Copy of `Oregon Toxics - Poisons info`

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Oregon Toxics - Poisons info
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Toxins and poisons
Date & country: 26/02/2011, US
Words: 52


Absorption
The uptake of substances by the skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract.

Acute
One-time or short-term exposure; used to describe brief exposures and effects that appear promptly after exposure.

Acute toxicity
The rapid onset of an adverse effect from a single exposure. Acute toxicity of a compound is not an indicator of its chronic effects.

Adequate ventilation
At least two open windows with a fan placed in one of them, the air stream of fan directed outward. One open door or window or a kitchen or bathroom exhaust fan does not create adequate ventilation.

Aerosol
A small particle or a liquid suspended in air.

Aerosol Product
A pressurized, self-dispensing product form used for a wide variety of chemical specialty products.

Borax
Also called sodium borate. Hard, odorless crystals, granules or crystal powder. Moderately toxic.

Carcinogen
A substance or agent capable of producing cancer in living animal tissue.

Caustic
A chemical that will burn skin on contact (corrosive effect on living tissue).

Caution
Indicates a mid/moderate hazard when placed on product labeling.

Chemical sensitivity
Health problems characterized by effects such as dizziness, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness, and nasal congestion that appear whenever an individual is exposed to certain chemicals, even in small amounts.

Chronic
Occurring over a long period of time, either continuously or intermittently used to describe ongoing exposures and effects that develop only after a long exposure.

Chronic toxicity
The slow or delayed onset of an adverse effect, usually from multiple, long-term exposures. Chronic toxicity of a compound is not an indicator of its acute effects.

Combustible
Substance that can easily be set on fire and that will burn readily or quickly. Flammable.

Corrosive
Having the power to dissolve. Can burn and destroy living tissue.

Cumulative
Often the effects of repeated exposures to chemicals are greater than single exposures. The cumulative effect is what occurs from repeated exposures over time. This can include exposures to one chemical over time, or exposures to multiple chemicals in a short amount of time.

Danger
Warning label placed on products meaning extremely flammable; corrosive; or highly toxic.

Desiccant
A substance that induces drying by absorbing water.

Dose
The quantity of chemical administered at one time.

Dusts
Formed when solid materials are broken into small particles.

Explosive
Can detonate or explore through exposure to heat, sudden shock, or pressure.

Exposure
Contact of an organism with a chemical, physical or geological agent.

Flammable
Substance that can easily be set on fire and that will burn readily or quickly.

Fumes
Small particles created in high heat operations such as welding or soldering that become airborne when exposed to heat. Fume particles are very small and tend to remain airborne for long periods of time. Metals, some organic chemicals, plastics and silica can produce fume particles.

Gases
Substances that become airborne at room temperature. They may or may not mix with air.

Hazard
The potential that the use of a product will result in an adverse effect on a person or the environment.

Ignitable
Substance capable of being set on fire.

Inert Ingredient
A substance contained in a product that will, by itself, not add materially to the effectiveness of the product. Many inert ingredients are poisonous and/or hazardous.

Ingestion
When a substance is taken into the body through swallowing.

Inhale
To take into the lungs by breathing.

Irritant
An agent that produces chafing, soreness, or inflammation, especially to the skin.

Lethal
Products with this label are capable of causing death.

Mists
(aerosol) Tiny liquid droplets in the air. Any liquid, water, oil or solvent can be in a mist or aerosol form.

Mucous membrane
The tissue that forms the lining of body cavities, such as the nose and mouth.

Organic solvents
A solvent is any liquid that will dissolve another substance to form a solution. Solvents that contain carbon are known as organic solvents. Organic solvents may be toxic and many are flammable.

Pesticide
A chemical or biological agent that kills pests. A pest can be an animal, fungi, insect, plant or any unwanted species.

Petroleum distillates
Mixtures of chemical compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum. Most are highly toxic if ingested.

Pine oil
Derived from steam distillation of wood from pine trees. Used in many household disinfectants and deodorants. Skin irritant and may cause allergic reactions, central nervous system damage in concentrated form.

Poison
Any toxic substance that upsets normal functions in living organisms by surface absorption, injection or ingestion, eventually leading to death if the dosage is sufficiently strong. When ?poison? is on a product label it means that the chemical or substance inside is highly toxic.

Radioactive
Substance capable of giving off radiant energy in the form of particles or rays by the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei. Can damage and destroy cells and chromosomal material

Reactive
Tendency of a substance to undergo chemical change. May occur when exposed to other substances; detonate or explode through exposure to heat, sudden shock, or pressure.

Repellent
A chemical or biological agent that makes unattractive to pests a habit, food source or other site ordinarily sought and frequented.

Respiratory system
Generally refers to the nose, nasal passages and lungs.

Risk
The probability of injury, disease or death under specific circumstances.

Silica gel
Precipitated silica acid in the form of lustrous granules, especially prepared for absorption of various vapors. Mildly toxic.

Smoke
Formed from burning organic matter. Contains a mixture of many gases, particulates, vapors and fumes.

Solvent
A liquid that will dissolve a substance, forming a solution. See Organic solvents listing.

Toxic
Harmful. Poisonous. Substances with this warning label are capable of causing injury or death through ingestion, inhalation, or absorption.

Vapors
The gaseous form of any substance that is usually a liquid or a solid. Most liquids vaporize continually. The rate of evaporation increases as the temperature rises. Vapors are easily inhaled.

Volatile
A substance that evaporates quickly, such as alcohol.

Warning
When placed on a product label, indicative of a moderate hazard. When no warning label is present, the product is among the least hazardous products to use.

Well ventilated area
Is either outdoors or, if indoors, an area with at least three or more open doors or windows with a fan placed in one of them. The air stream of the fan is directed outward. One open door or window, or a kitchen or bathroom exhaust fan does not create a well-ventilated area.