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Studiocrafts - Craft Terms
Category: Hobbies and Crafts > Crafts
Date & country: 11/09/2007, CAN
Words: 144


Applique
Pieces of material are cut into shapes and applied to another material, using a form of stitchery, glue, or a transparent medium.

Band Saw
A power saw employing a continuous loop of toothed metal band.

Base Metal
Any metal other than a precious metal, such as copper or zinc.

Basse Lisse
A 'Low warp' technique of weaving done on a horizontal floor loom, used more often in the French town of Aubusson.

Batch
A quantity of raw materials mixed in proper proportions and prepared for fusion in the glass furnace.

Batik
(1) A method of applying dye to cloth which is covered in part with a dye resistant, removable substance such as wax. After dying, the wax is removed, and the design appears in the original colour against the newly coloured background. (2) The cloth itself.

Bisque (or Biscuit Firing)
Preliminary firing helps to stabilize and harden the clay prior to glazing and decorating.

Boiling
A water-forming technique in which leather is immersed for a short time in boiling water, causing the leather to bend and pucker. When dry, the leather is extremely hard, though fragile.

Burl
A dome shaped growth on the trunk of a tree.

Burnishing
Dry polishing of a hardened unfired piece to produce a glaze-like surface which may be fired.

Cameo-Intaglio
A technique in which the finished glass form is covered with another coating of glass of a different colour into which is carved or etched a design which exposes the base colour

Carving
Designs are cut into the leather, then all edges are beveled to make the design stand out. Also called incising.

Cased Glass
Glass completely covered [through blowing or dipping) by other, usually differently coloured, glass. Outer layers can be partially cut away to reveal colour(s) of the previous 'castings' beneath.

Casting
A method of reproducing in quantity by using liquid clay & molds.

Casting
The process of pouring molten metal into a hollow mold. The cast metal duplicates the object (wood, hard wax, etc. ) originally impressed in the mold material. Some processes permit more than one reproduction.

Casting Slip
A creamy liquid clay poured into a mold and allowed to solidify.

Celadon Glazes
A gray-green semi-opaque to opaque glaze (reduction fired).

Champleve ("shahm-pleh-VAY")
Enamel work in which transparent or opaque enamel is fired into etched or carved areas, leaving the metal partly exposed.

Chased
Metal whose surface is patterned by striking with a hammer or other non-cutting tool. Applied to one surface of the metal only, this process is often combined with repousse to achieve greater detail.

China Paint(ing)
A low fire glaze decoration applied to already glazed and fired whiteware or porcelain.

Chrome Tanning
A tanning process using salts of chromium to make leathers that are especially supple and suitable for bags, garments, etc.

Cire-perdue
A wax model is prepared and enclosed in plaster or clay. A small hole is left through which the wax is melted out and then the molten metal is poured in.

Clay Body
A composition of various ceramic materials.

Cloissonné
Enamelling in which the colours are separated by thin metal ribbons or wires to form part of the pattern and keep the melting colours from running together.

Coiling
Building the walls of pottery with rope-like rolls of clay, then smoothing the joints.

Cold Glass
Solid Glass (bought in sheets, chunks, tubes or rods) is cut, sandblasted, engraved, enamelled, cast or fused.

Cone
Thin, finger-length pyramid of ceramic material made to bend and melt at prescribed temperatures, providing a visual indication of temperature in the kiln.

Constructed (1)
Hand made in parts and assembled to form a whole. (2) Not cast.

Copper Foil Technique
Joining glass by applying adhesive copper tape to each piece and soldering the copper together.

Crackle Glaze
One featuring minute, decorative surface cracks, sometimes accented by rubbing with colour

Crystal(line)Glazes
Those featuring clusters of crystal-like shapes or colours within a more uniform, opaque glaze.

Cuir-Bouilli ("kweer-boo-ee")
A flat piece of leather is soaked, molded over a form, and dried in an oven so that it will harden and retain the molded shape.

Dalle de Verre
Inch-thick cast and pressed glass is used for stained glass windows in areas with restricted light.

Drain Casting
Slip is poured into a mold and as the slip hardens against the inside of the mold, reaching the desired wall thickness for the piece, the mold is inverted and the excess slip is drained away.

