Copy of `CORE - digestive disorders terminology`

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CORE - digestive disorders terminology
Category: Health and Medicine > Digestion
Date & country: 07/01/2008, UK
Words: 63


abdomen
The tummy or belly.

acute
Of short duration (not necessarily severe).

anus
Back passage; lower opening of the gut.

barium
A white substance which shows up on X-rays and can be swallowed to outline the stomach (Barium meal) or introduced via the anus to outline the colon (Barium enema).

benign
Non-cancerous.

bile
A fluid produced in the liver and passed into the gut via the bile ducts. Bile contains: Bile Salts - natural detergents which (a) help fat digestion, (b) make cholesterol soluble in bile. -Bilirubin - a waste pigment, excreted in bile which makes the stools brown.

biopsy
Removal of a piece of intestinal mucosa for analysis.

chronic
Continuing for a long time.

cirrhosis
Permanent liver damage with scarring and other changes.

coeliac disease
Damage to the intestine of susceptible people by gluten causing malabsorption (see Gluten and Malabsorption).

colitis
Inflammation of the mucosa (lining) of the colon.

colon
Large bowel.

colonoscopy
Endoscopic inspection of the colon (see Endoscope).

colostomy
An opening in the body wall created surgically so the colon can drain

crohn's disease
A chronic inflammatory disease affecting any part of the gut. Named after a doctor who described it. May cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea or weight-loss.

digestion
Breaking down of food to simpler substances for absorption from the gut.

duodenum
The part of the gut leading from the stomach.

endoscope
An instrument for looking inside the body. Usually flexible and fibreoptic (see Gastroscopy and Colonoscopy).

enzyme
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions and breaks down food stuffs to simple substances which the body can absorb (see Digestion).

ercp
A technique for introducing X-ray dye directly into the bile ducts using an endoscope.

faeces
Stools or motions.

fibre
The part of a plant which is not digested. It makes the stools soft.

functional disorder
A condition in which an organ does not function perfectly, although it may look structurally normal.

gall bladder
A sac where bile is stored ready to be squeezed out when a meal is eaten.

gall stones
Stones usually formed from crystals of cholesterol in the gall bladder.

gastric
To do with the stomach.

gastritis
Inflammation of the mucosa (lining) of the stomach (see Inflammation).

gastroscopy
Endoscopic inspection of the stomach (see Endoscope).

gluten
The sticky (glutinous) protein of wheat, rye, barley and oats which causes coeliac disease.

haematemesis
Vomiting of blood because of internal bleeding, e.g. from an ulcer (see Melaena).

hiatus
A normal gap in the diaphragm which the oesophagus passes through.

hiatus hernia
Protrusion of part of the stomach through the hiatus of the diaphragm (see hiatus).

ileostomy
An opening in the body wall, created surgically, so the ileum can drain into an attached bag.

ileum
Lower half of the small bowel.

inflammation
Reddening of a tissue in response to injury or infection.

inflammatory bowel disease
Disease where the bowel becomes inflamed. Usually refers to ulcerative colitis or Crohn`s Disease.

irritable bowel syndrome
A common functional bowel disorder causing abdominal pain, diarrhoea or constipation.

jaundice
Yellowing of the eyes and skin caused by accumulation of bilirubin because of liver disease.

jejunum
Upper half of small bowel between duodenum and ileum. Most food is absorbed here.

lactose intolerance
Abdominal cramps and diarrhoea after milk products. Usually due to difficulty in digesting lactose (milk sugar).

malabsorption
Failure of the intestine to digest or absorb food stuffs leading to diarrhoea and malnutrition.

melaena
Black tarry stools caused by bleeding into the gut (see Haematemesis).

metastasis
The spread of cancer from the original site to another part of the body (e.g. the liver).

mucosa
The lining of the bowel.

mucus
Slime produced in the gut which covers, protects and lubricates the mucosa.

oesophagitis
Inflammation of the oesophagus.

oesophagus
The gullet. A pipe leading from the mouth to stomach.

pancreas
Gland which delivers enzymes into the duodenum for the digestion of food.

pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas. Usually painful.

peptic
To do with pepsin or digestion.

polyp
Benign (non-cancerous) bowel tumour.

proctitis
Inflammation of the rectum (like a localised colitis).

proctoscope
Short instrument introduced through the anus to inspect the rectum.

rectum
Lower end of the bowel leading from colon to anus.

reflux
Backwash, for example, of stomach contents into the oesophagus causing heartburn.

relapse
Flare-up of activity of a chronic disease such as ulcerative colitis.

remission
Period when a chronic disease is inactive and causes no symptoms.

resection
Surgical removal.

sigmoid colon
S-shaped part of the colon leading to the rectum.

sigmoidoscope
An instrument (telescope) passed through the anus (back passage) to examine the lower bowel.

sphincter
A muscular valve.

stoma
An opening, through the abdomen created surgically (a general term-see also Ileostomy and Colostomy).

ulcerative colitis
A type of colitis of unknown cause with inflammation and sometimes ulceration of the mucosa of the colon causing intermittent attacks of bloody diarrhoea (see Colitis and inflammation).