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Digital Exposure - filming glossary
Category: Film and Animation > Photographic and Digital Imaging terms
Date & country: 15/08/2008, CA
Words: 442


A3
Paper size for documents measuring up to 11.7' x 17'

A4
Paper size for documents measuring up to 8.27' x 11.69'

A5
Paper size for documents measuring up to 5.83' x 8.28'

Accuracy
The extent to which a machine vision system can correctly measure or obtain a true value of a feature. The closeness of the average value of the measurements to the actual dimension

Acetate base
Non-inflammable base support for film emulsions which replaces the highly inflammable cellulose nitrate base

Acetone
A solvent chemical used in certain processing solutions that contain materials not normally soluble in water

Action
A Photoshop command sequence you can record and replay to automate recurrent imaging tasks

AF sensor
The sensor used to detect focus in cameras equipped with an autofocus function. Algorithm - a rule or process (often mathematical) used by a computer to make a decision or series of decisions

AGP ( accelerated graphics port )


Alpha channel


Analogous colours
Colours that are next to each other on the colour wheel

Angle of flash coverage
The measurement in degrees of the angle formed by lines projecting from the center of the flash to the extremities of the field of coverage

Angle of view
Is the maximum angle of acceptance of a lens which is capable of producing an image of usable quality on the film

Angular field
The angle subtended at the lens by the diameter of the largest circle within which the lens gives an image of acceptable sharpness and even illumination

Anti-fogging agent
Constituent of a developer that inhibits or reduces fogging during development

Archival Processing
Processing designed to protect a print or negative as much as possible from premature detorioration caused by chemical reactions

Array processor
A specific portion of a large computer system that assists processing data quickly. An array processor is sometimes capable of performing several operations simultaneously

Aspherical surface
A lens surface that possesses more than one radius of curvature. The aspherical elements compensate for the multitude of lens aberrations common in simpler lens designs. Astigmatism A lens aberration or defect that is caused by the inability of a single lens to focus oblique rays uniformly. Astigmatism causes an object point to ...

Auto balance
A system for detecting errors in colour balance in white and black areas of the picture and automatically adjusting the white and black levels of both the red and blue signals as needed for correction

Auto-exposure
The camera has a built-in light meter and computer that measures available light and sets exposure for you. A feature on moderately-priced to expensive cameras. Most serious amateurs and professionals want to be able to occasionally turn off (or 'override') the auto-exposure feature for those situations where they want to manually set a s...

Automatic flash
An electronic flash unit with a light-sensitive cell that determines the length of the flash for proper exposure by measuring the light reflected back from the subject

Automatic gain control
A process by which gain is automatically adjusted as a function of input or other specified parameter

Axis lighting
Light pointed at the subject from a position close to the camera's lens

Background Processing
Allows assignment of specific operations to the background while the computer continues to perform previously assigned instructions

Baffle
A type of shield that prohibits light from entering an optical system

Batch processing
The performing of a group of computer tasks at the same time

Bézier curve
A mathematical curve that describes a vector path. In Photoshop Bézier curves are created by plotting anchor points with the pen tool

Bleed
Printing term referring to an image or inked area which extends to the edge of a printed piece. The bleed is the portion of the artwork that is beyond the trim marks of the piece. The bleed is required to account for any slight misalignment during trimming which would otherwise result in an unprinted strip of paper appearing at the edge...

Blotters
Sheets of absorbent paper made expressly for photographic use. Wet prints dry when placed between blotters

Brilliance
The intensity of light reflected from a surface. It is sometimes an alternative term for luminosity

Bulb setting
A shutter setting marked B at which the shutter remains open as long as the shutter release is held down. This is used for time exposures that are longer than your camera's preset shutter speeds

C-mount
A threaded means of mounting a lens to a camera

Changing Bag
A light proof black fabric bag that permits film and other light-sensitive materials to be handled in normal room light. Has a double zipper on one end and two armholes with elastic sleeves on the other

Chromatic aberration
An optical defect of a lens which causes different colours or wave lengths of light to be focused at different distances from the lens. It is seen as colour fringes or halos along edges and around every point in the image

Chromaticity
The colour quality of light which is defined by the wavelength ( hue ) and saturation. Chromaticity defines all the qualities of colour except its brightness

Chrominance
A colour term defining the hue and saturation of a colour. Does not refer to brightness

Colour banding
The appearance of visible bands of colours that replace subtle gradations in order to accommodate a reduced palette

Colour compensating filters
Gelatin filters that can be used to adjust the colour balance during picture taking or in colour printing. Abbreviated CC filters

Colour passes
The number of times the carriage assembly of a scanner must pass over an object in order to achieve it's full potential colour depth

Colour value
A mathematically calculated value of a pixel's colour based on its colour components

Compensating developer
A developer designed to compress the general contrast range in a negative without influencing gradation in the shadow and highlight areas

Compur shutter


Condenser
An optical system which concentrates light rays from a wide source into a narrow beam. Condensers are used in spotlights and enlargers

Continuous burst or capture mode
The ability to take multiple pictures in a small amount of time. Great for action shots

Continuous shooting
Camera feature that allows a camera to take several rapid-fire exposures when the shutter button is held down. This feature is useful for shots where there is quick action and you want to take multiple shots

CP filters
Abbreviation for colour printing filters. CPU Central Processing Unit: A large chip which holds the ' brain ' of the computer

Crossed curves
A destructive phenomenon in image processing that causes different colours to increase in density at different rates or gammas. The visual effect is a colour difference from image highlight to image shadow

Curvature of field
Where light rays passing through a lens causing the lens to focus on a curved plane versus a flat plane. This causes out-of-focus pictures

