Copy of `The History Channel - Encyclopedia`

The wordlist doesn't exist anymore, or, the website doesn't exist anymore. On this page you can find a copy of the original information. The information may have been taken offline because it is outdated.


The History Channel - Encyclopedia
Category: History and Culture > History
Date & country: 02/12/2007, UK
Words: 28028


Aachen, Hans von
(1552-1615) German painter. He lived in Venice 1574-88 and on his return played a leading role in introducing Mannerism to Germany. He gained a high reputation as a portrait...

Aakjaer, Jeppe
(1866-1930) Danish poet and novelist. Born in Jutland into a poor peasant family, he was an anticleric who became an impassioned campaigner for the rights of peasant workers. He is best remembered for his...

Aali, Mehemet
(1815-1871) Turkish politician. At the Congress of Paris 1856 he represented Turkey and maintained its rights with great skill. He helped to put down the Cretan rebellion 1867-68 and introduced many Western...

Aalto, Alvar (Hugo Alvar Henrik)
(1898-1976) Finnish architect and designer. He was a pioneer of the Modern Movement in his native Finland. Initially working within the confines of the International Style, he later developed a unique...

Aaltonen, Wäinö (Valdemar)
(1894-1966) Finnish sculptor. He was known for his monumental figures and busts portraying citizens of Finland following the country's independence 1917. The bronze monument to the athlete Paavo Nurmi...

Aarestrup, Carl Ludvig Emil
(1800-1856) Danish poet. An aesthete with a warm admiration of female beauty and an unusual frankness in erotic description, he was little known until the posthumous publication of his poems in 1863, followed...

Aaron
(lived c. 13th century BC) In the Old Testament, the elder brother of Moses and co-leader of the Hebrews in...

Aasen, Ivar Andreas
(1813-1896) Norwegian philologist, poet, and dramatist. Through a study of rural dialects, connecting them with Old Norwegian, he evolved a native country language, which he called LandsmÃÂ¥l (now known as...

Ab? al-Fida
(1273-1331) Arab historian and geographer. He was raised to royal rank 1310, becoming governor of the kingdom of Hama. His two best-known works are a universal history, which is one of the chief sources of...

Ab? Han?fah, Al-Nu'man
(c. 700-780) Sunni religious leader and jurist. He was the founder of the Hanaf? School, the earliest school of Islamic law, which dominates Turkey and India. He was born in Kufa, Iraq, and died in Baghdad. ...

Abacha, Sani
(1943-1998) Nigerian soldier, politician, and president (1993-98). In 1983 he took part in the coup that ended the Second Republic. In 1993 he seized power following presidential elections in which Chief...

Abaddon
In the Old Testament, a synonym for Sheol (Hades) and death. In the New Testament, in Revelation 9, it is the name of the angel (devil) of the bottomless pit, perhaps Hell personified. The Greek...

abatement
In English law, the discontinuance of, for example, a nuisance (see tort). ...

abatement
In heraldry, a mark of dishonour on a coat of arms, indicating some stain on the character of the wearer. This mark is mentioned in literature but has in practice scarcely been used, though the term...

abatis (or abattis)
Outer defence work in which felled trees are stripped of their leaves and placed on the ground with the sharpened points of their branches extending towards the enemy. English use of the word is...

Abaza
Caucasian-speaking people of the Karachay-Cherkassia Republic, on the north side of the Caucasus Mountains, in the Russian Federation. They are bilingual, and speak and write Circ ...

Abba
Term used in the Babylonian Talmud by a child addressing his or her father, and as an honorific style of address to rabbis. In the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic churches the title came...

Abbadid dynasty
(lived 11th century) Muslim dynasty based in Seville, Spain, which lasted from 1023 until 1091. The dynasty was founded by Abu-el-Kasim Muhammad Ibn Abbad, who led the townspeople against the Berbers when the...

Abbadie, Jacques
(1654-1727) French ecclesiastic and writer. His works include Traité de la vérité de la religion chrétienne 1684 and La Grande Conspiration d'Angleterre 1696 (written by order of William III). In 1688 and...

