Copy of `Seattle Seahawks - Medical glossary`

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Seattle Seahawks - Medical glossary
Category: Health and Medicine > Sports related
Date & country: 08/01/2008, USA
Words: 146


Abdduct
Movement of an extremity toward the midline of the body. This action in achieved by an adductor muscle.

Abduct
Movement of any extremity away from the midline of the body. This action is achieved by an abductor muscle.

Abrasion
Any injury which rubs off the surface of the skin.

Abscess
An infection which produces pus; can be the result of a blister, callus, penetration wound or laceration.

AC Joint
Acromioclavicular joint; joint of the shoulder where acromion process of the scapula and the distal end of the clavicle meet, most shoulder separations occur at this point.

Adhesion
Abnormal adherence of collagen fibers to surrounding structures during immobilization following trauma or as a complication of surgery which restricts normal elasticity of the structures involved.

Aerobic
Exercise in which energy needed is supplied by oxygen inspired and is required for sustained periods of vigorous exercise with a continually high pulse rate.

Anabolic Steroids
Steroids that promote tissue growth by creating protein in an attempt to enhance muscle growth. The main anabolic steroid is testosterone.

Anaerobic
Exercise without use of oxygen as an energy source; short of bursts of vigorous exercises.

Anaphylactic Shock
Shock that is caused by an allergic reaction.

Anterior Compartment Syndrome
Condition in which swelling within the anterior compartment of the lower leg jeopardizes the viability of muscles, nerves and arteries that serve the foot. In severe cases, emergency surgery is necessary to relieve the swelling and pressure.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
A primary stabilizing ligament within the center of the knee joint that prevents hyperextension and excessive rotation of the joint. A complete tear of the ACL necessitating reconstruction could require up to 12 months of rehabilitation.

Anterior Talofibular Ligament
A ligament of the ankle that connects the fibula (lateral ankle bone) to the talus. This ligament is oft times subject to sprain.

Anteriorgram
A film demonstrating arteries after injection of a dye.

Anti-Inflammatory
Any agent which prevents inflammation, such as aspirin or ibuprofen.

Arthrogram
X-ray technique for joints using air and/or dye injected into the affected area; useful in diagnosing meniscus tears of the knee and rotator cuff tears of the shoulder.

Arthroscope
An instrument used to visualize the interior of a joint cavity.

Arthroscopy
A surgical examination of the internal structures of a joint by means for viewing through an athroscope. An athroscopic procedure can be used to remove or repair damaged tissue or as a diagnostic procedure in order to inspect the extent of any damage or confirm a diagnosis.

Aspiration
The withdrawl of fluid from a body cavity by means of a suction or siphonage apparatus, such as a syringe.

Atrophy
To shrival or shrink from disuse, as in muscular atrophy.

Avasular Necrosis
Death of a part due to lack of circulation.

Avulsion
The tearing away, forcibly, of a part or structure.

Baker`s Cyst
Localized swelling of a bursa sac in the posterior knee as a result of fluid that has escaped from a knee capsule. A Baker`s cyst indicates that there is a trauma inside the knee joint that leads to excessive fluid production.

Bone Scan
An imaging procedure in which a radioactive-labeled substance is injected into the body to determine the status of a bony injury. If the radioactive substance is taken up the bone at the injury site, the injury will show as a `hot spot` on the scan image. The bone scan is particularly useful in the diagnosis of stress fractures.

Brachial Plexus
Network of nerves originating form the cervical vertebrae and running down to the shoulder, arm, hand, and fingers.

Bruise
A discoloration of the skin due to an extravasation of blood into the underlying tissues.

Bursa
A fluid-filled sac that is located in areas where friction is likely to occur, then minimizes the friction; for example between a tendon and bone.

Capsule
An enclosing structure which surrounds the joint and contains ligaments which stabilize that joint.

Cartilage
Smooth, slippery substance preventing two ends of bones from rubbing together and grating.

CAT Scan
Use of a computer to produce a cross-sectional view of the anatomical part being investigated from X-ray data.

Cellulitis
Inflammation of cellular or connective tissue.

Cervical Vertebrae
Group of seven vertebrae located in the neck.

Charley Horse
A contusion or bruise to any muscle resulting in intramuscular bleeding. No other injury should be called a charley horse.

Colles` Fracture
A fracture of the distal end of the radium with the lower end being displaced backward.

Concentric Muscle Contraction
A shortening of the muscle as it develops tension and contracts to move a resistance.

Concussion
Jarring injury of the brain resulting in dysfunction. It can be graded as mild, moderate or severe depending on loss of consciousness, amnesia and loss of equilibrium.

Contusion
An injury to a muscle and tissues caused by a blow from a blunt object.

Cortical Steroids
Used to suppress joint inflammation.

Costochondral
Cartilage that separates the bones within the rib cage.

Cryokinetics
Treatment with cold and movement.

Cryotherapy
A treatment with the use of cold.

Cyst
Abnormal sac containing liquid or semi-solid matter.

Degenerative Joint Disease
Changes in the joint surface as a result of repetitive trauma.

Deltoid Ligament
Ligament that connects the tibia to bones of the medial aspect of the foot and is primarily responsible for stability of the ankle on the medial side. Is sprained less frequently than other ankle ligaments.

Deltoid Muscle
Muscles at top of the arm, just below the shoulder, responsible for shoulder motions to the front, side and back.

Disc, Intelvertebral
A flat, rounded plate between each vertebrae of the spine. The disc consists of a thick fiber ring which surrounds a soft gel-like interior. It functions as a cushion and shock absorber for the spinal column.

Dislocation
Complete displacement of joint surfaces.

Eccentric Muscle Contraction
An overall lengthening of the muscles as it develops tension and contracts to control motion performed by an outside force; oft times referred to as a `negative` contraction in weight training.

