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The part of the body`s trunk found below the chest. It contains the structures involved in digestion (e.g., stomach, intestine, etc) and those involved in producing and storing urine (e.g., kidneys, bladder).
Relating to the abdomen.
An area of pus that is surrounded and enclosed by damaged, inflamed tissue.
The technical term for the â€˜messages` that travel along nerve cells. They are waves of electrical activity (impulses) that travel very quickly along the length of the thread-like nerve cells. When they reach the end of the nerve cell they can be passed on to other nerve cells, or to other types of cells, such as those in muscle.
Active movements are those that require the contraction of muscles to bring them about. Active exercise is exercise that uses the person`s own muscles and nervous control to move the body. This can be compared to passive exercise, where another person, e.g., a physiotherapist, moves the parts of the body in question.
Traditional Chinese treatment. Thin metal needles are inserted into selected healing points beneath the skin in order to relieve symptoms such as pain.
Short term, e.g., a medical problem that lasts for only a short period of time; or the immediate stages after an injury.
The body contains two adrenal glands â€“ one positioned on the top surface of each kidney. They produce hormones, including adrenaline.
An important hormone that is used to prepare the body for emergency situations, e.g., by increasing the heart rate. It has widespread effects on circulation, muscles and the provision of energy.
Refers to nerves that carry messages from sense organs towards the spinal cord and brain, i.e., sensory nerves.
This generally refers to objects being in a straight line, or being positioned appropriately in relation to each other. The bones of the spine (vertebrae) should be arranged in a particular position, one on top of the other â€“ they have a particular alignment. After a spinal injury the vertebrae may become shifted from their normal position, and thâ€¦
Also called alpha-adrenergic blockers. A group of drugs that affect the activity of the nervous system by blocking certain receptors found at nerve endings. They cause widening of the arteries and a drop in blood pressure.
Low level of the oxygen carrying chemical, haemoglobin, in the red blood cells. It often occurs due to lack of iron. Symptoms include pale skin and easily getting tired.
A substance that reduces or removes sensation. General anaesthetics affect the whole body, causing loss of consciousness. Local anaesthetics affect only a particular part of the body by inactivating the nerves that detect sensation in that part of the body.
Splits in the lining membrane of the anus. They can cause minor bleeding. Avoiding becoming constipated and gently carrying out bowel emptying can help to prevent them. If anal fissures develop, medical treatment may be needed.
The automatic (reflex) contraction of the anus in response to stimulation in the area around the anus.
Drugs that are used to relieve pain.
A suffocating type of pain. An example includes pain in the chest when the heart muscle does not receive an adequate blood supply during exercise.
Picture of the heart and blood system that is produced by injecting specific substances into the circulation and taking X-rays to reveal the blood vessels.
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
A group of drugs used to lower blood pressure. They work by blocking the activity of an enzyme (angiotensin-converting enzyme, ACE) that is important in controlling blood pressure. NB ACE is also used to refer to a bowel management technique.
A medical condition in which parts of the spine (the joints between the vertebrae) become inflamed. The condition causes back pain and stiffness, and can lead to deformities of the spine and damage to the spinal cord.
Drugs that reduce the level of acidity in the stomach (by neutralising the acid that the stomach naturally produces). They can be used to relieve problems with the digestive system, such as stomach ulcers.
Any substance, e.g., a drug, that is used to treat bacterial infections.
A type of drug that is effective against bacterial but not viral infections.
Chemical that stops blood clotting inappropriately in the blood vessels, or helps to break up already existing clots. Used to prevent deep vein thrombosis and embolisms.
A substance that kills most disease-causing bacteria, viruses and fungi, and that can be used on the skin of humans, or given internally to prevent or treat infections.
The opening at the end of the bowel through which faeces are discharged from the body.
Inflammation of the appendix that can cause pain and occasionally vomiting and diarrhoea.
Small structure attached to part of the bowel called the caecum. It has no function in man.
Method by which essential oils (natural oils taken from aromatic plants) are used to enhance health and also affect a person`s emotional well-being. The oils may be used in massage, inhalation, bath products and perfumes.
The property of having fragrance/smell.
Type of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. The vessel walls of an artery are thick and muscular, which means they are able to withstand the high pressure of blood coming from the heart.
Inflammation of the joints causing swelling, pain and stiffness.