Abbas
(566-652) Uncle of the prophet Muhammad and founder of the Abbasid dynasty. ...

Abbas I, Pasha
(1813-1854) Viceroy of Egypt 1848-54. He was the grandson of Mehemet Ali, and succeeded upon the death of his uncle, Ibrahim Pasha. He promoted the construction of the railway from Alexandria to Cairo 1851. ...

Abbas I, the Great
(c. 1571-1629) Shah of Persia from 1587. He expanded Persian territory by conquest, defeating the Uzbeks near Herat in 1597 and also the Turks. At his death his empire reached from the...

Abbas II
(1874-1944) Last khedive (viceroy) of Egypt, 1892-1914. On the outbreak of war between Britain and Turkey in 1914, he sided with Turkey and was deposed following the establishment of a British protectorate...

Abbas II
(1632-1667) Shah of Persia 1642-67, the son of Safi I and the great-grandson of Abbas I. He received various embassies from Europe and recaptured Kandahar 1648, which had been lost by his predecessor to...

Abbas III
(1732-1736) Shah of Persia 1732-36, the son of Tahmasp II. His father was deposed by Quli Khan (who later became Nadir Shah Afshar) and Abbas III was crowned shah when eight months old. He was...

Abbas M?rza
(1789-1833) Prince of Persia, second son of Shah Fath Ali. He commanded the Persian army in the Russian wars of 1804-13 and 1826-28. He also commanded the Persian forces in...

Abbas, Ferhat
(1899-1985) Algerian nationalist leader and politician. He was the first president of the exile-based Gouvernement Provisoire de la République Algérienne (GPRA) 1958-61, and was elected president of the...

Abbasid dynasty
Family of rulers of the Islamic empire, whose caliphs reigned in Baghdad 750-1258. They were descended from Abbas, the prophet Muhammad's uncle, and some of them, such as Harun al-Rashid and...

Abbate, Niccolò dell'
(1509-1571) Italian Mannerist painter. He worked in France from the early 1550s, his slender, sensual nudes being a major influence on the development of the Fontainebleau School. He was active in his home town...

Abbé
French title of respect used to address any priest who is not a member of a religious order. Before the French Revolution it was applied to many people who had little or no connection with the...

abbess
Female superior of a nunnery (usually Benedictine) which has canonical status as an abbey. She is usually elected by the sisters subject to the approval of the bishop. In the Rom ...

abbey
In the Christian church, a building or group of buildings housing a community of monks or of nuns, all dedicated to a life of celibacy and religious seclusion, governed by an abbot or abbess...

Abbey Theatre
Playhouse in Dublin, Republic of Ireland, associated with the literary revival of the early 1900s, that was part of a general cultural Irish revival. The theatre opened in 1904 and staged the works...

Abbey, Edward
(1927-1989) US author and conservationist. His novels include The Monkey Wrench Gang (1976), about a gang of ecological saboteurs. This was a best-seller, making Abbey a cult hero. Although Abbey disapproved...

Abbey, Edwin Austin
(1852-1911) US painter and illustrator who worked in both England and the USA. He was commissioned by Edward VII to paint the coronation 1902 and also decorated the Boston Public Library with a series of...

Abbey, Joseph Leo Seko
(1940) Ghanaian economist and diplomat. He was educated at the London School of Economics, Iowa State University, USA, and the University of Western Ontario, Canada. He was high commissioner to Canada...

abbot
Male superior of a monastery or abbey (usually of the Benedictine family or certain congregations of canons regular). The Rule of St Benedict describes the abbot as the father of his community and...

Abbot, Francis (Ellingwood)
(1836-1903) US philosopher. Ellingwood was forced to resign as a Unitarian pastor in 1868 because of his free-thinking views. He was president of the National Liberal League from 1876-78, editor of The...

Abbot, George
(1562-1633) English cleric, archbishop of Canterbury 1611-33. His works include Exposition on the Prophet Jonah; A Brief Description of the Whole World 1599. Abbot was the recognized leader of the English...

