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Hcs.ohio state Master Gardener Glossary
Category: Animals and Nature > Gardening
Date & country: 10/09/2007, USA
Words: 316


Abdomen
the posterior section of the arthropod body.

Abiotic
nonliving.

Acclimate
to adapt to new environmental conditions.

Acidity
quality of being sour; degree of sourness; having a pH of less than 7.

Adventitious
plant parts, such as shoots and roots, produced in an unusual position on a plant or at an unusual time of development.

Aeration
to be exposed to air; to cause air to circulate through a medium.

Aggregates
(soil); clumps or cemented units of mineral and organic matter.

Algae
aquatic plants that lack a vascular system. Some are microscopic and others are large. Examples are pond scum, kelp and red tides.

Alkalinity
having a pH greater than 7.

Alternate host
a secondary host that becomes infected and is necessary for alternating generations of a disease-causing organism.

Amendment
an alteration or addition to soil to correct a problem.

Anaerobic
able to live and grow where there is no air.

Annuals
plants that complete their life cycle in a year or less.

Anther
the upper part of the stamen where the pollen is produced.

Apical bud
a bud at the apex or terminal position on a plant or branch.

Arboretum
pl. arboreta; a place where trees, shrubs, vines and herbaceous plants are cultivated for scientific and educational purposes.

Arthropod
invertebrate animals (insects, arachnids and crustaceans) that have a jointed body and limbs and usually a hard shell or exoskeleton that is molted periodically.

Asexual propagation
the duplication of a plant from a cell, tissue or organ of the plant.

Bacteria
microscopic organisms having round, rod-like, spiral or filamentous single-celled or noncellular bodies often gathered into colonies.

Band fertilize
to apply fertilizer in a narrow line along a row of plants or in a circle around individual plants.

Bare root
a plant that is sold or shipped dormant with no soil surrounding its roots.

Beneficial insects
insects that prey on or parasitize pests.

Bentgrass
a high-maintenance grass used on putting greens. It requires frequent cutting with a reel mower, frequent fertilization and watering. It is highly susceptible to several diseases.

Biennials
plants that complete their life cycle in two years or growing seasons.

Binomial nomenclature
a system in which the scientific name of a plant consists of two parts indicating the genus and species.

Biological control
the use of living organisms or their products to control pest populations.

Biological diversity
presence of many different types of living organisms.

Bolt
the tendency of cool-season plants to grow rapidly and produce seeds when exposed to warm temperatures.

Bonsai
a potted plant dwarfed by special cultural practices.

Bract
a modified leaf, usually reduced in size or scale-like. Sometimes large and brightly colored.

Bramble
any shrub with thorns in the rose family; usually refers to blackberries and raspberries.

Branch crown
plant tissue that is the junction of the roots and stem that forms on the side of a strawberry plant. These only form foliage.

Broad spectrum
pesticides that affect a wide variety of pests.

Bud scales
specialized tissue that covers the terminal bud and embryonic leaves of a plant during winter.

Bud union
the location of a graft.

Bulb
an underground storage organ made up of enlarged and fleshy leaf bases and a bud.

Bulbil
a small bulb that forms along the stems of certain plants, such as tiger lilies and bladder ferns.

Bulblet
a small bulb that develops around a parent bulb and can be removed to propagate additional plants.

Button
the small heads of broccoli or cabbage that form as a result of seedlings being exposed to freezing temperatures.

Cage
an enclosure used to support a plant.

Callus
wound tissue.

Cambium
the tissue in a plant that produces new cells.

Candle
the new shoot growth on needled evergreens before the needles expand.

Cane
a one-year-old shoot on a grapevine.

Canopy
the top layer of a tree including branches and foliage.

Capillary action
a force that causes liquids to rise or fall when inside very small tubular spaces.

Carbon dioxide, CO2 ,
a colorless, odorless gas found in the air. It is absorbed by plants and exhaled by animals.

Carnivore
a flesh-eating animal.

Caterpillar
worm-like larva of various insects, especially butterflies and moths.

Cell
the unit of plants that makes up tissues. Cells have a cell wall that encloses the protoplasm.

