Copy of `Shared Experience - Cancer terms`

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Shared Experience - Cancer terms
Category: Health and Medicine > Cancerous terms
Date & country: 19/01/2011, UK
Words: 73


Adjuvant therapy
Anticancer drugs or hormones given after surgery and/or radiation to help prevent the cancer from coming back.

Alopecia
Hair loss.

Analysis and evaluation
In depth study often associated with clinical assessments.

Anemia
Having too few red blood cells. Symptoms of anemia include feeling tired weak and short of breath.

Anorexia
Poor appetite .

Antiemetic
A medicine that prevents or controls nausea and vomiting.

Apoptotic Events
A carefully orchestrated series of events characterized by changes in cell membrane, shrinkage, loss of volume and ultimate nuclear disruption associated with the process of apoptosis. Earliest evidence recognizable at four to eight hours, the process is usually complete by 72 to 96 hours.

Ara-C
Also known as Cytarabine, a drug used in the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas, which is chemically similar to the naturally occurring DNA pre-cursor Cytidine. Highly effective for the induction therapy of acute leukemia.

Assay Technology
A laboratory method which reproducibly provides results in scientific analysis.

Benign
A term used to describe a tumor that is not cancerous.

Best Chance of Remission
That treatment or combination of therapies which provides a given patient the highest likelihood of favorable outcome associated with complete elimination of cancer.

Biological therapy
Treatment to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune system to fight infection and disease. Also called immunotherapy

Biopsy Specimen
A small portion of human tissue removed from the body for diagnosis or special testing.

Blood count
The numbel of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in a sample of blood. This is also called complete blood count (CBC).

Blood Transfusion
Whole or packed red blood cells to alleviate anemia and provide patients with oxygen carrying capacity in the form of red cells in circulation.

Bone marrow
The inner, spongy tissue of bones where blood cells are made.

Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy
A procedure undertaken by hematologists and oncologists in which a small amount of bone marrow is removed from large bone, normally the pelvis. This provides information regarding the normal growth and development of blood elements and can also detect metastatic cancer.

CA 15.3
Similar to the CA-125 a cancer associated marker identified in the blood of patient with breast cancer. Normal values generally are 0 to 30.

CA-125
A cancer associated blood borne marker utilized for the detection and follow up of ovarian cancers. High levels tend to correlate with higher tumor burden. Normal value is 0 to 35.

Cancer
A general name for more than 100 diseases in which abnormal ceils grow out pf control; a malignant tumor.

Cancer cells
The smallest indivisible components which in aggregate constitute a malignant tumor.

Carcinoma
A malignancy arising from a tissue that lines a body cavity. Skin, gut, breasts, prostate are epithelial lining cell cancers and constitute the most common form of cancers in the human body.

Catheter
A thin flexible tube through which fluids can enter or leave the body.

CDDP& CisPlatin
The highly effective anti-cancer drug& Cis-chlorodiaminoplatinum, derived from the metal platinum.

Cell Apoptosis
Coined from the Greek term for the seasonal loss of leaves by deciduous trees. The term is applied scientifically by Drs. Kerr, Wyllie, and Curry in a British Journal of Cancer paper dated 1972, which described the phenomenon "controlled cell deletion"." Also referred to as programmed cell death. This phenomenon describes the highly conserved process in biological systems which allows multi-cel...

Cell-growth Abnormality
A change in biological behavior of cells allowing them to grow faster or live longer than their normal counterparts. This is used to describe the abnormality of cancer cells.

Central venous catheter
A special thin, flexible tube placed in a large vein. It remains there for as long as it is needed to deliver and withdraw fluids.

Chemotherapy
The use of drugs to treat cancer.

Chemotherapy Drugs
Cell killing and growth inhibitory agents utilized alone or in combination for the treatment of cancer.

Chemotherapy Regimen
Collection of drugs administered in a highly organized manner for a specified disease.

Chromosomes
Threadlike bodies found in the nucleus, or center part, of a cell that carry the information of heredity.

Clinical trials
Medical research studies conducted with volunteers. Each study is designed to answer scientific questions and to find better ways to prevent or treat cancer.

Colony-stimulating factors
Substances that stimulate the production of blood cells. Treatment with colony-stimulating factors (CSF) can help the blood-forming tissue recover from the effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. These include granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) and granulocyte -macrophage colony-stimulating tractors (GM-CSF).

Combination chemotherapy
The use of more than one drug to treat cancer.

