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Quantity of energy imparted by ionising radiation to unit mass of matter such as tissue. Unit: Gray, symbol: Gy. 1 Gy = 1 joule per kilogram.
The use of a material or structure to absorb noise energy and prevent its reflection.
Used to reduce noise from gas exhausts and gas jets by providing an absorbing medium at the exit of the jet. They attenuate more at higher frequencies.
Magnitude of vibration measured in ms-2 based upon an average acceleration level (Root Mean Square) measured by an Accelerometer.
Instrument for measuring vibration that is weighted, or has a filter which reduces the sensitivity of the instrument to less damaging high and low frequency vibrations.
A risk which is considered not to interfere with the normal conduct of life, provided that we are satisfied that reasonable precautions are in place. It is normally taken to be in the region of one in a million of a seriously adverse occurrence. See also Unacceptable Risk and Tolerable Risk.
See Direct Costs, Indirect Costs, Insured Costs and Uninsured Costs.
See Frequency Rate, Incident Rate, Severity Rate and Mean Duration Rate.
Triangular concepts introduced by Heinrich and Bird (among others) whose studies illustrated a relationship between major injuries, minor injuries and no-injury accidents.
An unplanned event, arising out of an unsafe act or unsafe condition, which causes injury or damage or has the potential to do so. (The Key Consultancy Ltd)
An undesired circumstance(s) which gives rise to ill health, injury, damage, production losses or increased liabilities. (HSG65). The term accident is now out of favour with the HSE who acknowledge its connotations with chance and misfortune which may lead some to adopt an attitude of inevitability in their treatment of these events. See Incident.
Approved Code of Practice.
An enclosure or cabin possessing noise attenuation characteristics where a worker can obtain relief from the need to constantly wear hearing protection devices.
Act of Parliament
Statutory code voted in by both Houses of Parliament which implements Government policy on social behaviour.
Activated Charcoal Tube
See Adsorption Tube.
Activity directed towards checking compliance with an organisation`s OH&S management system.
Attribute of an amount of a radionuclide. It is used to describe the rate at which transformations occur in it. Unit: becquerel, symbol: Bq. 1 Bq = 1 transformation per second.
Advisory Committee on Toxic Substances. An official committee which sets occupational exposure limits based upon assessments made by WATCH and taking into account, among other things: risks, evidence of health effects, socio-economic implications etc.
An event or state of affairs which is forbidden by the criminal law â€“ `the guilty act`, or (in civil law) the act which directly leads to a breach of the duty of care.
Acute Effects (health)
The immediate effect of a chemical, biological or physical agent after a single exposure.
Atmospheric monitoring device comprising a small glass tube filled with charcoal adsorbent material. Air is drawn through the tube by means of a pump and any contaminant present is then adsorbed onto the charcoal. The charcoal is subsequently removed and analysed to determine the nature of contaminant and/or concentration.
The diameter of a hypothetical sphere of unit density (ie sg = 1.0) having the same terminal settling velocity as the particle in question, regardless of the particle's geometric size, shape and density.
A suspension of any solid particles or liquid droplets in air.
Agent of Change
See Change Agent.
A syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus which attacks the body`s immune defence mechanism. The virus is transmitted via body fluids and workers most at risk include doctors, dentists and emergency services.
Air Cleaning Device
A component of a ventilation system which removes contaminants from outgoing or incoming air.
As low as reasonably achievable â€“ an expression used in risk reduction which defines a stricter standard than ALARP by requiring a test of technical feasibility and current knowledge to be taken into consideration.
As low as reasonably practicable â€“ an expression used in risk reduction to define a standard or point at which (the cost of) additional risk reduction measures would be grossly disproportionate to the benefits achieved.
Condition experienced by an individual when their needs are not being fulfilled, leading to withdrawal or possible aggression.
Any substance, usually a protein, which, taken into the body, makes the body hypersensitive (allergic) to it. See allergy.
A condition of the skin occurring on subsequent exposure to a substance to which a person has become sensitised. Once sensitised, only a small dose is sufficient to cause a reaction.