Chlorophyll
green pigments in plants that facilitate photosynthesis.

Cloche
a transparent plant cover used to protect plants from cold temperatures.

Cold composting
composting under conditions where the temperatures do not rise to 140o F.

Cold frame
a glass-covered frame without artificial heat used to protect plants and seedlings.

Collar
a band of material used as a mechanical barrier to protect a plant from damage by insects.

Compaction
a state where soil particles are forced closely together, reducing pore space.

Complete metamorphosis
changes in body form of insects that include egg, larva, pupa and adult; also known as complex metamorphosis.

Compost tea
a low-nutrient liquid that results from placing plant debris in water and allowing it to decompose.

Composted manure
animal feces that have been aged in a pile, allowing much of the nitrogen to leach from the feces. A nonburning organic fertilizer.

Contact insecticide
a poison that must contact the body of the insect to be controlled.

Contractile
drawing together resulting in decreased size or bulk.

Cool-season crop
a crop that grows best during the cool temperatures of spring and fall.

Cool-season grass
turfgrasses that actively grow during the cooler spring and fall weather. These include Kentucky bluegrass, the fescues, ryegrasses and bentgrass.

Cordon
horizontal branches of a grapevine trained along the trellis; also called the arms. The canes left after pruning which will produce fruiting shoots and new canes.

Core aeration
increasing air penetration of the soil by removing plugs of soil. A heavy machine with hollow prongs is moved across a lawn pushing the prongs into the soil and pulling out plugs of soil.

Corm
a short, thickened, underground, upright stem in which food is stored.

Cormel
a small corm that forms around the parent corm. It can be removed and planted to propagate a new plant.

Cotyledon
the leaf or leaves of the embryo, also called seed leaves.

Cover crop
a crop that improves the soil in which it is grown.

Crop rotation
growing crops of a specific family in different areas of the garden each year to avoid soil-borne diseases and nutrient depletion.

Cross-pollination
the transfer of pollen from one plant to the stigma of another plant.

Crotch
the angle measured from the trunk of a tree to the upper surface of a branch.

Crown
the part of a plant where the root and the stem meet.

Culinary
used in cooking.

Cultivar
also cultivated variety; a subdivision of a species, a result of human-manipulated hybridization.

Cultivation
preparation of the soil for growing plants.

Cultural control
the use of good gardening techniques to control pest populations.

Cuticle
a waxy or varnish-like layer covering the outer surface of leaves.

Cutin
the waxy or varnish-like material that makes up the cuticle.

Day-neutral plant
a plant that will flower under any day length.

Days to maturity
the number of days between planting the seed and first harvest.

Deadhead
to remove spent blossoms of herbaceous plants.

Deciduous
plants that drop their leaves at the end of each growing season.

Dehydration
an abnormal loss of fluids.

Desiccation
drying.

Determinate
growth that is limited.

Diameter breast high
the diameter of a tree trunk at a height of 4-1/2 feet above the ground.

Dicot
also dicotyledon; flowering plants with embryos that have two cotyledons.

Dioecious
plants that have only male or only female flowers on an individual plant.

Disease resistance
the tendency not to be infected by a particular pathogen.

Disease tolerance
the ability of a plant to continue growing without severe symptoms despite being infected by a pathogen.

Division
a method of propagation by separating and planting segments capable of growing roots and shoots.

Dormancy
a state of suspended growth or lack of visible activity caused by environmental or internal factors.

Double dig
a method of digging a garden bed which involves removing the soil to the depth of one spade blade and then digging down an equal distance, breaking up and mixing the soil.

Drift
when a pesticide is blown by wind onto nontarget organisms.

Drip irrigation
a system of tubes with small holes that allow water to drip out onto the root zone of plants. A water-conserving irrigation system.

Drip line
a line encircling a tree corresponding to the furthest extension of the branches of a tree.

Drought
a prolonged period of dryness that can cause damage to plants.

Ecosystem
a system consisting of a community of animals, plants and microorganisms and the physical and chemical environment in which they interrelate.

Element
a substance that cannot be separated into different substances. All matter is made of elements.