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Romans in Britain - Glossary of military terms
Category: History and Culture > Romans
Date & country: 12/12/2007, UK
Words: 983


Ab epistulis
Ã?n charge of letters'. imperial secretary responsible for military promotions.

Absentia rei publicae causa
Absence on behalf of the state. military service meant that most types of legal action against a soldier were frozen untill his discharge.

Accensus
'Reservist'. light legionary infantry soldier.

Acceptarius
Discharged soldier.

Acceptum
Amount received by soldier after deductions from his pay.

Acies
Battle line.

Acies duplex
Double battle lines.

Acies triplex
Triple battle lines.

Aclis
Javelin.

Actarius
Clerk.

Ad pila et spathas
Close quarter combat.

Ad signa
'With the standards'. present with unit.

Ad stercus
Latrine fatigue duty.

Ad triarios redisse
'To fall back on the triarii '. to have reached a desperate situation.

Adaeratio
Recruitment tax.

Adcrescens
Adolescent. soldier's offspring that would follow in the hereditary military service of the fourth century AD and received rations before taking up actual service.

Adiutor
Assistant. batman.

Adiutor librarii
Assistant clerk.

Adiutrix
'Supporter'. title borne by two legions raised from naval soldiers.

Adlocutio
Formal speech.

Aedes
Sanctuary in the HQ where the standards were stored and a likeness of the emperor was kept.

Aenator
Military musician.

Aerarium
Treasury. pay chest.

Aerarium militare
Military pension fund.

Aestiva
Summer campaigning camp.

Aetos
Eagle standard.

Agens in rebus
Late Roman intelligence operative.

Ager publicus
'Public land'. confiscated land belonging to the Roman state.

Agger
A - earth wall. B - assault ramp.

Agmen
Column.

Agmen quadratum
Square marching formation.

Aichmè
Spear. javelin.

Akontistès
Javelineer. light infantryman.

Ala
'Wing'. A - unit of the allies. B - unit of auxiliary cavalry.

Ala dromedaria
Cavalry unit with attached camel riders.

Ala milliaria
Auxiliary cavalry unit with an establishment strength of some thousand men.

Ala quingenaria
Auxiliary cavalry unit with an establishment strength of some five hundred troopers.

Ala sociorum
Unit of several thousand soldiers drawn from the socii or allies.

Alaris
'Wingman'. soldier serving in ala .

Alaudae
'Crested larks'. cognomen for the legio V originally raised by Caesar as a legio vernacula .

Allagè
Relief of duty.

Allectus
Chosen man. elite soldier.

Ambulatio
Marching exercise.

Ambulatura
Marching exercise.

Amentum
Thong attached to a throwing spear to increase range and accuracy.

Angareia
Requisition of transport.

Angaria
Requisitioning of transport.

Angusticlavius
Decorated with thin purple stripe.

Angusticlavus
Thin purple stripe on tunic indicating membership of the equestrian order.

Annona
A - provisions. B - tax in kind.

Annona foederatica
Subsidy given to allies.

Antecursor
'Front runner'. advanced skirmisher.

Antepilanus
'In front of the spearbearers'. soldier stationed in first or second battle line.

Antesignanis
Elite legionary.

Antesignanus
Soldier fighting in front of the standards. elite legionary foot soldier capable of fighting as both heavy and light infantry.

Aper
Boar. one of the five original legionary standards of a republican legio and symbol of the imperial legio XX and llegio X Fretensis.

Apollinaris
Dedicated to Apollo.

Aquila
Eagle standard.

Aquilae natalis
'Birthday of the eagle'. anniversary of the official founding of a legio .

Aquilifer
Eaglebearer. standardbearer carrying the legion's eagle.

Architectus
Constructor of torsion guns.

Archoon tou kontuberniou
'Commander of the tent party'. squad leader, term used as equivalent of dekarchos .

Arcuarius
Bowyer.

Arcuballista
Torsion gun. crossbow.

Arcus
Bow.

Areani
Late Roman scout/spy unit based in Britannia.

Aries
Battering ram.

Arithmos
Military unit. Greek equivalent of numerus .

Arma
Weapons.

Arma antesignana
The weapons of the antesignani . lonchè or lancea and aspis .

Arma legionaria
Legionary weapons.

Arma postsignana
The weapons of the postsignani . xyston or pilum and thyreos or scutum .

Arma velitaria
The weapons belonging to the velites . hasta velitaris and parma .

Armamentarium
Weapons storage.

Armatura
A - advanced weapons training. B - weapon instructor. C - soldier with advanced weapons training. D - armament.

Armatura duplaris
Weapons instructor on double rations.

Armatus
Armed.

Armicustos
Soldier tasked with the administration and supply of weapons and equipment.

Armidoctor
Equivalent of doctor armorum . weapons instructor.

Armiger
'Weaponbearer'. armed man.

Armilausa
Military clothing item.

Armilla
Arm band used as military decoration.

Artifex
Artisan.

Arx
Fortress.

Aspis
Shield.

Aspis koilè
Curved shield used by legionary heavy infantry.

Aspis platea
Flat shield used by legionary light infantry.

Assiduus
Propertied citizen with military service obligation.

Aurum tironicum
Money tax levied instead of protostasia .

Auspicia
Supreme authority.

Auxilia
Auxiliaries.

Auxilia palatina
Late Roman crack infantry units.

Auxiliaris
Auxiliary soldier.

Auxilium
Late Roman infantry unit.

Auxilium palatinum
Elite late Roman field army infantry unit.

Bacaudae
Late Roman rebel group in Gaul.

Ballista
Torsion gun.

Ballista quadrirotis
‘Fourwheeled torsion gun`. mobile catapult.

Ballistarius
Artillery soldier.

Balteus
Military belt.