Dyeing
Colour is given to an entire leather surface or to parts of a design.

Earthenware
Tan or reddish pottery fired at a low temperature, below 1100C. In an unglazed form, its porosity prevents it from holding liquids.

Electroformed
Creation of a metal object by electrically depositing metal on a master form of wax. After the wax is removed, a metal shell remains.

Electroplated
Coated with a thin layer of (usually precious) metal by passing an electric current through a chemical solution containing a souroe of the metal.

Embossing
A decorative technique in which a design is raised in relief, working with modelling tools on both hair (grain) side and flesh (inner) side.

Enameled Glass
Decorated with particles of translucent, usually coloured, glass or glass-like material, which fuses to the surface under heat. Multicoloured designs as well as monochrome coatings can be created.

Enamelling
The process of applying vitreous enamel to a metal surface and firing to form a smooth, glossy surface. The most commonly used enamelling metal is copper, although silver, iron, some steels and gold are used for particular purposes.

Epoxy
A plastic coating applied to the surface of metal which may look like enameling.

Etched Glass
Glass decorated or otherwise marked by the use of time in boiling water.

Fabrication
making an object in parts and assembling it to form a whole.

Faille
A woven cotton, rayon or silk fabric showing a slight ribbing.

Felting
( 1 ) Fabric made of unspun wool (sometimes with fur and other natural or synthetic fibers) which is matted together with moisture, heat and pressure. (2) A fabric resembling this, such as highly napped cotton.

Flameware
A flameproof ware, as distinct from ovenware.

Flesh Side
The side of the leather that was closest to the musculature of the animal; the inner side.

Forged
The process of thickening, thinning or shaping metal by hammering while at a red or white heat in blacksmithing, but usually cold in jewelry.

Forming
Flat metal is given contour by bending or depressing it; the thickness of the metal is unaltered.

Free Blown (Freehand Blown)
Glassware shaped by air pressure, such as mouth-blowing through a metal tube ('pipe') to which molten glass adheres.

Fumed Glass (or fuming technique)
Glass is exposed to acid fumes which give the surface an iridescent look popularized by the Art Nouveau glassmakers.

Glass Applique (or Glass Mosaic)
Antique glass is bonded to a base sheet of clear glass.

Glassblowing
Technique by which molten glass is blown into various shapes and then cooled to a solid state.

Glaze
A coating of glass that gives pottery a smooth a brilliant surface. After the glaze is applied (usually applied by dipping, pouring or spraying) the pot is fired again in order to fuse the glaze and vitrify the clay body of the piece.

Glue-Resist
A decorative technique in which a removable glue is applied to the leather before it is dyed. The dye cannot penetrate the glue protected areas.

Graal Technique
Glass which is 'blown twice.' Glass is made with a colour overlay which is then cut, etched or sandblasted with a decoration. The piece is subjected again to the heat of the furnace to impart fluidity and smoothness to the design and then encased in lead crystal.

Granulation
Tiny balls of metal heat-fused to a metal surface without the use of solder.

Grisaille ("grih-Zl")
Enameling made by firing various layers of fine, white, opaque enamel on an opaque black background.

Hand Built
The finished object is assembled by hand. It may include wheel thrown, cast, coiled and/or slab elements.

Hand-screened
Stencil-printed cloth to which one or more colours are applied by hand through stretched, fine meshed 'screens' of silk or organdy. The mesh is blocked where colour is not wanted.

Harness
The frame of a loom upon which the heddles are placed. Warp threads are drawn through the eyes of the heddles, which move up and down as he shuttle with the weft yarn passes by. The movement of the heddles determines the pattern.

Haute Lisse
High warp technique of weaving done on a vertical loom, used predominantly in the Gobelin factories in Paris.

Holloware
Vessels, such as bowls and pitchers.

Holtzapffel Lathe
A traditional woodturning machine with carving attachments powered by the lathe instead of by hand; used for ornamental or decorative work.

Hot Glass
Glass worked in its molten state directly from the furnace, usually in three dimensions. The term is used in opposition to 'Stained Glass, which is usually flat worked cold.

Ikat
Yarn which is either tie-dyed or painted before being woven into fabric.

Inlay
A technique of decoration in which the object is incised with a design, a coloured clay is pressed into the incisions, and the piece is then scraped to confine the coloured inlay to the incisions.