Special sensitivity to an allergen manifesting itself in asthma like symptoms, rashes, hay fever and eczema amongst other things.
A particle emitted by a radionuclide consisting of two protons plus two neutrons.
A form of particulate radiation which causes ionisation. It is made up of swiftly moving nuclei of positively charged helium atoms. Because of their limited powers of penetration alpha particles present their main risk from contamination inside the body when alpha emitters are inhaled or ingested.
Alternating current (AC)
Electrical current which varies in direction and magnitude having the characteristics of a sine wave oscillation.
Alternative Means of Escape
An additional exit route provided where initial travel distance in a room exceeds the specified minimum.
The minute air sacs of the lungs where respiration occurs (Alveolus singular).
Inflammation of the alveoli of the lungs caused by an allergic reaction. See Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis.
A method for determining the carcinogenicity of substances based upon the belief that carcinogens induce gene mutation. Instead of animal testing, bacteria grown in a culture medium is used and mutant colonies observed and counted.
The peak pressure level of a sound wave with respect to normal air pressure (i.e., maximum compression (+ve) or maximum rarefraction (-ve).
Instrument used for measurement of air speed. See Hot Wire Anemometer and Rotating Vane Anemometer.
A sometimes fatal zoonose which affects the skin or lung. It is transmitted through the inhalation of spores or contact with the skin. The bacteria which occurs primarily in animals can survive outside the host in the ground for many years. Occupations most at risk are those treating animal skins and hides.
A branch of the behavioural sciences concerned with the study of whole communities and societies seeking to illustrate interdependence and interrelatedness of social groups within them. Broadest study of mankind ie, mind, body, environment, race, evolution.
The scientific measurement of the human body.
A substance foreign to the body which causes the production of antibodies. See Lymphocyte.
Assigned Protection Factor.
The cessation of red corpuscle production in bone marrow caused by exposure to benzene, trinitrotoluene, irradiation and organic insecticides.
A person who is not a first aider but is appointed and trained by an employer to carry out duties involved in the management of a first aid emergency.
Arising out of PUWER, a person with suitable and sufficient training who is appointed in writing by an employer to inspect and test guards and/or protection devices on power presses.
Approved Code of Practice
A device introduced by s16 of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 by which the Health and Safety Commission may approve industrial standards and working practices which meet the requirements of a particular set of Regulations. ACoPs give advice on how to comply with the law and have special legal status in so far as they may be used in evidence to support a prosecution (or a defence) for breaches of Regulations.
The ability to deal with aspects of the environment. An innate ability to perform a particular behaviour.
An extremely painful conjunctivitis including photophobia (unwillingness to look at light) follows a few hours after exposure to ultra-violet radiation used in welding. The condition usually involves the cornea as well as conjunctiva (keratoconjunctivitis).
The collection of samples of airborne concentrations of substances hazardous to health by placing a sampling device at selected points in a workplace which may produce a representative sample of the contamination which exits.
Silver-blue skin discolouration caused by long-term exposure to silver salts.
Management guru whose main relevance is his work into the effects of organisational control on the growth trends of a healthy personality.
See Article 95.
See Article 137.
Article of the Single European Act aimed at harmonising the standards of safety of people at the workplace.
Article of the Single European Act aimed at removing the barriers to trade for new machinery and equipment.
Potently toxic material known to cause cancer in humans and fibrotic disease. See asbestosis.
A prescribed disease which occurs predominantly in the deep lung producing fibrotic nodules which gradually conglomerate reducing lung function and causing breathing difficulties. Also notifiable under RIDDOR (see Mesothelioma).
A prescribed disease caused by exposure to the Aspergillus fungus commonly associated with asthma-like symptoms. It can occasionally grow in the eye or heart valves with serious consequences. Occupations at risk include farming and horticulture.
A substance which has the properties to suffocate a living being. See Simple Asphyxiant and Chemical Asphyxiant.
The level of risk (of a particular outcome) as valued by expert opinion and generally based upon relevant data, knowledge and experience, and probabilistic conclusions. See also Estimated Risk.