Artificial urethral sphincter
A device that can restore bladder control in some people with SCI. Consists of an inflatable cuff placed around the bladder neck, with a reservoir and pump, all surgically implanted. The cuff can be inflated and deflated to control the flow of urine out of the bladder.
The first part of the colon (part of the large intestine). It starts in the lower right hand side of the abdomen (where the small intestine ends) and moves material upwards to the upper right hand side of the abdomen, where the next part of the colon, the transverse colon, starts.
When procedures like surgery, or dressing wounds, are carried out in a way that avoids introducing any bacteria, viruses, or fungi to the affected area.
Help with breathing that involves â€˜pushing` air into the airways/lungs during breathing in, and allowing air to leave the lungs during breathing out. The air may be oxygen-enriched and supplied using either mechanical or manual equipment, via a tube inserted into the lungs, or simply via a mask placed over the face or nose.
A condition in which fluid, such as mucus, collecting in the lower parts of the lungs, causes blockages of the air passages. This can make breathing less efficient and makes the person more prone to infection. Signs and symptoms include breathing difficulty, a cough, and if sensation is present, chest pain.
Also called a flaccid bladder. This refers to the condition where the muscles in the bladder wall are limp and not able to contract, so that the bladder is not able to empty itself automatically.
Surgical expansion of the bladder, using a piece of bowel, to increase its storage capacity.
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a very important potential complication of SCI. It is an exaggerated response of the nervous system to a specific trigger, such as an overfull bladder, that occurs because the brain is no longer able to control the body`s response to the trigger. This response involves the blood vessels in the skin and abdomen narrowinâ€¦
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system (part of the nervous system that lies outside of the spinal cord and brain). It is involved in â€˜automatic` activities that are not normally under conscious control, for example digestion, breathing, control of blood pressure. The autonomic nervous system can itself be divided into two â€“ the sympathetic nâ€¦
The long thread-like outgrowth/extension of a nerve cell that carries messages away from the main part of the cell (the swelling called the cell body). Each nerve cell has one axon, which can travel long distances through the body, before passing on its message â€“ either to other nerve cells, or to the message`s final destination, such as the brain,â€¦
The end of the nerve cell, where it connects with another nerve cell, or a different type of cell, such as a muscle. It is here that messages are sent from one cell to another.
Microscopic living organisms that may live in the soil, water or air, or live on or within plants and animals. Many are harmless to humans, but some can lead to infections.
Ball and socket joints
Specific type of moveable joint where two bones â€“ one with a ball shaped end, and the other with a cup shaped end â€“ fit together. The point where the ball of one bone fits into the cup (socket) of the other is the joint. The joint permits movement in all directions. Examples include the shoulder and the hip.
Barrier creams and foams
Contraceptive method that is used by women and designed to prevent pregnancy by stopping the sperm reaching the female`s egg. The cream or foam contains an agent that is poisonous to the sperm.
A large group of drugs that affect the activity of the nervous system by blocking certain receptors at nerve endings. Their effects include reducing heart rate and blood pressure.
The large muscle at the front of the upper arm that is used to bend the elbow.
A hollow sac-shaped organ that stores the urine until it can be removed from the body.
Volume of urine that the bladder is able to hold, before the need to empty arises.
Removal of urine from the bladder, e.g., using a catheter.
The methods used by a person to deal with bladder problems and keep their bladder emptying regular and controlled, e.g., catheterisation.
Hard, stone-like structures formed in the urine within the bladder.
Sore areas that form due to the skin rubbing against another surface, causing separation of the layers of the skin. Fluid may accumulate between these layers of skin.
A solid mass of blood. Its function is to develop at the site of wounds to stop blood loss. However, clots may form inappropriately within the blood vessels, for example if the blood is flowing too slowly. Blood clots within blood vessels can block the blood supply to certain parts of the body.
Blood pressure (BP)
The pressure within the arteries (blood vessels) resulting from the pumping action of the heart.
Tubes that carry blood around the body.
A piece of healthy bone is taken from one part of the body (or from another person) and used to strengthen a damaged bone, or help a broken bone to heal. This technique may be used when vertebrae (bones in the spine) are damaged/broken.
Soft fatty substance that is found within the spaces inside bone. It may be red or yellow, and is the place where most of the blood cells are formed.
The amount (â€˜weight`) of bone that is present in the body.
Term commonly used to refer to the lower part of the digestive system â€“ the small and large intestines.
The process of emptying the bowels of stools (faeces).
