trees may not be damaged, uprooted, felled or have any works carried out on them without written permission from the council. Works carried out without permission may be subject to large fines, compensation claims and in extreme cases ...

Understorey
This refers to the flora growing beneath the canopy layer of the woodland and includes ground cover, herb layers and shrub layers.

Urban Fringe
This describes the zone where the countryside merges with the urban area. Outlying areas of housing may be surrounded by woods and farm land which may in turn be surrounded by conurbation. The urban fringe is important because this is the area where people most often meet nature and where wildlife is under the greatest pressure as a result.

Veteran Trees
These are trees which are very old and often in a state of decline or have stopped growing. In many circumstances these trees have to be cut down because they are considered unsafe. However in recent years the value of such veteran trees has been recognised and as a result wherever possible part or all of these trees are left standing. Not only are...

Wetland
This is land that during the majority of the year is damp if not flooded. It is characterised by a specific flora of plants that are able to cope with the lack of oxygen in the soil and the levels of nutrient accumulation that are toxic or become inaccessible to non-wetland plants. Many wetlands have been drained for agricultural purposes or pollut...

Woodland Grant Scheme
This grant scheme, run by the Forestry Commission, provides money to create new woodlands and manage existing woodlands. British woodlands are multifunctional; they meet growing demands for timber as well as provide a place for people to visit and enjoy the countryside. They are an essential part of our landscape heritage and refuge for much of our...