Abbot, Robert Sengstacke
(1868-1940) US publisher and editor, born in Simons Island, Georgia. In 1905 he founded the Chicago Defender, which he edited until 1940. Committed to defending the rights of African Americans, the paper was...

Abbotsford
Home of Scottish novelist Walter Scott from 1811, on the right bank of the River Tweed, Borders region, Scotland. Originally a farmhouse, it was rebuilt 1817-25 as a Gothic baronial hall, and is...

Abbott, Diane Julie
(1953) UK Labour Party politician, member of Parliament from 1987 for Hackney North and Stoke Newington. The first black woman to be elected to the House of Commons, she has been on the left wing of the...

Abbott, George
(1887-1995) US playwright, theatre director, and producer. Among his many successes were Broadway (1926), Three Men on a Horse (1935), The Boys from Syracuse (1938), The Pajama Game (1954),...

Abbott, Grace
(1878-1939) US social worker and activist. From 1919 Abbott was the director of the federal Children's Bureau, later becoming president of the National Conference of Social Workers (1923-24), and an adviser...

Abbott, Jacob
(1803-1879) US author. He entered the ministry of the Congregational Church, but is best known for his educational and religious writings. His first book, The Young Christian (1832), was followed...

Abbott, Lemuel Francis
(1760-1803) English portrait painter. He was the pupil of Francis Hayman. His several versions of Admiral Nelson's portrait were often reproduced. ...

Abbott, Lyman
(1835-1922) New York-based Congregational clergyman and editor. Noted for his intelligence and tolerant attitudes, Abbott was active in Christian publishing as well as in his own parish. He became editor of...

Abbott, Russ
(1948) English comedian and comic actor who was one of Britain's most popular television entertainers in the 1980s. Television appearances include The Comedians (1971), Who Do You Do (1972), What's On Next...

Abboud, Ibrahim
(1900-1983) Sudanese general and politician. After an army coup in 1958, Abboud became president of the supreme council of the armed forces, and subsequently premier and president. His power was severely...

abbreviator
In the Catholic Church, formerly an officer of the papal chancery whose principal task was the preparation of letters and writs for the use of the chief dignitaries...

Abbt, Thomas
(1738-1766) German writer. Born at Ulm, he was a friend of Gotthold Lessing and Moses Mendelssohn, and contributed to the Literaturbriefe, a literary weekly which appeared 1759-65. He wrote Vom Tod furs...

Abd al-Hamid I
(1725-1789) Sultan of Turkey 1774-89. During his reign Turkey was occupied in a struggle with Russia and Austria. The former wrested from him control of the Crimea 1774, and the latter inflicted on him a...

Abd al-Hamid II
(1842-1918) Last sultan of Turkey 1876-1909. In 1908 the Young Turks under Enver Pasha forced Abd al-Hamid to restore the constitution of 1876 and in 1909 insisted on his deposition. He died in confinement....

Abd al-Kader
(c. 1807-1883) Algerian nationalist. Emir (Islamic chieftain) of Mascara from 1832, he led a struggle against the French until his surrender 1847. ...

Abd al-Karim
(1880-1963) Moroccan chief known as the `Wolf of the Riff`. With his brot ...

Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwan
(647-705) Fifth caliph of the Umayyad dynasty, who reigned 685-705, based in Damascus. He waged military campaigns to unite Muslim groups and battled against the Greeks. He instituted a purely Arab coinage...

Abd al-Mejid I
(1823-1861) Sultan of Turkey from 1839. During his reign the Ottoman Empire was increasingly weakened by internal nationalist movements and the incursions of the great European powers. He succeeded to the...

Abd Allah
(1846-1899) Sudanese ruler from 1885. He succeeded the Mahdi (Islamic leader) Muhammad Ahmed, but was defeated by British forces under General Kitchener at Omdurman in 1898. He was killed one year later at the...