Stools (faeces) that are firmly wedged in the bowel, and have become so hard and dry that they cannot be removed from the body naturally. Additional measures must be taken to allow them to be passed.
A blockage of the space inside the bowel, stopping the passage of material through it.
The routine that a person uses with regard to emptying their bowels.
A device that is used to support or hold a particular part of the body in a specific position. It can be used to keep bones rigid during a time of healing, help with movement, correct a deformity or relieve pain.
A slower than normal heart rate â€“ specifically, less than 50 beats per minute.
Bleeding in or around the brain as a result of broken blood vessels in the brain. It can result in damage to the nerves in the brain.
Area at the base of the brain, located where the brain meets the spinal cord.
The small tubes forming the airways that travel deep into the lungs. They extend from the two bronchi (branches of the windpipe) and they end in small air sacs called alveoli.
Nervous system disorder that occurs when the spinal cord has been partially cut through, i.e., the damage is only to one side of the cord. Effects on the rest of the body will depend of whether their nervous supply comes from the damaged side of the cord or the side that remains functional.
A distinct, automatic (reflex) contraction of the rectum (part of the bowel) that occurs when the tip of the penis (in a man) or clitoris (in a woman) is squeezed.
Surgery that makes an alternative route past a blockage or narrowing, e.g., in an artery or vein.
A blind-ended â€˜pocket` that links the small and large intestines.
Surgical alternative to natural child birth, where the baby is removed from the womb via an opening that has been cut into the abdomen.
A mineral found in bones and teeth. It is also needed in many processes that take place within the body, such as muscle contraction.
A group of drugs that affect the movement of calcium in the muscles in the walls of the heart and blood vessels. Since this calcium movement is important in allowing muscles to contract, these drugs reduce the strength of muscles in the heart and blood vessels. This results in a weaker heartbeat wider blood vessels and has the effect of reducing blâ€¦
Stone-like structures formed within the body, particularly in the gall bladder (called gallstones), bladder (called bladder stones) and kidneys (called kidney stones).
Very thin blood vessels. They form extensive networks throughout the body to ensure that all tissues are supplied with enough blood. Blood enters the capillaries from small arteries (arterioles) and then drains from the capillaries into small veins (called venules). The walls of the capillaries are very thin, which makes it easier for substances, sâ€¦
One of the three main groups of food needed by the body. Examples of carbohydrates include sugars like glucose and sucrose, and starch. They are a useful source of energy for the body.
Gas that is present in the atmosphere. It is produced as a waste product in the body and is usually removed through the lungs by breathing out.
Relating to the heart, e.g., cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart.
Specialised muscle of the heart that has the property of being able to relax and contract throughout life without becoming tired or stopping.
Body system consisting of the heart, blood vessels, and the circulating blood.
Collection of information, practical adaptations and personal contact details that a person with SCI needs to have around them in order to maintain an independent life.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Condition caused by continual pressure on a nerve in the wrist. Symptoms include numbness, pain and tingling in the thumb, index and middle fingers.
Dense grey or white tissue that is used to support, provide shape or to protect various parts of the body. For example, cartilage is found in the ear, nose and windpipe. It is also found on the ends of bones within joints, to allow the bones to move against each other more smoothly and to cushion them against shock during movement.
The term catheter refers to a thin flexible tube that is inserted through a narrow opening to let fluid pass into, or drain from, the body. A urinary catheter is a thin, flexible tube that is inserted into the bladder, to allow urine to drain to the outside. Catheters are frequently made of either latex or silicone (or a combination of both). Lateâ€¦
The process of inserting a catheter.
The fan- or horsetail-shaped array of nerves leaving the base of the spinal cord (seen below the first lumbar vertebrae).
The main part of a nerve cell (neurone) that appears as a swelling on the thread-like cell. It contains important cell structures, like the nucleus.
Central nervous system (CNS)
The brain and spinal cord.
Type of pain that is due to damage to the spinal cord itself.
Central pain syndrome
Recognisable pattern of pain that occurs due to damage to the spinal cord itself.
A large and important structure at the back of the brain.
Sudden bursting or blockage of a blood vessel in the brain, which causes serious bleeding or blocks blood circulation. This leads to a stroke.
The large frontal area of the human brain.
Describing or related to the neck. Cervical vertebrae are the vertebrae (bones) at the top of the spine, which are found in the neck. A cervical fracture is a break in the vertebrae in the neck.