Assigned Protection Factor
The level of respiratory protection that can realistically be expected to be achieved in the workplace by 95% of adequately trained and supervised wearers using a properly functioning and correctly fitted respiratory protective device.
Assumed Protection Value (APV)
A prediction of the noise reduction possible to achieve in real use, usually calculated as the mean attenuation minus one standard deviation.
See Occupational Asthma.
The smallest portion of an element that can combine chemically with other atoms.
Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
An analytical technique which involves the absorption of light energy by an atomic vapour. The wavelength at which absorption occurs is characteristic of the element; and the degree of absorption is a function of the concentration of atoms in the vapour.
The mass of an isotope of an element expressed in atomic mass units, which are defined as one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom which determines its chemical properties.
Component of human functioning which allows us to select particular information from the vast amount detectable by the senses.
The noise reduction achieved by control measures in dB.
Information provided by a supplier of hearing protection devices about the attenuation properties of their products.
A predisposition to think, act or feel in a particular way about a particular issue.
A technique used for assessing the degree of hearing loss in a person.
See Safety Audit.
A senior manager or authority in a company whose responsibility is to issue a permit to work. See also Responsible Person.
The ability to get things done because one`s orders are seen to be legitimate or justified â€“ legitimate power.
The lowest temperature at which a substance will ignite spontaneously (ie without the presence of a source of ignition).
A protective device linked to the action of a machine which moves the guard into position when the machine cycle begins, and in the process moves the operator away from the danger zone.
Back up System
A reliability engineering technique which activates a safety or protection device should the primary system fail, eg a mechanical-scotch.
Organisms which come in a variety of shapes eg spherical (cocci), rod shaped (bacilli) etc. They may exist as a single cell or grow in colonies many of them being able to survive independently of any other organism.
A behaviour which once initiated will continue to the end without conscious thought or external control, even if no longer appropriate in the circumstances.
The over-learning of an activity to the point at which it can be delegated to a sub-controlling part of the brain.
A small flat metal plate fitted to the bottom end of a scaffold standard which increases the surface in contact with the ground.
The element of failure or loss of control prior to the existence of the immediate cause of an accident. See Root Causes.
A sampling approach which concentrates on assessing the `worst case` and using this as an index of the overall risk. For large numbers of workers they should be divided into homogenous groups in relation to type of work, location, duration etc. The groups with the highest suspected exposure can then be studied ensuring that individual work patterns and exposure cycles have been adequately covered.
Graphical representation of the expected failure rates of a component. So called because of its similarity to a bathtub.
Best Available Technique Not Entailing Excessive Cost.
Description of what a person does in the context of others, action in response to a stimulus. An activity directly detectable by the senses of an observer.
The systematic positive reinforcement of required behaviour, whilst at the same time ignoring or exercising negative reinforcement to eliminate unwanted behaviour.
A collective term used to describe those scientific disciplines which have varying degrees of concern with the study of human kind, see also Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology and Ergonomics.
A planned process by which an organisation compares its health and safety processes with other organisations with the objectives of reducing accidents and ill-health; improving legal compliance; and cutting compliance costs.
Benchmark Guidance Value
A biological monitoring guidance value set at around the 90th percentile of available validated data. The data is obtained from those industries which employ good working practices. It is a level which can be achieved by the majority of industry by employing good working practices.
Best Available Technique Not Entailing Excessive Cost
An implied condition of authorisation to operate a process under integrated pollution control legislation.
Best Practicable Environmental Option
An underlying principle of integrated pollution control that consideration must be given to effects of emissions on all environmental media and that the least damaging route as a whole should be selected.
Best Practicable Means
A standard, usually indicated by a regulating authority, expressing views of what can be achieved in given circumstances. These are given in the form of published notes or documents.
An electron emitted by the nucleus of a radionuclide. The electric charge may be positive, in which case the beta particle is called a positron.
A form of particulate radiation which causes ionisation. It involves electrons travelling at very high speed. Beta particles have moderate penetrating powers in soft tissue (about 1cm) causing superficial damage.
Beta-ray Absorption Instrument
A direct reading instrument for particulates which passes Beta particles from Carbon-14 source through dust collected on a plate. The absorption of Beta radiation is a function of the mass collected and a direct mass readout is given.