Abd ar-Rahman III
(891-961) Ruler of Cordoba in Moorish Spain 912-61. In 929 he proclaimed himself caliph of a Muslim dynasty (Umayyad), formally asserting the independence from the caliphs of Baghdad which his predecessors...

Abd-ar-Rahman
(died 732) Moorish chief. He invaded Gaul in 731 at the head of the largest Muslim army that had yet menaced Europe. He was defeated by Charles Martel near Tours in 732. ...

Abd-ar-Rahman I
(731-788) Emir of Córdoba 756-88. Under his leadership Moorish Spain (al-Andalus) flourished as an emirate independent of the Ummayad caliphs of Baghdad, and the foundations were laid that were to make...

Abd-ar-Rahman II
(788-852) Emir of Córdoba 822-52. Under his leadership, Moorish Spain underwent a marked Islamization, and acquired the accumulated learning of the ancients and...

Abdel Meguid, Ahmed Esmat
(1923) Egyptian politician and diplomat. After the return of the League of Arab States to Cairo he was appointed its secretary general in May 1991. Educated in law, he represented his country as permanent...

Abdera
Town in ancient Thrace on the Aegean Sea (now in ruins); the birthplace of the philosopher Democritus and the sophist Protagoras. Its inhabitants had a reputation for stupidity, and `Abderite`...

abdication
Voluntary renunciation of an office or dignity, usually the throne, by a ruler or sovereign. Abdication is not to be confused with deposition, whereby the ruler, although he or she may ostensibly...

abdication crisis
In British history, the constitutional upheaval of the period 16 November 1936 to 10 December 1936, brought about by the British king Edward VIII's decision to marry Wallis Simpson, a US divorcee....

abduction
In English law, the taking away by force, fraud, or persuasion of a woman or a child against her own will, or against the will of her parents or guardians. Women and girls There are four offences of...

abduction
In philosophy and logic, a form of probable inference, reaching a probable conclusion on the basis of available evidence. Aristotle uses the term to refer to a weak syllogism that fails to carry...

Abdul-Aziz
(1830-1876) Sultan of Turkey 1861-76. He succeeded his brother Abd al-Mejid I. His reign was one long struggle against rebellion in Turkey's European provinces, and he is remembered chiefly for his...

Abdullah el Taaisha
Alternative name for Abd Allah, Sudanese dervish leader. ...

Abdullah I, Abdullah ibn Hussein
(1882-1951) King of Jordan 1946-51. In 1921, after the collapse of the Ottoman empire, he became emir of the British mandate of Transjordan, covering present-day Jordan, and became king when the mandate...

Abdullah II, Abdullah ibn Hussein
(1962) King of Jordan from 1999. Abdullah was crowned king of Jordan after his father, Hussein ibn Talal, who had ruled the Hashemite Kingdom since 1952, died. Abdullah, who was an army major general, and...

Abdullah, ibn Abdul Aziz al-Saud
(1924) King of Saudi Arabia from 2005. He was first deputy prime minister from 1982. On the assassination, in 1975, of King Faisal, he became second deputy prime minister...

Abdullah, Sheikh Muhammad
(1905-1982) Indian politician, known as the `Lion of Kashmir`. He headed the struggle for constitutional government against the Maharajah of Kashmir, and in 1948, following a coup, became prime minister. He...

Abe Kobo
(1924-1993) Japanese novelist and playwright. He was a leader of the avant-garde, and his familiarity with Western literature, existentialism, surrealism, and Marxism influenced his distinctive treatment of...

Abecedarian
Member of a small sect consisting of followers of the German Anabaptist Nikolaus Storch (died 1522). Holding that only a knowledge of the scriptures communicated directly by the Holy Spirit was...

Abel
In the Old Testament (Genesis 4), the second son of Adam and Eve; as a shepherd, he made burnt offerings of meat to God which were more acceptable than the fruits offered by his brother Cain; he was...

Abelard, Peter
(1079-1142) French scholastic philosopher who worked on logic and theology. His romantic liaison with his pupil Héloïse caused a medieval scandal. Details of his life are contained in the autobiographical...