Removal of unwanted fluids (secretions, such as mucus) that have built up in the airways of the lungs. Various methods of drainage may be used, including draining by gravity (postural drainage), or by clapping on the chest walls to help dislodge the secretions (percussion drainage).
A fat-like material that is present in the blood as well as many body tissues, e.g., the nervous system. A cholesterol level that is too high may lead to blood vessel damage.
Long term, e.g., a medical problem that is continuous and lasts for a long period of time.
Chronic pain syndromes
Patterns of pain that occur over a long period of time.
Term commonly used to refer to the blood circulation â€“ the route that the blood takes as it travels around the body through the blood vessels.
Substances that are used to clean an area, e.g., soap.
Small triangular bone positioned at the base of the spine. It is joined to the bottom of the sacrum.
The main part of the large intestine (large bowel). It can be divided into four parts â€“ the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon. By the time the food residue reaches the colon it has already been digested, and once in the colon, excess water is absorbed back into the body. The food residue is moved along the colon â€¦
Relating to the colon â€“ part of the large intestine (large bowel).
Squashing or forcing an object onto itself â€“ usually making it take up less space. Compression of the spine occurs when the bone of the vertebrae are pushed closer together during injury.
Specialised stockings that are worn to prevent poor blood circulation in the legs.
Computerised (axial) tomography (CT or CAT scan)
A special form of X-ray examination that takes many X-ray images of an area of the body. It then uses a computer to put these images together to form a ross sectional.
Rubber sheath that is placed over the penis to prevent sperm or any sexually transmitted disease being passed onto the female during sex. It is a common contraceptive method â€“ i.e., technique for preventing pregnancy.
A method of draining urine in men that involves placing a rubber or plastic sheath around the penis, which is connected to a tube at the tip, along which urine can drain into a bag.
Packing material that exists within and/or between the more specialised structures of the body, and acts to support, bind or separate these structures.
Condition where it becomes difficult to empty faeces from the bowel.
An active process in which a muscle becomes shorter. This can bring about movement by creating a pulling force on the parts of the body that the muscles are attached to. Contractions may also simply change the shape of part of the body, for example, the muscles found in the walls of tubes (like blood vessels).
Damage to a muscle or surrounding tissue that causes them to become shorter. This leads to deformity of nearby joints.
The cone shaped area at the lower end of the spinal cord (found between the eleventh thoracic vertebrae and the first lumbar vertebrae).
Coronary heart disease
Damage to the heart that occurs because its blood supply is reduced. Fatty deposits build up on the linings of the blood vessels that supply the heart muscles with blood, causing them to narrow. The narrowing reduces the blood supply to the heart muscles and causes pain known as angina.
Pairs of nerves that leave the brain and pass through holes in the skull, to lead to and from places such as the eyes, nose and muscles of the face. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves.
Becoming infected by something (e.g., bacteria), that originates from a source other than the person themselves. For example, a person who uses a catheter may become cross-infected if they catch an infection from someone else changing their catheter.
The process of â€˜growing` living organisms/cells, e.g., bacteria, in special conditions to analyse them.
A bend that may be present in a particular body structure, e.g., the spine.
An abnormal sac or closed space in the body that is filled with fluid or semi-solid material.
Examination of the bladder using an instrument called a cystoscope. A cystoscope is a long thin instrument that is inserted into the bladder through the urethra (tube leading to the outside). It contains a light and a telescope that can relay pictures back through the instrument to a display screen.
A method of cleaning an open wound that involves the removal of dead tissue and foreign bodies, so that healing may take place.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
The formation of a blood clot (solid mass of blood) within a blood vessel â€“ particularly the large deep veins of the lower legs. They can be caused by a prolonged lack of body movement. The clot can block the flow of blood through the vessel and if the clot stays, it can cause tissue damage, due to lack of oxygen.
Large veins that are well below the level of the skin (usually used to refer to veins in the lower legs).
The process whereby the body removes/expels faeces (stools) from the bowel via, the anus.
The lack of sufficient water, often specifically referring to a lack of water in the body. It may occur because there is not enough water being taken into the body (drunk) or that too much is leaving the body (e.g., too much urine is being formed, excessive sweating, vomiting, etc).
A thick muscle that covers the shoulder and is used to lift the arm up, away from the body.
Short, branching outgrowths of a nerve cell (neurone) that receive messages from other nerve cells and pass them the cell body. Each nerve cell has many dendrites.
Referring to a substance from which oxygen has been removed, e.g., deoxygenated blood.