Any micro-organism, cell structure, or human endoparasite (including any which have been genetically modified) which may cause infection, allergy, toxicity or otherwise create a risk to human health.
See Biological Agent.
The measurement and assessment of hazardous substances or their metabolites in tissues, secretions, excreta or expired air, or any combination of these, in exposed workers. Measurements reflect absorption of a substance by all routes of entry. See Benchmark Guidance Value and Health Guidance Value.
Guru of modern accident causation and prevention theory. Noted for his update of the domino theory and work on accident ratios.
An independent scaffold constructed so as to provide its own support and structural integrity.
Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion (BLEVE)
An explosion which normally results from the catastrophic failure of a pressure vessel containing liquefied flammable gases. The released gas ignites and a strongly radiating, rising fireball is created.
Best Practicable Environmental Option.
The diagonal metal poles which connect the outer and inner standards of a scaffold giving support to the whole structure. Those running in line with the permanent structure are called cross braces, those running at right angles to it are called ledger braces.
Breach of Statutory Duty
A criminal offence â€“ but one for which an injured person may make a civil claim if they have suffered injury as a result of the breach (unless specifically excluded in the statute itself).
Break Even Analysis
The analysis of the point in time when an investment will be repaid by the benefits estimated in a cost benefit analysis.
A respiratory protective device which provides air from an uncontaminated source which enables it to be used in oxygen deficient environments.
A notional hemisphere close to a person`s nose and mouth in which the sampling head of a personal atmospheric monitoring device is positioned in order to provide a representative sample of exposure.
The ability of an explosive substance to release energy at a rate which cannot be absorbed by the movement of an object and which causes shattering of objects in the path of the shock wave.
A fast fracture in a (generally) brittle material which occurs with little or no warning.
The movement in air of particles of less than 0.1 Âµm which behave like molecules and move randomly in air.
A zoonose and prescribed disease, caused by contact with bacteria (brucella) in infected milk or discharges during animal birth. Transmission to humans is through broken skin or mucous membranes. Main occupations at risk are farmers, slaughterhouse workers and veterinary workers.
A term used to describe the unstable compressive collapse of structural members eg scaffolding.
A style of organisation based upon legal-rational authority capable of producing a high degree of efficiency, characterised by a belief in rules and order and managed by distinct official roles. See Role Culture.
A form of occupational asthma, arising from exposure to inhaled cotton dust (among others) and causing permanent narrowing of the airways. It is a prescribed disease whose symptoms include progressive tightness in the chest, cough and shortness of breath.
A lethal illness which can be brought on by exposure to carcinogens. Cancer can arise from very low exposures to relevant substances and may not manifest itself until some years after exposure. Called `neoplastic` disease (a neoplasm is a new growth), cancer may take the form of a benign, local growing tumour, or a malignant fast growing, spreading tumour which can invade other parts of the body via the lymphatic system or blood stream.
The ability of a system to store electrical energy which is released back into the system in the opposite direction to the flow of current. See Impedance.
The air velocity required to capture an airborne contaminant at its point of origin and cause it to flow into an LEV hood.
A colourless, odourless gas whose presence in a room is undetectable to the occupants.
Haemoglobin which has been converted by exposure to carbon monoxide gas and turns the blood a bright crimson colour which indicates carbon monoxide poisoning by the cherry red appearance of the victim`s face.
A substance with a known propensity to cause cancer.
Authoritative references of previous judicial decisions and interpretations which assist in the subsequent and consistent adjudication of cases. See Judicial Precedent.
Lens opacities resulting from trauma (a penetrating wound or severe blow), heat (glassworker`s eye) and irradiation (lasers and microwaves). Cataracts can be removed and replaced by artificial lenses or contact lenses.
Construction Design and Management Regulations.
A competent person appointed by the client under CDM whose role is to ensure the competence of designers and contractors before they are appointed. One of the main duties of the CDM Coordinator is to ensure that a Health and Safety Plan for the project is prepared before construction work starts.
