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Superglossary - Architecture
Category: Architecture and Buildings
Date & country: 16/12/2013, US
Words: 1141


Fumonosin
A mycotoxin that can cause liver and brain damage in horses.

Fund For Rural America
A fund established by the FAIR Act of 1996 to augment existing resources for agricultural research a

Fungibility
The characteristic of interchangeability. Bulk commodities are generally described as fungible, wher

Fungicide
Any pesticide used to control, deter, or destroy fungi, which are forms of plant life (including mol

Furrow Irrigation
Small, shallow channels guide water across the surface of a leveled field. Crops are typically grown

Futures Contract
A standardized agreement calling for deferred delivery of a commodity, or its equivalent, entered th

Futures Price
(1) Commonly held to mean the price of a commodity for future delivery that is traded on a futures e

Gasohol
Registered trade name for a blend consisting of 90% unleaded gasoline and 10% fermentation ethanol.

General Sales Manager (GSM)
General Sales Manager of the Foreign Agricultural Service. This office administers the export credit

Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS)
A regulatory category created for a group of food additives that were exempted from the more rigorou

Generic Advertising And Promotion
The promotion of a particular commodity without reference to a specific producer, brand name, or man

Generic Certificates
Commodity certificates used by the CCC in the 1980s to meet payment obligations and simultaneously d

Genetic Engineering
The use of recombinant DNA or other specific molecular gene transfer or exchange techniques to add d

Genome
All the genetic material in the chromosomes of a particular organism. USDA

Geographic Information System (GIS)
Computerized systems used to compile, retrieve, analyze, and display spatially referenced data. Farm

Germicide
Any compound that kills disease-causing microorganisms. Germicides must be registered by the Environ

Gleaning
Collecting unharvested crops from fields or obtaining unused agricultural products from farmers, pro

Global Positioning System (GPS)
A network of satellites that can be used by ground-based units to precisely determine their location

Good Manufacturing Practices (Gmps)
Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations and used by the Food and Drug Administration

Good Samaritan Laws
With respect to food and agriculture programs, these laws are designed to encourage the donation of

Grade A Milk
Milk produced under sufficiently sanitary conditions to qualify for fluid (beverage) consumption. Al

Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance
Minimum standards and requirements for Grade A milk production and processing are outlined in the Gr

Grades And Standards
The segregation, or classification, of agricultural commodities into groupings that share common cha

Grading Certificates
A formal document setting forth the quality of a commodity as determined by authorized inspectors or

Grain Reserve
A phrase that might refer to the food security commodity reserve, food security wheat reserve, the f

Grange
The Order of the Patrons of Husbandry.

Granger-Thye Act Of 1950
P.L. 81-478 (April 24, 1950) established a new direction for some aspects of National Forest System

Grassed Waterway
A generally broad and shallow depression planted with erosion-resistant grasses, which is used to co

Grazing District
An administrative unit of BLM-managed rangelands established by the Secretary of the Interior under

Grazing Fee
A charge, usually on a monthly basis, for grazing a specific kind of livestock. For federal lands, t

Grazing Permit-License-Lease
Official written permission to graze a specific number, kind, and class of livestock for a specified

Grazing Preference
The status of qualified holders of grazing permits acquired by grant, prior use, or purchase, that e

Grazing Privilege
The benefit or advantage enjoyed by a person or company beyond the common advantage of other citizen

Green Box Policies
Domestic or trade policies that are deemed to be minimally trade-distorting and that are excluded fr

Greenhouse Effect
The hypothesized warming of the Earth

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Gross domestic product is a measure of the total production and consumption of goods and services in

Gross Farm Income
The monetary and non-monetary income received by farm operators. Its main components include cash re

Gross Processing Margin (GPM)
This refers to the difference between the cost of a commodity and the combined sales income of the f

Groundwater
The water from wells and underground aquifers. An estimated 95% of the drinking water used in rural

Group Of Seven (G-7)
An international economic forum, established in 1975, for leaders of the seven largest industrial co

Group Risk Income Protection (GRIP)
A county-based revenue insurance program, that is a variation of Group Risk Protection (GRP). GRIP p

Group Risk Protection (GRP)
A form of crop insurance available in certain parts of the country that makes an indemnity payment t

Growing Season
The time period, usually measured in days, between the last freeze in the spring and the first frost

GSM-5 Direct Export Credit Program
A federal export assistance program once operated by the Foreign Agricultural Service. Loans were ma