Swelling due to fluid build up within the lowest body tissues, which is caused by the effects of gravity.
The second layer of the skin. It is a layer of living tissue directly beneath the epidermis.
A section of the colon (part of the large intestine) that lies down the lefthand side of the abdomen. Material enters from the transverse colon, and is moved downwards towards the final part of the colon, called the sigmoid colon.
A condition in which there is too much sugar (glucose) in the blood. It occurs because of problems with the production or the effectiveness of the hormone, insulin. Type I diabetes involves the body not making enough insulin, while Type II diabetes involves the body not being able to respond to insulin.
The process of deciding what the nature of a disorder is, by looking at its symptoms, any background information from the patient, and the results of any tests that have been done.
Refers to something that is used to indicate a particular disease or medical condition.
Medical procedure that filters waste products or poisons from the blood; used when the kidneys are not working correctly.
A thick, dome-shaped sheet of muscle below the lungs that is involved in breathing. The term may also be used to refer to a contraceptive device used by women, which involves placing a small sheet of domed rubber into the reproductive tract to prevent the sperm entering the womb.
The natural movement of a substance from an area where there is a high concentration of that substance to where there is a low concentration of the same substance.
The process by which food that has been taken into the mouth is broken down so that is can be absorbed and used by the body`s cells. Digestion involves physically breaking down the food by chewing and churning in the stomach. Food is also chemically broken down by digestive juices that are produced in the stomach and other parts of the digestive trâ€¦
The muscle-walled tube running from the mouth to the anus. It is divided into sections, such as the oesophagus, stomach and small and large intestines. Food enters at the mouth and moves along the tube, being digested (broken down) and absorbed into the body at various points along its length. Material that is left over, e.g., fibre (roughage), leaâ€¦
Stimulation of the muscles in the walls of the rectum (bowel) by inserting a gloved, lubricated finger (digit) through the anus â€“ aimed at encouraging the passing of stools.
Condition where bones that usually meet at a joint, have completely lost contact with each other at the joint surface and are displaced. Dislocation usually results from trauma, and a dislocated shoulder is a particularly common sports injury.
Substance that causes the body to lose water by increasing the amount of urine that is produced.
A method of using high frequency sound waves to detect blood clots.
Structure (pathway) through which sensory nerves enter the â€˜back` of the spinal cord.
Situation that occurs when a person becomes addicted to a particular drug.
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
A type of X-ray that is used to measure the mass of bone. May be used to provide evidence of osteoporosis (where there is loss of bone mass).
The first part of the small intestine (small bowel), which extends from the stomach. It is involved in digesting (breaking down) material in the food.
Describes when something does not work properly.
Implies a lack of coordination. When referring to the bladder, dyssynergia means that the bladder contracts at the same time as the valves at its exit (urethral sphincters) contract, blocking the flow of urine out of the bladder. When referring to the bowel, it implies that the muscles in the bowel that push the faeces (stools) towards the outsidâ€¦
Refers to nerves that carry messages from the brain and spinal cord towards the muscles and glands in the body, i.e., motor nerves.
Process in males by which the sperm (contained in a fluid called semen) are squirted out of the penis at the point of sexual climax.
Body tissue that is strong, flexible and can be stretched, but will return to its original shape after stretching. For example, tissue found in the lungs, walls of blood vessels and the skin.
Use of electrical pulses (applied using electrodes attached to the surface of the body) to trigger muscle contraction.
Record of the electrical activity of the heart that is produced by placing a number of recording electrodes onto the chest area.
A device that is used to sense or apply electrical activity.
A blood clot that breaks off and travels around the body until it enters a blood vessel too narrow for it to continue. The blockage of this blood vessel then causes damage downstream of the embolism due to lack of oxygen and nutrients getting to this tissue.
Name given to a baby in the first 8 weeks of development in the womb.
Administration of liquid into the rectum (bowel) through a tube, usually with the aim of triggering bowel movement and the passage of stools.
Refers to a method of providing food to people that involves inserting a tube into the digestive tract and passing liquid food down it so that it goes directly into the tract.
Chemicals (proteins) produced by the body that speed up biological reactions taking place within the body, without being used up themselves.
The outer layer of the skin.
Tube that leads from the testes to the sperm duct and urethra. The sperm travel slowly from the testes and down the epididymis as they mature.
Injection of a local anaesthetic (drug that prevents the sensation of pain) into the middle/lower back of a woman before she gives birth. The drug prevents the woman feeling pain from the chest level downwards.
