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Superglossary - Architecture
Category: Architecture and Buildings
Date & country: 16/12/2013, US
Words: 1135


Pesticide
A substance used to kill, control, repel, or mitigate any pest. Insecticides, fungicides, rodenticid

Pesticide Data Program (PDP)
A program initiated in 1991 by the Agricultural Marketing Service to collect pesticide residue data

Pesticide Residue Tolerance
The amount of pesticide residue allowed by regulation to remain in or on a food sold in interstate c

Pesticide Resistance
The evolutionary capacity of pests exposed to a pesticide to develop resistance to that pesticide. S

Pfiesteria Piscicida
A microbe that has been linked to massive fish kills in Maryland, Delaware and North Carolina. Some

Ph
An expression of the intensity of the basic or acidic condition of a liquid or of soil

Phosphorus
An essential nutrient for plants and animals that is commonly applied to crops as a phosphate fertil

Phytoremediation
The systematic use of plants to treat environmental contamination. It is being investigated as a pot

Plant Hardiness Zones
The USDA has divided North America into 11 hardiness zones based on average annual minimum temperatu

Plant Quarantine
A technique for insuring disease (and pest) free plants by isolating them during a period while perf

Plant Quarantine Act
Originally enacted in 1912, this Act gives the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service authority

Plant Regulator
A chemical that affects the physiological behavior of plants, for example through accelerating or re

Plant-Pesticide
As proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (November 23, 1994), plant-pesticides are all sub

Point
A measure of price change equal to 1/100 of one cent in most futures contracts traded in decimal uni

Point Source Pollution
Pollutants that are discharged or emitted from discrete 'point' sources, such as pipes and smokestac

Pollution
Alteration of the environment, as through the introduction of hazardous or detrimental substances, h

Pork Bellies
One of the major cuts of the hog carcass that, when cured, becomes bacon. Futures contracts for pork

Posted County Price (PCP)
This price is calculated for wheat and feed grains for each county by the Farm Service Agency. The P

Postharvest
Refers to activities in the food and fiber sector that occur after agricultural products are sold fr

Postmortem Inspection
As used in the meat and poultry inspection program, the phrase refers to the inspection that Food Sa

Poundage Quota
A quantitative limit on the amount of a commodity that can be marketed (also called a marketing quot

Poverty Guidelines
These are monthly or annual income amounts that are used to help determine eligibility for a number

Poverty Thresholds
For statistical purposes (e.g., counting the poor population), the Census Bureau uses a set of annua

Prairie Potholes
A type of wetland that is at the center of a shallow depression characteristic of glaciated areas in

Precision Farming
Farmers use global positioning (GPS) technology involving satellites and sensors on the ground and i

Preferential Trade Agreements
Agreements among a group of countries to extend special trading advantages, usually tariff rates tha

Preharvest
Refers to activities on the farm or ranch that occur before crop or livestock products are sold. 'Pr

Preproduction Expenses
Expenses incurred prior to the period when a farm activity begins producing, primarily raising orcha

Prevented Planting Acreage
Land on which a farmer intended to plant a program crop or insurable crop, but was unable to because

Price Elasticity Of Demand
The relationship between the change in the price of a commodity and the corresponding change in the

Price Index
Current price expressed as a proportion to the same price in an earlier time period, commonly called

Price Support
Programs operated by USDA that are intended to raise farm prices when supply exceeds demand and pric

Prices Paid Index
An index that measures changes in the prices paid for goods and services used in crop and livestock

Prices Received Index
An index that measures changes in the prices received for crops and livestock. NASS currently publis

Prime Farmland
Land that is best suited to and available for the production of food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilse

Prior Appropriations
The system of water allocation used primarily in the arid western United States, where water is scar

Prior Converted Wetland
Under the swampbuster program, these are wetlands that were converted to cropland before swampbuster

Privacy (Information)
The right to control the disclosure of personal information

Producer Subsidy Equivalent (PSE)
A measure of the value of monetary transfers to agricultural producers resulting from agricultural p

Production Contract
These contracts specify who supplies the production inputs, the quality and quantity of the commodit

Production Credit Association (PCA)
Farm Credit System institutions that have direct lending authority to make short and intermediate te

Production Expenses
Measures the aggregate business cost of farming. The two main components are current farm operating

Production Flexibility Contract
A 7-year contract covering crop years 1996-2002, authorized by the FAIR Act of 1996 between the CCC

Productivity
A measure of technical efficiency, typically expressed as the added output for an additional unit of

Program Crops
Crops eligible for deficiency payments under commodity program provisions that ended in 1995. These

Program Yield
The farm commodity yield of record, determined, in general, by averaging the yield of a particular c

Projected Yield
The number of bushels (or pounds or hundredweight) per acre that, based on current weather estimates

Promotion Program
Any program by an approved commodity promotion board or marketing order, including paid advertising,

Prorate
A quantity provision in a fruit or vegetable marketing order that is intended to even out weekly shi