DISC Assay
Differential staining cytotoxicity assay, a short term suspension culture method in which cancer cells are exposed to drugs or radiation and then measured for the loss of membrane integrity as a marker of cellular apoptosis from drug effect.

Diuretics
Drugs that help the body get rid ot excess water and salt.

Ex-Vivo Apoptotic Laboratory Assay
Ex-vivo (removed from the body) apoptotic (referring to the process of apoptosis or programmed cell death) laboratory assay (methodology or technique).

Gastrointestinal
Having to do with the digestive tract, which includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines.

High grade Aggressive Lymphoma
Like low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, refers to an aggressive rapidly growing form of the malignant lymphocyte disorder. Most frequently treated with CHOP (Cytoxan Hydroxy Daunorubicin Oncovin Prednisone). Durable remissions are achieved in approximately 50% of treated patients.

Hormones
Natural substances released by an organ that can influence the function of other organs in the body.

Infusion
Slow and/or prolonged intravenous delivery of a drug or fluids.

Injection
Using a syringe and needle to push fluids or drugs into thc body; ottcn called a "shot."

Intra-arterial (IA)
Into an artery.

Intracavitary (IC)
Into a cavity or space, specifically the abdomen. pcivis, or the chest.

Intralesional (IL)
Into the cancerous area in the skin.

Intramuscular (IM)
Into a muscle.

Intrathecal (IT)
Into the spinal fluid.

Intravenous (IV)
Into a vein.

Investigational
Part of a detailed inquiry; part of a systematic examination often applied to new drugs or therapies undergoing evaluation for human treatments.

Leukemia Therapy
A collection of drugs administered to remove the leukemia clone from the body allowing the regrowth of normal cells. Therapy is normally given as induction (an intensive initial treatment) and consolidation (reinforcement of the initial benefit). Maintenance therapy is most widely used in lymphoblastic leukemias, primarily those of childhood.

Low Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
A malignancy of the human lymphatic system distinct from Hodgkin's disease associated with the replacement of the normal lymph node by accumulations of malignant lymphocytes. International classifications have divided these diseases into low grade, intermediate and high grade. Treatments are determined accordingly..

Malignant
Used to describe a cancerous tumor.

Metastases
Distant islands of tumor which spread through the lymph channels and blood vessels and establish new areas of tumor growth far removed from the original tumor site.

Metastasis
When cancer cells break away from the their original site and spreads to other parts of the body.

Oncologist
A board certified medical specialist, who specializes in management of patients with malignant diseases.

Palliative care
Treatment to relieve pain caused by cancer. Palliative care can help people live more comfortably.

Per os (PO)
By mouth; orally.

Peripheral neuropathy
A condition of the nervous system that usually begins in the hands and/or feet with symptoms of numbness, tingling, bburning and/or weakness. Can be caused by certain anticancer drugs.

Platelet Transfusions
Concentrates removed from whole blood which are rich in clotting cells known as platelets. These tiny circulating cellular components are the first line of defense in the orchestrated process of blood clotting.

Platelets
Special blood ccils that help stop bleeding.

Port
A small plastic or metal container surgically placed under the skin and attached to a central venous catheter inside the body. Blood and fluids can enter or leave the body through the port using a special needle.

Positive Cancer Response
Clinical benefit from cancer therapy is measured by objective tests, x-ray, blood markers, etc. A positive or favorable response reflects the measurable shrinkage of disease lasting greater than one month.

Radiation therapy
Cancer treatment with radiation (high-energy rays).

Red blood cells
Cells that supply oxygen to tissues throughout the body.

Remission
The partial or complete disappearance of signs and symptoms of disease.

Sensitivity Tests
Generally refers to the laboratory methodologies applied to measure sensitivity or resistance of cancer cells to drugs.

Small Cell Lung Cancer
One of the four principle types of human lung cancer. Small cell or oat cell lung cancer often associated with smoking constitutes 25% of the common cancers of the lung. While it spreads rapidly, it is also more sensitive to treatment than other types of lung cancer.

Stomatitis
Sores on the lining of the mouth.

Subcutaneous (SQ or SC)
Under the skin.

Synergistic
The action of two or more substances achieving an effect greater than that possible with any of the individual components, i.e., the sum being greater than the parts. In cancer medicine, this refers to the potentiation of one drug by one or more additional agents when administered together.

Taxol
Extracted from the Pacific Yew (Tazus Brevifolia). This compound effects microtubiles within cancer cells. It has become one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents with activity in ovarian cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and lymphomas.

Tumor
An abnormal growth of cells or tissues. Tumors may be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

White blood cells
The blood cells that fight infection.