A label or mark applied to a piece of equipment or a product to signify that it conforms to a specified European Directive(s). (CE = Conformité Européen).
Committee for European Normalisation.
European Committee for Electro-technical Standardisation, see CEN.
Used for slings, the modern trend is for high tensile steel chains whose safe working load depends upon the material used in its manufacture and the diameter of the bar from which the chain is made.
The helper, person or group who is attempting to influence or effect change.
Chartered Safety Practitioner
A safety professional who is a member of IOSH and has demonstrated sufficient competence through education and experience to be included as a chartered member.
In the context of health and safety, a chemical hazard in the form of dust, fume, mist, fibre, gas or vapour which has the potential to cause harm.
A method for determining the hazards of a chemical substance for which no empirical data is available. Such a substance may be presumed to have similar hazards and risks to other chemicals of similar composition or constitution.
A chemical substance which causes suffocation by diffusing across the lung/blood barrier and interfering with the respiration process. Examples are carbon monoxide which combines with haemoglobin in preference to oxygen and prevents further oxygen take up in the blood by forming carboxy haemoglobin; and hydrogen cyanide which interferes with enzyme reactions preventing cellular respiration. See also Simple Asphyxiants.
See Chemical Agent.
The Chemicals (Hazards, Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations.
Unpleasant skin condition resulting from the effects of some polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons on sebaceous glands producing blackheads and cysts on the face and neck.
Chemical analysis technique used for separating or analysing a mixture of gases, liquids or dissolved substances. It is based upon the partition of two different and immiscible substances one of which is moving (the mobile phase) and one of which is stationary (the stationary phase).
See Skin Ulceration.
Rod-shaped bodies found in the nucleus of cells in the body. They contain the genes, or hereditary constituents. Human beings possess 23 pairs.
Chronic Effects (health)
The long term accumulated effect of a chemical, biological, or physical agent after prolonged or repeated exposure.
Microscopic hairs on the lining cells covering mucous membranes. See Mucociliary Escalator.
See Mucociliary Escalator.
The current flowing when an electrical circuit is operating normally on load.
A branch of law conferring rights on individuals and allowing redress against the wrong doer.
Liability in civil law for harm or wrong done to an individual.
Term introduced by the Woolf Report (1999) to describe a person pursuing a claim under civil law. Replaces the word plaintiff.
A person claiming state benefit under the industrial injuries benefit scheme eg disability benefit for a prescribed disease.
A learning process observed by Pavlov in which a naturally occurring behaviour could be elicited by simultaneously pairing the stimulus which produced it, with an artificial stimulus, eventually eliciting the same behaviour with the artificial stimulus alone.
Under CDM is the person for whom work is carried out whether in-house or through contractors.
A system which does not interact with its environment.
One of the four Cs which involves workers and their representatives in planning and reviewing performance, writing procedures and solving problems.
Code of Practice
Approved Code of Practice.
The ability to influence the behaviour of people because they believe you are able and willing to administer penalties which they dislike. See also Expert Power and Reward Power.
Hypothermia, a clinically diagnosed condition when the body core temperature drops below 35oC.
See Collective Effective Dose.
Collective Effective Dose
The quantity obtained by multiplying the average effective dose by the number of people exposed to a given source of ionising radiation. Unit: man sievert, symbol: man Sv.
Committee for European Normalisation
European Committee for Standardisation charged with responsibility for developing product standards across the European Union. (CEN stands for Comité Européen de Normalisation).
A source of law which is not written in statute, but is developed over time by judicial precedent. Breaches of common law may lead to criminal offences (eg murder) or to civil torts (eg negligence).
One of the four Cs which involves the process of imparting knowledge or information. It is an essential part of an organisation which does not mean that every individual must be able to communicate with very other but each at least should be touched by the network of communication.
A monetary award given to the victim of a civil wrong which varies according to the degree of harm done. See Damages.
One of the four Cs which involves the process of ensuring that the necessary skills and knowledge are available to carry out all tasks safely.
A person with sufficient knowledge and experience to undertake a noise assessment. One who has the ability to work unsupervised and has a good understanding and practical experience of what information needs to be obtained, how to use and look after the instruments involved and how to present the information in an intelligible manner. (Noise at Work Regulations).