Pseudorabies
A disease of swine that can cause severe economic losses due to reproductive problems and fatal infe

Public Elevators
Grain elevators in which bulk storage of grain is provided for the public for a fee. Grain of the sa

Public Lands
As defined in the Federal Land Policy and Management Act, public lands are any land and interest in

Puerto Rico Block Grant
A federal nutrition assistance grant program provided in lieu of the regular food stamp program in P

Purchaser Road Credits
Credits granted to purchasers of timber in the national forests in exchange for the construction of

Put Option
An option contract to sell a futures contract at an agreed price and time at any time until the expi

Qualified Through Verification
An AMS pilot program (since 1996) for the fresh-cut produce industry, enabling them to gain official

Quantitative Restrictions
Quantitative restrictions are limitations on the quantity or value of a product that may be permitte

Quarantine
A restraint on importation of certain animals or plants from areas where pests or contagious disease

Range Betterment Fund
Money collected from livestock grazing on federal lands and used for rangeland improvements. The Bur

Rangeland
Land on which the natural potential (climax) plant cover is principally native grasses, grasslike pl

Ratite
A family of large flightless birds that include ostriches, emus, and rheas, which U.S. farmers are b

Raw Agricultural Product
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act defines this term as 'any food in its raw or natural state,

Reclamation
The process of rehabilitating disturbed lands, or converting unproductive lands to productive uses.

Reclamation Act Of 1902
P.L. 57-161 (June 17, 1902), as amended, appropriated the receipts from the sale and disposal of pub

Reclamation Fund
A special fund established by Congress under the Reclamation Act of 1902, as amended, for receipts f

Reclamation Law
The body of law beginning with the Reclamation Act of 1902 that governs investigation, construction,

Recombinant DNA (Rdna)
The technique of isolating DNA molecules and inserting them into the DNA of a cell ('recombining DNA

Recourse Loan Program
Under the FAIR Act of 1996, recourse loans are available to producers of high moisture corn and seed

Recycle - Reuse
Minimizing waste generation by recovering and reprocessing usable products that might otherwise beco

Reduced Price Lunch
A federally reimbursable meal (or snack) served to a child who applies for and qualifies because the

Reentry Interval
The period of time immediately following the application of a pesticide during which unprotected wor

Referendum
In agriculture, referendum generally refers to a vote by farmers on whether to approve or disapprove

Regionalization
Countries generally have prohibited imports of a foreign agricultural product if it has been associa

Registrant
Any manufacturer or formulator of a pesticide who obtains registration for an active ingredient or p

Registration
The Environmental Protection Agency approval of a new pesticide for specific uses before it can be s

Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA)
P.L. 96-354 (September 19,1964) requires federal agencies to consider the special needs and concerns

Remote Sensing
The act of detecting objects when the sensor is not in direct contact

Renewable Resources
Natural resources, sometimes called flow resources, that replenish themselves within time limits tha

Repayment Contract
A contract between a water user

Reregistration
The reevaluation and reapproval by the Environmental Protection Agency of pesticides originally regi

Reserve Pool
A quantity provision in a fruit or vegetable marketing order that requires that some marketable supp

Residual Supplier
A country that supplies the world market only after importers have met their initial needs from pref

Resource Management Plan (RMP)
A BLM planning document, prepared in accordance with Section 202 of the Federal Land Policy and Mana

Restricted-Use Pesticides
A pesticide may be classified for restricted use if it requires special handling because of its toxi

Return Flow
Surface and subsurface water that leaves the field following application of irrigation water. While

Revenue Assurance (RA)
A form of revenue insurance that protects a grower of an insurable crop whenever low prices, low yie

Revenue Insurance
A crop insurance program that provides coverage to producers against lost revenues (or incomes) caus

Revolving Loan Program
A program that uses the repayments of existing loans to make additional loans to qualified borrowers

Right-To-Farm Laws (Nuisance)
Right to farm laws deny nuisance suits against farmers who use accepted and standard farming practic

Rill Erosion
An erosion process in which numerous small channels, typically a few inches deep, are formed. It occ

Riparian
Pertaining to or situated on or along the bank of a stream or other body of water. Often referred to

Riparian Buffer
A strip of vegetation along the bank of a body of water which slows the rate of flow of runoff from

Riparian Rights
The system of water allocation used in the humid eastern portion of the United States. Water may be

Risk Assessment
The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of risks posed to health or the environment that arise f

Risk Management
The process of deciding whether and how to manage risks. Public risk management requires considerati

Risk Management Agency
An independent office within USDA that is responsible for the supervision of the Federal Crop Insura

Risk-Benefit Analysis
Comparison of the short- and long-term risks to the overall societal benefits of an activity, chemic

Rodenticide
A pesticide used to destroy, control, or deter mice and rats or other rodent pests from damaging foo

Rotational (Intensive) Grazing
Pasturing system that allows short periods of heavy use, followed by a recovery period

RPA Assessment - Program
As required by the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974, the Forest Service