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Superglossary - Health
Category: Health and Medicine > Disease
Date & country: 18/12/2013, US
Words: 200


Acute
Occurring over a short time [compare with chronic].

Acute Exposure
Contact with a substance that occurs once or for only a short time (up to 14 days) [compare with int

Additive Effect
A biologic response to exposure to multiple substances that equals the sum of responses of all the i

Adverse Health Effect
A change in body function or cell structure that might lead to disease or health problems

Analytic Epidemiologic Study
A study that evaluates the association between exposure to hazardous substances and disease by testi

Antagonistic Effect
A biologic response to exposure to multiple substances that is less than would be expected if the kn

Antibiotic
A chemical substance that kills or suppresses the growth of microorganisms. Antibiotics are designe

Antibiotic Resistance
The ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic.

Antigen
A molecule that can stimulate an immune response.

Antigen Drift
The random accumulation of mutations in viral genes recognized by the immune system. Such accumulat

Antiviral
A chemical substance that kills or suppresses the growth of viruses. Antivirals are designed to be t

Asymptomatic
Individuals who are infected by a disease but do not show any of the typical symptoms.

BCG
Bacille Calmette-Gu

Beta-Lactam Antibiotics
A broad class of antibiotics which include penicillin and its derivatives. They are the most widely

Bilious Fever
A term loosely applied to certain intestinal and malarial fevers. See typhus.

Biodegradation
Decomposition or breakdown of a substance through the action of microorganisms (such as bacteria or

Biomedical Testing
Testing of persons to find out whether a change in a body function might have occurred because of ex

Body Burden
The total amount of a substance in the body. Some substances build up in the body because they are s

Boil
An abscess of skin or painful inflammation of the skin or a hair follicle usually caused by a staphy

Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever
A zoonotic infectious disease of man caused by a virus and transmitted to man via rodents.

Borrelia Burgdorferi
The bacterial causative agent of Lyme disease.

Broad Street Outbreak
(1854) The London Cholera outbreak investigated by John Snow that was the first epidemiological inv

Buboe
Infected lymph nodes associated with the bubonic plague.

Bubonic Plague
A zoonotic disease vectored by fleas. Rodents form the reservoir species.

Cancer Risk
A theoretical risk for getting cancer if exposed to a substance every day for 70 years (a lifetime e

Carrier
An infected individual who shows no obvious signs of clinical disease but can infect other susceptib

CAS Registry Number
A unique number assigned to a substance or mixture by the American Chemical Society Abstracts Servic

Case Definition
A case definition is the method by which public health professionals define who is included as a cas

Case Study
A medical or epidemiologic evaluation of one person or a small group of people to gather information

Case-Control Study
A study that compares exposures of people who have a disease or condition (cases) with people who do

Central Nervous System
The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord.

Cholera
An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Transmission to humans occurs through

Chronic Disease
A disease that is long-lasting or recurrent.

Chronic Exposure
Contact with a substance that occurs over a long time (more than 1 year) [compare with acute exposur

Clostridium Perfringens
A ubiquitous soil bacteria that can cause a deadly infection known as gas gangrene when it infects w

Coinfection
Simultaneous infection with two or more different diseases. In virology the term is used to describe

Colic
Paroxysmal pain in the abdomen or bowels. Infantile colic is benign paroxysmal abdominal pain during

Common Source Epidemic
A common source epidemic occurs when a group of people is exposed to a single common source of infec

Community Assistance Panel (CAP)
A group of people from a community and from health and environmental agencies who work with ATSDR to

Competence (For Bacteria)
The ability of a cell to take up extracellular ('naked') DNA from its environment.

Competence (For Hosts)
The efficiency with which a host acquires and spreads a pathogen.

Complex Life Cycle
A parasite that requires multiple different host species to complete its life cycle.

Congestion
An excessive or abnormal accumulation of blood or other fluid in a body part or blood vessel. In con

Conjugation
The transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell-to-cell contact

Consumption
A wasting away of the body; formerly applied especially to pulmonary tuberculosis

Contaminant
A substance that is either present in an environment where it does not belong or is present at level

Continuous Epidemic
A continuous epidemic occurs when a group of people is exposed to a single common source of infectio

Cyst (Bacteria)
A resting or dormant stage in bacteria.

Cytokine
A substance that is produced by cells of the immune system and can affect the immune response.