One who has sufficient training and experience or knowledge and other qualities to be able to assist the employer in discharging the statutory duties imposed (MHSW Reg 6).
Definitions are extended to include technical knowledge â€¦. to prevent danger (EAWR), practical and theoretical knowledge and experience (LOLER).
A network of inferences that may be brought into play by an act of categorisation.
Any material which is capable of conducting electricity (electricity is synonymous with electrical energy) and therefore includes both metals and all other conducting materials. The definition is not limited to conductors intended to carry current and so includes, for example, metal structures, salt water, ionised gases and conducting particles.
Any chamber, tank, vat, silo, pit, trench, pipe, sewer, flue, well or other similar space in which, by virtue of its enclosed nature there arises a reasonably foreseeable specified risk. These include loss of consciousness due to rise of body heat or asphyxiation, drowning due to rising liquid level or free flowing solid, serious injury arising from fire or explosion, or entrapment preventing escape: (Confined Space Regulations).
Confined Vapour Cloud Explosion
Explosion of a vapour cloud inside a container, room or building where the associated pressure rise is confined until rupture of the containment. See UCVE.
The progression of combustion to adjacent combustible materials not involved in the originating deflagration.
Disagreement (which may be either functional or dysfunctional) leading to a power struggle.
Painful eye condition characterised by redness, discomfort and watering of the eyes caused by irritant gases, like sulphur dioxide and ammonia can cause conjunctivitis. Allergens like plants and dyes sometimes produce a similar reaction.
A situation in which an employee terminates the contract of employment with or without notice because the conduct of the employer constitutes a repudiation of the contract. The employee accepts that repudiation by resigning.
An agreement made between two parties which is intended to be legally binding.
Contract of Employment
A binding agreement between an employer and employee containing explicit and implicit terms relating to the conditions of employment.
A company or one of its employees not employed by an organisation but who is engaged under contract to work on the organisation`s behalf. See also Principal Contractor.
Consideration given to the behaviour of an injured person which determines a proportion of blame and causes the damages awarded to be reduced accordingly.
One of the four Cs which involves the demonstration of commitment and leadership, supported by clear rules and procedures which are rigorously applied.
A safeguarding system for machinery in which the interlock switch is attached to the guard to detect movement, and open the switch contacts whenever the guard is not fully closed.
A technical, procedural or behavioural technique applied in specific circumstances to either eliminate risk or reduce it to an acceptable level.
Any waste from households or commercial or industrial premises. (Excludes agricultural and radioactive waste).
Activity adopted by a person when satisfactions are threatened which may include eg. daydreaming, withdrawal, aggression, projection and regression (among others).
Proposed offence at the time of going to print intended to simplify bringing charges in the case of fatal accidents at work. It will be used in circumstances where the conduct of the company falls far below what can be reasonably expected in the circumstances.
The concept that a company rather than an individual can be brought to justice for the death of an employee. Prosecutions to date have been fraught with difficulty because of the problems associated with proving mens rea (of a non-human defendant). See Corporate Killing.
Corrected Effective Temperature
`Corrected` to take into account radiation conditions by incorporating the black globe thermometer in place of the dry bulb.
The ability to cause severe damage to living tissue by chemical action.
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations.
Cost Benefit Analysis
A qualitative and quantitative assessment made of the data collected in relation to an initiative or change programme. To make a judgement we need to consider costs such as capital expenditure required, ongoing maintenance, training and likely payback term, and balance these against the benefits such as reduction in accident losses, improved attendance, better efficiency and higher production.
Council of Ministers
The supreme decision making body of the European Union. It comprises of the relevant ministers from each of the member states for the subject under discussion. Eg Minister of Agriculture, Trade and Industry etc.
Venue for the trial of civil cases of (usually) small value, presided over by a circuit judge.
Court of Appeal
Court composed of senior judges including the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Chief Justice, the Master of the Rolls and the Lords Justice of Appeal. Jurisdiction covers appeals from the High Court, County Courts and Tribunals.
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