Abelin, Johann Philipp
(c. 1600-c. 1634) German historian who founded the political chronicle Theatrum Europaeum, published in Frankfurt 1633-1738. ...

Abell, Kjeld
(1901-1961) Danish dramatist. His 15 plays are chiefly concerned with moral responsibility and the need to act on ethical principles so as to avoid evil. They include Anna Sophie Hedvig 1939, DagepÃÂ¥ en...

Abencerrages
Noble family in the Moorish kingdom of Granada, the story of whose long struggle with the rival family of the Zegris has been the theme of many Spanish chroniclers and romance writers. According to...

Abercorn, dukes of
Irish title held by the Hamilton family. ...

Abercrombie, (Leslie) Patrick
(1879-1957) English architect. A pioneer of British town planning, he was involved in replanning British cities, including London, after damage in World War II. He initiated...

Abercrombie, John
(1726-1806) English writer on horticulture. He was employed at Kew Gardens and published Every Man his own Gardener 1767. His book supplied, for the first time, detailed instructions which were drawn from...

Abercrombie, Lascelles
(1881-1938) English poet and scholar. He published Interludes and Poems (1908) and several other volumes of verse and verse dramas before World War I. Among Abercrombie's critical works are a study of Thomas...

Abercromby, Ralph
(1734-1801) Scottish soldier. In 1801 he commanded an expedition to the Mediterranean, charged with the liquidation of the French forces left behind by Napoleon in Egypt. He fought a brilliant action against...

Aberdeen
Codename for the Chindit base north of Indaw, Burma (now Myanmar). ...

Aberhart, William
(1878-1943) Canadian politician, premier of Alberta 1935-43. He tried to establish a currency system on social-credit principles, but the necessary legislation was rejected by the Supreme Court of Canada....

Abernathy, Ralph D
(1926-1990) US Baptist clergyman and civil rights activist. Martin Luther King Jr's chosen successor as head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Abernathy went on to devote his attention to...

abettor
In law, a person who knowingly and voluntarily aids a criminal in committing an offence, thereby becoming equally guilty of the crime. ...

abeyance
State of suspension of the rights to a property or a peerage where there is doubt about the rightful owner. In the UK the only peerages that can fall into abeyance are baronies that have been...

Abhidharma-pitaka
Buddhist scripture; the third and last part of the Tripitaka. It contains the Buddha's higher teachings, and explanations of the other pitakas with philosophical and psychological discussions. Its...

Abhorrer
Member of an English court party in the reign of Charles II who `abhorred` the opposition to the royal prerogative shown by the rival party, the Petitioners, led by Lord Shaftesbury. The former...

Abiathar
(lived c. 11th century BC) In the Old Testament, the son of Ahimelech and high priest under David and Solomon. He remained faithful to David during the latter's life but was deposed and banished by King Solomon for his...

Abigail
(lived c. 11th century BC) In the Old Testament, the wife of Nabal, the rich man who refused hospitality to David when fleeing from Saul. Abigail intercepted David when he returned later and won his heart so that he did not...

Abijah
(lived c. 16th century BC) In the Old Testament, the son and successor of King Rehoboam of Judah. He fought and defeated Jeroboam I, King of Israel. ...

Abilene
Town and administrative headquarters of Dickinson County, east-central Kansas; population (1990) 6,200. It is situated on the Smoky Hill River, 35 km/22 mi northeast of Salina. Its industries...

Abimelech
Common Philistine name or title, meaning `the king (God) is my father`. In the Old Testament, the natural son of Gideon was called Abimelech. He murdered his 70 brothers (except the youngest,...

Abington, Mrs Fanny
(1737-1815) English actor. She was engaged for Drury Lane by David Garrick, where she was the first Lady Teazle 1777 and created a number of other parts. She was also well known for Shakespearean roles,...

Abiola, Moshood Kastumawo
(1937-1998) Nigerian politician, president in 1993. First elected to parliament as a National Party member in 1979, he won the 1993 presidential elections as the Social Democratic Party candidate, but was...