Copy of `CSAW - Timber building terms`

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CSAW - Timber building terms
Category: Architecture and Buildings > Building terms
Date & country: 16/09/2008, AU
Words: 263


abutment
The support structure at either end of an arch or bridge. The intermediary supports are called piers

across the grain
The direction at right angles to the length of the fibres and other longitudinal elements of the wood

adhesive
A substance used to bond two surfaces together

air velocity
The velocity of air in the passages between rows of boards in a rack

along the grain
The direction parallel with the length of the fibres and other longitudinal elements of the wood

anchor bolt
A device for connecting timber members to concrete or masonry

anemometer
Instrument for measuring velocity of airflow

anisotropic
Exhibiting different properties when measured along its different axes

anti-stain chemical
A chemical applied to timber to prevent or retard chemical or fungal stain development

arch
A curved structure resting on supports at each end that supports loads primarily in compression

back sawn timber
Timber sawn so that the growth rings are inclined at less than 45 degrees to the wide face

baffle
A rigid or flexible barrier used to direct and control the flow of air

bearer
A sub floor timber beam placed across piers or stringers and supporting floor joists

berm
An artificial ridge of earth

biodeterioration
The breaking down of timber by natural or biological agents such as fungi and insects

biota
All living animals and plants

bird's-mouth
The notch in a rafter that rests on the top plate of a wall

birds eye
Figure on the surface of wood that has numerous rounded areas resembling small eyes

bound moisture
Moisture which is closely bound to the cell wall constituents of wood

bound water
Water molecules bound into the cell wall of timber. They are weakly bound chemically to the molecules of the cell wall and energy is required to break them free

bow
A curvature in the longitudinal direction of a board causing the wide face to move away from a flat plane

bowstring truss
A truss where the top chord of the truss is curved to an arch shape

box beam
A built-up beam with solid timber flanges (a) and plywood or wood-base panel product webs (b)

bracing
Secondary structural members that normally do not support gravity loads but are required to provide lateral stability to other structural members or to transfer horizontal loads to the supports

bridging
Bracing installed between floor joists to stiffen floor and distribute live loads. Also called cross-bridging

butt joint
An end joint formed by abutting the squared ends of two pieces

camber
Intentional vertical curve built into a beam or truss to offset load deflection or to improve its appearance

cambium
A thin layer of tissue between the bark and wood that repeatedly subdivides to form new wood and bark cells

cantilever
A projecting structural member which is rigidly fixed at one end but unsupported at the other

case hardening
A drying defect characterised by the presence of compression stresses in the outer zone and tensile stresses in the core. It occurs when rapid drying has caused permanent set of the outer zones of a piece of wood

cellulose
The carbohydrate that is the principal constituent of wood and forms the framework of wood cells

certification
Forest certification refers to the assessment of forest management by an independent third party auditor according to performance criteria for sustainable wood production

chain of custody
The process by which the source of a timber product is verified. This entails ¡¥tracking¡¦ the timber from the forest through all the steps of the production process until it reaches the end user. The process is usually necessary before a timber product can be labelled as being produced from a sustainable source

chord
Either of the two outside members of a truss (a) connected and braced by the web (b) members. The term also applies to beam flanges or the perimeter members of a plywood diaphragm

clear span
The clear horizontal distance between the supports of a load bearing member

cleavage test
A test that measures the resistance of a timber to splitting longitudinally along the radial and tangential planes

coach screw
Similar to a wood screw except larger and with a hexagonal head so that it can be turned with a spanner

collapse
The flattening of single cells or rows of cells during the drying or pressure treatment of wood. Often characterised by a caved-in or corrugated ('washboarded') appearance of the wood surface

collar tie
A horizontal board that connects pairs of rafters on opposite roof slopes

compression
A state or condition of being pushed or shortened by a force

compression failure
Deformation or fracture of wood fibres across the grain resulting from excessive compression along the grain

conditioning treatment
A treatment applied to equilibrate the moisture content of wood to a particular value

conservation
The sustainable use of forest resources in a manner that does not degrade the collective resource values of a region over the long term

continuity strap
A piece of flat steel fixed over a butt joint between timber beams to provide a continuos tension connection

corbel
A length of timber laid horizontally on the top of a column to transfer loads and to provide a seat for beams. A compound corbel includes several lengths of timber instead of one

correction
Species - An adjustment of the readings of the resistance-type electrical moisture meter to compensate for different species of wood. Corrections are tabulated in AS/NZS 1080 1:1997 Temperature - An adjustment of the readings of the resistance-type electrical moisture meter to compensate for changes in the temperature of wood. Corrections are tab...

coupler
A metal sleeve threaded internally and used to connect threaded rods or bolts

creep
Increase in deformation following prolonged loading

criteria and indicators
A criterion is a category of conditions or processes by which sustainable forest management may be assessed. A criterion is characterised by a set of related indicators that are monitored periodically to assess change. An indicator is a measure (measurement) of an aspect of the criterion. An indicator can be quantitative or qualitative variable w...