D/log E curve
A graph of density (D) against the logarithm of exposure (log E) Used in sensitometry to compare the sensitivity of different emulsions to light

Dedicated flash
Electronic flash that must be used with specific cameras to automatically adjust the camera's exposure controls to produce the correct exposure

Defringe
Blends the pixels along the edge of a selection to seamlessly merge it with a new background

Digital printer
A printing device that is capable of translating digital data into hardcopy output

Digitizing
To convert an image into binary code. Visual images are digitized by scanning them and assigning a binary code to the resulting vector graphic or bit-mapped image data

Digitizing tablet
A mouse replacement comprised of a 'pen' and flat panel wired to the computer. Pen movements on the tablet are reproduced on the computer screen and pressing the tip of the pen against the tablet mimics pressing the mouse button. Some tablets may be pressure-sensitive in illustration programs like Photoshop -- a harder pressur...

Dilution
Is the reduction in the strength of a liquid by mixing it with an appropriate quantity of water

Dilution
The reduction in the strength of a liquid by mixing it with an appropriate quantity of water

Diodes
Light sensitive electronic components used in image capture. They function as one-way valves that sense the presence or absence of light and create a digital signal that the computer converts into pixels values

Direct light
Light shining directly on the subject and producing strong highlights and deep shadows

Direct Memory Access
The ability to use memory without a software interface

Direct positive
A high contrast positive image slide made only from camera ready originals with no negative required

Direct positive print
Made from a transparency without an internegative on a direct positive colour paper

Disc
The spelling variation of 'disk' referring to compact discs such as Photo CD or other CD-ROM

Disk drive
A device that can contain a fixed or removable spinning disk used for storage of digital data

Dispersion
Light rays of different wavelengths deviate different amounts through a lens causing a rainbow effect around points and edges

Distortion
A phenomenon in which straight lines are not rendered perfectly straight in a picture. There are two types of distortion--barrel distortion and pincushion distortion. Distortion cannot be improved by stopping down the lens

Diverging lens
A lens which causes rays of light coming from the subject to bend away from the optical axis

Domain
An area of a network over which administrative control is exercised. The primary domain is the file server for all clients

DOS ( Disk Operating System)
The main system software that tells your computer how to work

Download
The process of receiving data from another digital source

Drive speed
The speed (RPM) That a drive mechanism rotates. Faster drive speeds allow for faster data transfer

Drum scanner
A high-quality image-capture device. The image to be capture is wrapped around a drum that spins very fast while a light source scans across it to capture a digital version of the image

Dry mounting tissue
A thin paper coated with adhesive on both sides for permanently adhering a photograph to a support. The adhesive is softened by heat and hardens when it cools

Drying cabinet
Is a vented cabinet equipped with suspension clips for drying films

Dual processors
Two central processing units in the computer

Dupes
A copy of a slide or transparency made without an internegative or special duplicating film. Frequently used as an intermediate image for other print subjects

Duplex
The ability of a scanner to scan both sides of a sheet simultaneously. Requires two scanner cameras and often two processing boards

E-6
Chemical processing system for most colour-reversal (slide) film

Edge numbers
The reference numbers printed by light at regular intervals along the edge of 35mm and roll films during manufacture

Effective resolution
The final appearance of a scan that has been enhanced to produce more data than the scanner can record. This is done by interpolation

EISA bus
Eisa is a standard bus ( computer interconnection ) architecture that extends the ISA standard to a 32-bit interface

Electronic display
Showing images through the computer

Electronic flash
A small device usually built into digital cameras that emits a brief burst of light to illuminate poorly lit scenes

Electronic publishing
Composition of text (and frequently graphic images) using a computer for display in a computer presentation program or on the World Wide Web

Electronic retouching
Enhancing a computer images with editing software

Enhancement
The improvement of an image either through colour and/or density change

Enlarger
An optical instrument ordinarily used to project an image of a negative onto sensitized paper. More accurately called a projection printer because it can project an image that is either larger or smaller than the negative

Equalization
An image processing technique where the range of tones or colours in an image file are expanded in order to produce a more pleasing image

Erase
The process of removing information from memory or storage. Part of a file or image may be erased

Eraser
This tool is used to change the current colour of piels to the background colour

EV
Exposure Value. Developed in order to simplify numbers used in exposure calculations. Currently used to describe the range of exposure in which equipment can successfully operate

Exabyte
A type of 8mm tape drive and storage cartridge

Expansion memory
A method for fooling the computer into using more than the maximum 640K of RAM most personal computers are designed to use

Expansion slots
Female slots located on the motherboard into which the male pins of an expansion board fit

Expiry date
The date stamp on most film boxes indicating the useful life of the material in terms of maintaining its published speed and contrast

Exposure Bracketing
Shooting the same subject at a range of different exposures. Some camera provides Auto Exposure Bracketing/Flash Exposure Bracketing

Exposure compensation
Many camera have the ability to force the camera to overexpose or underexpose an image during capture. This can be done for effect or to compensate for some particular lighting situation. This is often referred to as EV compensation

Exposure index ( EI )
A film speed rating similar to an ISO rating abbreviated EI

Exposure meter
An instrument for measuring the intensity of light so as to determine the shutter and aperture setting necessary to obtain correct exposure. Exposure meters may be built into the camera or be completely separate units. Separate meters can sometimes measure the light falling on the subject (incident reading) as well as the light reflecte...

Exposure setting
The aperture and shutter speed combination used to expose the film in a camera

Exposure value
Refers to the ability to override the auto exposure system on a digital camera to lighten or darken an image