Jig Saw
A narrow saw mounted vertically in a frame for cutting curves or other difficult lines.

Jointing
The single most important aspect of construction which determines the strength and durability of the finished piece.

Kiln
The most important piece of equipment in a ceramist's studio, the kiln may be fired by electricity, gas, oil or wood and may be constructed by the artist herself.

Laminated
Composed of thin layers of veneers or laminations of wood glued together for strength, thickness or decoration. An excellent way of achieving bent wood shapes, as the individual laminations can be bent to a curve before gluing together under pressure.

Laminating
A technique of bonding layers of leather together under pressure for strength, thickness or visual effect.

Lamp Work
The technique of manipulating glass by heating it with a small flame.

Lapidary
The art of cutting, polishing and engraving precious stones.

Lasting
A water-forming process in which the damp leather is forced over a mold and clamped or nailed in place until dry. When dry, the leather retains the molded shape.

Leaded Glass
Glass containing a percentage of lead oxide, which increases its density and improves its ability to refract and disperse light. It is used for ornaments, decorative and luxury tableware.

Lost Wax Casting
A one-time reproduction process in which an object (as of wax) is impressed into sand or surrounded with a special plaster to make a mold. The wax is burned out, and molten metal takes the form of the 'lost' wax.

Low Fire Glazes
Low-temperature finishes, usually associated with bright and shiny colours.

Low Fired
Clay fired at a temperature sufficient to fuse it into a solid mass, but too low to make it completely non-absorbent.

Luster
A metallic or iridescent effect resulting from the application of a thin film of metallic oxide.

Mark
The unique identifying symbol of the maker, distinguishing source and quality.

Marquetry
Decorative patterns formed when thin layers of wood (and sometimes other materials such as ivory) are inlaid into the surface, usually of furniture.

Married
Metal Patterns or imagery developed by joining various coloured alloys, such as of bronze, copper and silver adjacent to one another.

Mat(te) Glaze
A non gloss or dull-surface glaze.

Mortise
A notch, hole, groove or slot made in a piece of wood to receive a tenon of the same dimensions.

Off-Hand Blown Glass
That which is shaped and finished by blowing and with hand tools rather than by using molds.

Overshot
A distinct weaving pattern or the technique for achieving it. It involves a special loom threading and the use of heavy yarn (alternating with inner yarn) in the weft or narrow direction.

Oxidation (or Oxidation Fired)
Firing ceramic ware at high temperatures and without adjusting the atmosphere inside the kiln. It results in lighter, brighter colourations of glazes.

Oxidize
Natural darkening and colouring of metal when exposed to oxides in the air. Can be accelerated or controlled for effect.

Patina
(1) A surface colouring, usually brown or green, produced by oxidation of bronze or other metal. It occurs naturally or can be produced artificially for decorative effect.

Plangi
Woven fabric pattern-decorated by tie-dyeing: that is, by tying or knotting parts of the fabric so that it will not absorb the dye.

Plique-a-Jour ("PLEEK-ah-ZHOOR")
Enameling in which transparent enamels fill small openings in metal, suggesting stained glass windows.

Polishing
The pores of the wood are sealed, enhancing the appearance of the piece by bringing out the grain and surface characteristics of teh wood, and providing resistance against heat or spilled liquids.

Polymer Clay
A modeling compound made primarily of plastic materials that is finished by baking at low temperatures.

Porcelain
An off-white clay that is very low in impurities, it is fired at high temperatures, between 1330C and 1500C. Generally translucent and delicate-looking it is often decorated in pastel shades.

Raised
Hammering a flat sheet of metal into a container-type form.

Raku
Porous earthenware originally made in Japan, it is covered with a lead glaze, fired at very low temperature until the glaze melts, and then taken out with tongs and quickly cooled. The clay is porous and soft, tends to be asymmetrical and is sometimes very organic in form. The lazes are cracked and frequently lustrous or iridescent.

Ram Pressed
Clay pressed into a mold by a machine allowing multiple reproduction of the same design.

Reduction (or Reduction Fired)
Firing ceramic ware at high temperatures and in the presence of added carbon to reduce the percentage of oxygen in the kiln. This produces muted and subtle colour variations.