cross cut
To cut across the grain

cross grain
An arrangement in which the fibres and other longitudinal elements of a piece of wood deviate from a line parallel with the edges of the piece

crown cut
A method of slicing veneers whereby the average inclination of the growth rings to the wider face is tangential or less than 45 degrees. This method is also known as flat cut

cruciform
In the shape of a cross

cup
A concave curvature across the grain or width of the a piece of timber

decay
The decomposition of wood by fungi

decking
Timber used in surfacing parts of bridges and other structures subjected to vehicular or pedestrian traffic

depression
The difference between dry and wet bulb temperatures. It is a measure of humidity

dew point
The temperature at which the relative humidity of a body of air is 100 per cent. Further cooling causes vapour in the air to condense as water droplets

diamonding
The change of a square or rectangular section timber to a diamond shape during drying. Diamonding occurs where the growth rings pass through diagonal corners of the section of the piece and is caused by the difference between tangential and radial shrinkage. It is a form of distortion

diffusion
Movement of water through wood from points of high moisture content to points of low moisture content by molecular diffusion

diffusivity
A measure of the rate of moisture movement through wood by diffusion as a result of differences in moisture content

dimension
Sawn - The nominal dimension of the board plus the overcut to allow for shrinkage. Nominal - The general intended size of the dry rough sawn board. Machined - The actual size of a machined or moulded board

dimensional Change
Changes in the size of a piece of dry timber as its moisture content changes to be in equilibrium with the surrounding atmospheric conditions

dipping
Submerging timber in a dipping vat containing fungicides or other chemicals to prevent stain or decay

dowel
A cylindrical timber rod or steel bar generally without nut or thread driven into pre-drilled holes to make a joint

dowel joint
A joint where the pieces of timber are joined by dowels running either longitudinally or transversely through the joint

dressed timber
Timber finished to a smooth surface on one or more surfaces

dry rot
A generic term for the decay of timber by fungi that at an advanced stage leaves the wood light and friable. The term is actually a misnomer as all fungi needs considerable moisture to grow

drying defect
A feature developing during drying which may decrease the value of a piece of timber

drying schedule
A sequence of kiln conditions which result in a gradual decrease in moisture content of the wood

eccentric load
Loads that are applied off the central axis of a structural member

eco labelling
Eco labelling is a form of third party certification of a product that confirms that the product meets particular environmental criteria. Eco labels are designed to help consumers choose products that do less damage to the environment. Criteria for a product group are generally developed by the application of a life cycle assessment approach

embodied energy
The amount of non-renewable energy used to extract and process raw materials into finished building components. The embodied energy of a material is usually expressed in the units MJ/kg and that of a sheet building component or element MJ/m2

end Coating
A coating of moisture-resistant material applied to the end grain of green logs or sawn boards to slow end drying

end grain
The grain shown on a cross cut surface

environmental management systems
Environmental management systems are systems that ensure the organisation is working within the framework of ecologically sustainable development. These systems can be formal or informal. Formal systems include those prescribed by ISO 14001 and 14004

epoxy dowel joint
A joint in which the parts are joined by dowels that have been set in oversized holes with epoxy resin

epoxy resin joint
A joint in which the parts are bonded using an epoxy resin adhesive

equilibrium moisture content
The moisture content at which timber neither gains nor loses moisture from the surrounding atmosphere

exterior plywood
Plywood of naturally durable or treated veneers bonded with waterproof adhesive and capable of withstanding prolonged exposure to severe exterior conditions without failure of the glue-lines

face nailing
Nailing at right angles to the surface

fascia
A vertical board nailed to the lower ends of rafters

fibre saturation point
The point in the seasoning or wetting of timber at which the cell cavities are free from water but cell walls are still saturated with bound water. It is taken as approximately 25-30% moisture content

fibreboard
A generic term including sheet materials of widely varying densities manufactured from refined or partially refined wood or vegetable fibres. Bonding agents and other materials may be added to increase strength or to improve other properties

finger joint
An end joint in which wedge shaped projections in one piece of timber fit matching recesses on the other piece and are bonded together by an adhesive

flashing
A strip of impervious material fitted to provide a barrier to moisture movement into the interior of a building

flexural strength
The resistance at failure of a beam subjected to bending

forest
An area incorporating all living and non-living components that is dominated by trees usually with a single stem and a mature or potentially mature stand height exceeding five metres. The existing or projected foliage cover of over storey strata should be equal to or greater than 30 percent

forest estate
All forests growing on public or private lands

frame
1. The main timbers of a structure fitted and joined together. 2. A three dimensional self contained structural system of interconnecting members which functions with or without the aid of horizontal diaphragms or floor bracing systems

free moisture
Moisture which is present in the cell cavities of wood

FRL
Fire resistance level - grading periods in minutes of the fire resistance of building elements for structural adequacy/integrity/and insulation

glue laminated timber
Laminated timber where the laminations are joined with adhesive

grade
The designation of the quality of a piece of timber or other manufactured wood products in accordance with standard rules

growth rings
Rings of earlywood and latewood on the transverse section of a trunk or branch marking cycles of growth

hardboard
A pressed homogenous fibreboard having a mean density of not less than 800 kg/sq m

hardness
A property of wood that enables it to resist indentation. It is measure in kN and is often determined by the Janka hardness test

hardwood
A general term for timber of broad leafed trees classified botanically as Angiosperm. The term has no reference to the relative hardness of the wood

hit and miss
Areas on dressed or moulded boards that that are not fully machined. It results form unacceptable unevenness in the thickness or width of the boards. It is also called skip

hobnail
A pattern of pin-holes left by insect attack