Cytokine Storm
A potentially fatal immune reaction caused by highly elevated levels of various cytokines

Dead End Host
A host from which infectious agents are not transmitted to other susceptible hosts

Debility
Abnormal bodily weakness or feebleness; decay of strength. This was a term descriptive of a patient'

Definitive Host
The host in which the sexual reproduction of a parasite takes place

Delayed Health Effect
A disease or an injury that happens as a result of exposures that might have occurred in the past.

Detection Limit
The lowest concentration of a chemical that can reliably be distinguished from a zero concentration.

Diphtheria
An acute infectious disease acquired by contact with an infected person or a carrier of the disease.

Disease Prevention
Measures used to prevent a disease or reduce its severity.

Disease Registry
A system of ongoing registration of all cases of a particular disease or health condition in a defin

DNA Virus
A virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.

Dose (Not Radioactive)
The amount of a substance to which a person is exposed over some time period. Dose is a measurement

Dose (Radioactive Chemicals)
The radiation dose is the amount of energy from radiation that is actually absorbed by the body. Thi

Dose-Response Relationship
The relationship between the amount of exposure [dose] to a substance and the resulting changes in b

Dropsy
A contraction for hydropsy. The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid. Congestive heart fail

Dysentery
A term given to a number of disorders marked by inflammation of the intestines (especially of the co

Ebola
Ebola is the common term for a group of viruses belonging to the genus Ebolavirus in the family Fil

Eclampsia
A form of toxemia (toxins--or poisons--in the blood) accompanying pregnancy. See dropsy.

Ecosystem Service
The quantifiable services that an ecosystem provides to humans.

Endemic
The constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area.

Endogenous Retrovirus
Integrated retroviruses derived from infection of the germline (egg or sperm) of an ancestral organi

Epidemic
The occurrence in an area of a disease or illness in excess of what may be expected on the basis of

Epidemic Curve
A histogram that describes an outbreak of disease by plotting the number of cases of a disease by da

Epidemiology
The study of the distribution and determinants of disease or health status in a population; the stud

Epizootic
The term used for an epidemic that occurs within an animal population.

Evolution
A change in the inherited traits of a population from one generation to the next.

Exposure Investigation
The collection and analysis of site-specific information and biologic tests (when appropriate) to de

Exposure Registry
A system of ongoing followup of people who have had documented environmental exposures.

Exposure-Dose Reconstruction
A method of estimating the amount of people's past exposure to hazardous substances. Computer and ap

Feasibility Study
A study by EPA to determine the best way to clean up environmental contamination. A number of factor

Filovirus
A family of RNA viruses that target primates. There are two genera

Fomite
An inanimate object capable of carrying infectious organisms and hence transferring them from one in

Gas Gangrene
A very unpleasant way to die. Gas gangrene is a deadly bacterial infection usually caused by Clostri

Genotype
A description of the genetic constitution of an individual.

Germ Theory
The theory that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. Highly controversial when first propo

Golden Age Of Microbiology
(dates vary ~ 1850-1890) A period of tremendous advances in microbiology with consequences for epide

Grand Rounds
Training sessions for physicians and other health care providers about health topics.

Great Stink
(1858) The Great Stink or The Big Stink was a time in the summer of 1858 during which the smell of u

Groundwater
Water beneath the earth's surface in the spaces between soil particles and between rock surfaces [co

Hantavirus
The virus causative agent of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. A zoontic disease with a reservoi

Hazardous Waste
Potentially harmful substances that have been released or discarded into the environment.

Health Consultation
A review of available information or collection of new data to respond to a specific health question

Health Education
Programs designed with a community to help it know about health risks and how to reduce these risks.

Health Investigation
The collection and evaluation of information about the health of community residents. This informati

Hemagglutinin
One of the enzymes found on the surface of the Influenza virus. It is responsible for binding the vi

Hemorrhagic Fever
The viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses that are cause

Herd Immunity
A type of community protection from disease that occurs when the vaccination of a portion of the pop

Horizontal Transmission
Transmission of an infection between members of the same species that are not in a parent-child rela

Hospital Acquired Infection
Nosocomial infections are infections which are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare s

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
A diverse group of viruses that infect the skin and mucous membranes of humans and a variety of anim

Immunity
Having sufficient biological defenses to avoid a specific disease.

Immunization
The process of rendering an individual protected (immune) against a certain disease. Vaccination is