Copy of `Testometric - Materials testing terms`

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Testometric - Materials testing terms
Category: General technical and industrial > Materials testing
Date & country: 17/11/2007, UK
Words: 69


Audit Trail
A step-by-step record by which data can be traced to its source.

Auto Return
Automatically returns the crosshead to the original start position at the end of each test.

Autoscale
Autoscaling may be set individually on the x or y axis to resize the graph screen automatically.

Auxiliary Device
Auxiliary Devices are devices that are attached to either the PC running winTest Solutions, or the tester. Such devices are Extensometers, Balances, Thickness Gauges etc. These devices usually connect via a serial or USB lead.

Balance
An instrument for measuring the specimen weight.

Breadth
The measure or dimension from side to side.

Circumference
The line that goes round or encompasses a circular object.

Co-efficient Variation
For a set of data, the coefficient of variation is

Comm Port
Communication interface connection usually a serial port on a PC often referred to as COM1, COM 2 etc..

Compression
A force tending to compress or reduce something.

Compression Testing
Method for determining behavior of samples under a crushing or compressive force.

Creep
Deformation that occurs over time when a material is subjected to constant stress at a constant temperature.

Crosshead
The main beam across the testing machine. This beam moves either up or down at variable speeds producing a tensile or compressive force.

Deflection
The movement of a structure or structural part as a result of stress.

Diameter
The length of a straight line passing through the centre of a circle and connecting two points on the circumference of the sample.

Distance
The property created by the space between two objects or points.

Distension
The act of expanding by pressure from within.

Elastic Limit
The limit of distortion, by bending, stretching, etc., that a body can undergo and yet return to its original form when relieved from stress.

Elasticity
The ability of a strained material to recover its original size and shape immediately after removal of the stress that causes deformation.

Elongation
The deformation in the direction of load caused by a tensile force.

Energy
A measurement of the work done on a specimen during a test. The energy expended between any two points in a test is measured as the area under the stress/strain curve.

Extension
The location of the crosshead/extensometer relative to the point where the gauge length is reset.

Extensometer
An instrument or device used to measure deformation in a test specimen of a material.

Force
The capacity to cause physical change.

Gauge Length
Gauge length is the original length of the sample of which extension calculations are made. Normally less than the full specimen length and is user defined. The gauge length is sometimes taken as the distance between the grips.

Grips
A mechanical device that grasps and holds the test specimen.

Hasp Key
A device to activate the software and is usually connected to the printer (parallel) port or USB port.

Imperial
The standards legalised by the British Parliament.

Initial Peak Force
The initial peak force is the first point at which distance increases and force decreases.

Inner Diameter
The length of a straight line passing through the centre of a circle and connecting two points on the inner circumference of sample.

Jog
A button on the control panel that moves the crosshead up or down manually. Used to manually position the crosshead prior to testing as a quick method to grip or position a test specimen.

Linear Density
Linear density is a measure of mass per unit length.

Load Cell
A transducer which converts a value of force into an electrical signal.

LOP
Limit of Proportionality is the force at the point on a stress/strain curve where the strain is no longer proportional to the stress.

Major Span
Distance between supports on 4 point bend.

Maximum Force
The point of highest force (Fm).

Mean
A way of finding the 'middle' of a set of data; the ordinary or 'arithmetic' meanis found by adding up all the values and dividing the total by the number of values.

Mean Force
The sum of all force data divided by the number of data points.

Median
The median of a set of data is one way of finding the 'middle' of the data. To findthe median, put all the data in a list in order of size, and pick the piece of datawhich is half way through the list. If there is an even number of values, the medianis half way between the middle pair of values.

Metric
Of or pertaining to the metre as a standard of measurement; of or pertaining to the decimal system of measurement of which a metre is the unit; as, the metric system; a metric measurement.

Minor Span
Distance between loading points on 4 point bend.

Outer Diameter
The length of a straight line passing through the centre of a circle and connecting two points on the outter circumference of sample.

Peak
Highest point or maximum value.

Peak Force
The point of maximum force (Fm).

Preload
Preload is a user defined force that is applied to the specimen before any measurements begin.

Pretension
Pretension is used in tensile tests and is a user defined force that is applied to the specimen before any measurements begin.

Reel Circumference
The line that goes round or encompasses a reel.

Sample Break
The point at with the sample breaks or fractures.

Sample Break Detection
The Sample Break Detection function measures the rate of decrease in force during a test and when triggered will stop the crosshead. Range

Sample Height
Sample Height is the original height of the sample of which deflection calculations are made.

SBD
The Sample Break Detection function measures the rate of decrease in force during a test and when triggered will stop the crosshead. Range

SI
Système International [d'Unités] (International System [of Units]).

Sled Weight
Mass of the sled.

Span
The extent or measure of space between two points or extremities.

Stage
An event at the beginning, during or end of the test.

Standard Deviation
The standard deviation is also called the root mean square deviation, because it can be found by computing the deviation of each piece of data from the mean, squaring each of these deviations, finding the mean of them and then taking the square root of the mean.

Strain
To alter (the relations between the parts of a structure or shape) by applying an external force.

Stress
An applied force divided by original cross sectional area of the specimen.

Tensile Strength
Ultimate strength of a material subjected to tensile loading. It is the maximum stress developed in a material during a tensile test.

Tension
A force tending to stretch or elongate a sample or material.

Test Definition
Outlines the test methods including calculations, variables etc.

Test Height
The distance from the base of the sample to the top of the sample.

Test Type
Examples of test types include Tension, Compression, Burst, Peel, 3 Point Flexural, Paper, Seam, Yarn Tear and Friction.

Thickness
The dimension between two surfaces of an object, usually the dimension of smallest measure.

Thickness Gauges
An instrument for measuring the specimen thickness.

Turns
The number of turns about its axis per unit of length of a yarn or other textile strand. Twist may be expressed as turns per inch (tpi), turns per metre (tpm), or turns per centimetre (tpcm).

USB
Universal Serial Bus. An interface available on modern PCs.

Variables
User defined variables that can be used to collect extra information from the user that is not directly generated by the tester.

Yield Point
The point at which the strain increases without the associated increase in stress. Only a few materials (eg steel) have a yield point and generally only under tensile forces.