Eccymosis
Bleeding into the surface tissue below the skin, resulting in a `black and blue` effect.

Edema
Accumulation of fluid in organs and tissues of the body; swelling.

Effusion
Accumulation of fluid, in various spaces in the body, or the knee itself. Commonly, the knee has an effusion after an injury.

Electromyogram (EMG)
Test to determine nerve function.

Epicondylitis
Inflammation in the elbow due to overuse.

Ethyl Chloride
`Cold spray,` a chemical coolant sprayed onto an injury site to produce a local, mild anesthesia.

Fat Percentage
The amount of body weight that is adipose, fat tissue. Fat percentages can be calculated by underwater weighing, measuring select skinfold thickness, or by analyzing electrical impedance.

Femur
Thigh bone; longest bone in the body.

Fibula
Smaller of the two bones in the lower leg; runs from the knee to the ankle along the outside of the lower leg.

Flexibility
The ability of muscle to relax and yield to stretch forces.

Flexibility Exercise
General term used to describe exercise performed by an athlete to passively or actively elongate soft tissue without the assistance of an athletic trainer.

Fracture
Breach of continuity of a bone. Types of fractures include simple, compound, comminuted, greenstick incomplete, impacted, longitudinal, oblique, stress, or transverse.

Gamekeeper`s Thumb
Tear of the ulnar collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb.

Glycogen
Form in which foods arestored in the body as energy.

Grade One Injury
A mild injury in which ligament, tendon, or other musculoskeletal tissue may have been stretched or contused, but not torn or otherwise disrupted.

Grade Three Injury
A severe injury in which tissue has been significantly, and in some cases totally, torn or otherwise disrupted causing a virtual total loss of function.

Grade Two Injury
A moderate injury when musculoskeletal tissue has been partially, but not totally, torn which causes appreciable limitation in function of the injured tissue.

Hamstring
Category of muscle that runs from the buttocks to the knee along the back of the thigh. It functions to flex the knee, and is oft times injured as a result of improper conditioning or lack of muscle flexibility.

Heat Cramps
Painful muscle spasms of the arms or legs caused by excessive body heat and depletion of fluids and electrolytes.

Heat Exhaustion
Mild form of shock due to dehydration because of excessive sweating when exposed to heat and humidity.

Heat Stroke
Condition of rapidly rising internal body temperature that overwhelms the body`s mechanisms of release of heat and could result in death if not cared for appropriately.

Heel Cup
Orthotic device that is inserted into the shoe and worn under the heel to give support to the Achilles tendon and help absorb impacts at the heel.

Hematoma
Tumor-like mass produced by an accumulation of coagulated blood in a cavity.

Hot Pack
Chemical pack that rests in water, approximately 160 degrees, and retains its heat for 15-20 minutes when placed in a towel for general therapeutic application.

Humerus
Bone of the upper arm that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.

Hydrotherapy
Treatment using water.

Hyperextension
Extreme extension of a limb or body part.

Illiotibial Band
A thick, wide fascial layer that runs from the illiac crest to the knee joint and is occasionally inflamed as a result of excessive running.

Inflammation
The body`s natural response to injury in which the injury site might display various degrees of pain, sweating, heat, redness, and/or loss of function.

Internal Rotation
Rotation of a joint or extremity medially, to the inside.

Lesion
Wound, injury or tumor.

Ligament
Bands of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone, or bone to cartilage and supports and strengthens joints.

Lumbar Vertebrae
Five vertebrae of the lower back that articulate with the sacrum to form the lumbosacral joint.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Imaging procedure in which a radio frequency pulse causes certain electrical elements of the injured tissue to react to this pulse and through this process a computer display and permanent film establish a visual image. MRI does not require radiation and is very useful in the diagnosis of soft tissue, disc, and meniscus injuries.

Meniscectomy
An intra-articular surgical procedure of the knee by which all or part of the damaged meniscus is removed.

Metacarpals
Five long bones of the hand, running from the wrist to the fingers.

Metatarsals
Five long bones of the foot, running from the ankle to the toes.

Myositis
Inflammation of a muscle.

Necrotic
Relating to death of a portion of tissue.

Neoprene
Lightweight rubber used in joint and muscle sleeves designed to provide support and/or insulation and heat retention to the area.

Orthotic
Any device applied to or around the body in the care of physical impairment or disability, commonly used to control foot mechanics.

Parsthesia
Sensation of numbness or tingling, indicating nerve irritation.

Patella
The knee cap.

Patella Tendinitis
Inflammation of the patella ligament; also known as `jumpers knee.`

Patellofemoral Joint
Articulation of the knee cap and femur. Inflammation of this joint can occur through; 1) acute injury to the patella, 2) overuse from excessive running particularly if there is an associated knee weakness, 3) chronic wear and tear of the knee, or 4) as a result of poor foot mechanics. Patellofemoral irritation can lead to chondromalancia, which in …

Peroneal Muscles
Group of muscles of the lateral lower leg that are responsible for exerting the knee. Tendons of these three muscles are vital to the stability of the ankle and foot.

Phalanx
Any bone of the fingers or toes; plural is phalanges.

Phlebitis
An inflammation of a vein.

Plica
Fold of tissue in the joint capsule and common result of a knee injury.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)
A primary stabilizing ligament of the knee that provides significant stability and prevents displacement of the tibia backward within the knee joint. A complete tear of this ligament necessitating reconstruction would require up to 12 months of rehabilitation.

Quadriceps Muscles
Commonly referred to as `quads.` A group of four muscles of the front thigh that run from the hip and form a common tendon at the patella; they are responsible for knee extension.

Radiography
Taking X-rays.