A flap of tissue (cartilage) located in the throat just above the larynx. It closes off the larynx during swallowing, to ensure food passes into the stomach and does not enter the airways.
Problems that a man may have in achieving an erect (firm) penis.
The process by which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas, or by which moisture is lost, e.g., the water in sweat evaporates from the surface of the skin and produces a cooling effect.
The removal of a waste product from the body.
The amount of a substance removed from the body in a given time period.
Used to describe an action that straightens a limb or part of the body.
A muscle that is involved in straightening (extending) a limb or part of the body.
External anal sphincter
A ring of muscle around the anus that acts like a valve. It works in conjunction with another valve (the internal anal sphincter) to control the passage of faeces from the rectum (bowel) to the outside. The external anal sphincter is controlled voluntarily (consciously). It is normally contracted, and when faeces need to be removed, it relaxes.
External urethral sphincter
A valve-like structure made of a ring of muscle, located along the urethra. This valve can open and close, and works in conjunction with another valve called the internal urethral sphincter, to control when urine leaves the bladder, i.e., when urination occurs.
External urine drainage system
Artificial method of draining urine from the bladder that does not involve the insertion of catheters into the body, but rather collects the urine once it has left the body. Condom catheters (sheath placed around the penis), are connected to a drianage tube at the tip, or absorbent padding.
Traces of faeces (stools) coming into contact with areas of the body where they could potentially cause harm. For example, faecal contamination of an open wound, such as a pressure sore, could cause infection.
Condition where faeces become firmly wedged in the bowel and cannot naturally pass out through the anus because it is too hard and dry.
The solid waste matter left after digestion of food. It is formed in the part of the large intestine (bowel) called the colon and contains indigestible food, some excess water, cells and bacteria. It is discharged from the body through the anus, when it may be referred to as stools.
The tubes in a woman that lead from the ovaries to the womb. The female sex cells (eggs, ova) travel down these tubes towards the womb when they are released from the ovaries.
Unnatural passage/canal, that branches from a naturally occurring passage, such as the urethra (tube from the bladder to the outside). They are often caused by the unskilful introduction of instruments into the natural passage, such as the introduction of a catheter into the urethra.
Fats are the main energy store in the body and also act as insulating material under the skin and around some organs. Fat is one of the three main food forms needed by the body, with certain forms of fat being required in the diet because the body can't make them itself. Fat also helps certain vitamins to absorbed in the gut.
Artificial methods of fusing together the male and female sex cells (sperm and ova). The techniques may be used to produce a pregnancy when there is some difficulty in achieving fertilisation naturally.
Also known as roughage, fibre is the part of the diet that cannot be digested to produce energy. Instead, fibre helps the digestive system by adding bulk to the faeces and aiding the function of the bowel. Foods that are high in fibre include wholemeal cereals, root vegetables, nuts and fruit.
To remove impurities or solid particles from a liquid or gas, e.g., the removal of dust particles from air that is breathed in as it passes the hairs that line the nose.
Firmly attaching one object to another with the aim of not letting it move, e.g., fixation of a bone during surgery.
Limp, floppy, lacking firmness. Often used to describe muscles that have lost their firmness (muscle tone) due to lack of activity.
Also called an areflexic bladder. This refers to the condition where the muscles in the bladder wall are limp and not able to contract, so that the bladder is not able to empty itself automatically.
Muscles in the walls of the bowel become floppy and limp, because they no longer receive signals to contract from the spinal cord. (Some â€˜self-contained` nervous activity of the bowel means that some contractions still occur, but they are much less efficient.) Because the muscles in the anus (that normally act like a valve to stop stools leaking ouâ€¦
Describes a condition in which people experience limp, floppy muscles that lack firmness, due to lack of activity in these muscles. Voluntary control over these muscles has been lost and they are unable to contract.
Type of wound/sore that has a small opening at the surface that leads to a much larger wound beneath. These wounds are often packed with dressings to ensure that the small surface wound doesn`t close over before the larger wound beneath has healed.
Used to describe an action that bends a limb or part of the body. For example, the action of bending the elbow so that the lower arm comes closer to the upper arm.
A muscle that is involved in bending (flexing) a limb or part of the body.
Type of dressing that is suitable for many types of wounds. It contains a water-absorbent foam.
Name given to a human baby from 8 weeks after it starts developing, until birth.
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