Guaranteed Export Credit
A Commodity Credit Corporation guarantee of commercial export credit is available through several ex

Gully Erosion
Also called ephemeral gully erosion, this process occurs when water flows in narrow channels during

Habitat
The place where a population (e.g., human, animal, plant, microorganism) lives, characterized by phy

Habitat Conservation Plans (Hcps)
Plans prepared under the Endangered Species Act, by nonfederal parties wishing to obtain permits for

Handler
Generally, the first buyer of a farmer

Harmonization
The process of establishment, recognition, and application of internationally recognized measures or

Harmonized System
The international classification system for goods, implemented by most countries on January 1, 1998,

Hart-Scott-Rodino
The Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976 establishes a notification and review proce

Harvested Acres
The cropland actually harvested for a particular crop, usually somewhat smaller at the national leve

Hatch Act Of 1887
The permanent statute (24 Stat. 440) authorizing federal funds to state agricultural experiment stat

Haying And Grazing Rules
Under previous commodity support law, farmers were permitted, for limited time periods (usually duri

Head Month
A month

Headwaters
The source, or upper part, of a stream. Often used in discussing water rights related to wilderness

Hectare (Ha)
A metric measure of area equal to 10,000 square meters. One hectare=2.47 acres. One acre=0.405 hecta

Hedging
Taking a position in a futures market opposite to a position held in the cash market to minimize the

Herbicide
Any pesticide used to destroy or inhibit plant growth

Heritage Rivers Protection Program
A Clinton Administration initiative to deliver federal resources more efficiently and effectively th

High Moisture Feed Grains
Corn and grain sorghum must have moisture content below CCC standards in order to qualify for market

High Value Products (HVP)
Agricultural products that are high in value, often but not necessarily due to processing. Hvps can

High-Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)
Produced from converting to fructose a portion of naturally occurring glucose in starch produced fro

Highly Erodible Land (HEL)
Land that is very susceptible to erosion, including fields that have at least 1/3 or 50 acres of soi

Hog-Corn Ratio (Corn-Hog Ratio)
Number of bushels of corn equal in value to 100 pounds of live hogs (feed ratio). Put another way, t

Holding Pond
A pond or reservoir, usually made of earth, built to store polluted runoff.

Homestead Protection
When a USDA farm loan borrower lacks the financial resources to make payments on a delinquent loan,

Honey Program
Non-recourse marketing loans had long been available to support honey prices until FY1994, when the

Honey Recourse Loan Program
A program authorized by the emergency provisions of the FY1999 USDA appropriations act (P.L. 105-277

Horse Protection Act
P.L. 91-540 (December 9,1970), as amended, makes it a crime to exhibit, or transport for the purpose

Horticultural Specialty Crops
The Census of Agriculture includes as 'horticultural specialties' bedding plants, florists

Household (Foodstamp)
A food stamp household is composed of all those who purchase food and prepare meals in common. All r

Housing Act Of 1949
Title V of P.L. 81-171 (October 25, 1949) authorized USDA to make loans to farmers to construct, imp

Hundredweight
One hundred pounds (abbreviated as cwt.). A standard unit of measure for milk, rice, and some meat l

Hunger - Food Insecurity
An economic definition is the lack of food due to the limited or uncertain availability of nutrition

Hunger Prevention Act Of 1988
P.L. 100-435 (September 19, 1988) amended the Temporary Emergency Food Assistance Act of 1983 to req

Hydric Soil
Soil that, in its undrained state, is flooded long enough during a growing season to develop anaerob

Hydroponics
The growing of plants without soil by using an inert medium such as sand, peat, or vermiculite and a

Hypoxia
A low oxygen condition in the water that may occur where a nutrient-laden free-flowing body of water

Hypoxie Zone
An area in the Gulf of Mexico off the mouth of the Mississippi River covering about 6,000 square mil

Identity Preserved (IP)
This is the designation given to bulk commodities marketed in a manner that isolates and preserves t

Import Duty
A customs duty is a charge assessed by a government on an imported item at its point of customs entr

Import Fee
Generally, an import fee is a charge assessed for a service rendered. For example, when an import st

Import License
A document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of specified

Import Quota
A trade barrier that sets the maximum quantity (quantitative restriction) or value of a commodity al

Import Quotas
A quantitative limit placed on the importation of specific commodities. The protection afforded by q

Import Safeguards
A trade policy tool available to temporarily increase border protection for designated commodities a

Incentive Payments
Direct payments made to producers of wool and mohair, which were similar to deficiency payments made

Income Insurance
A concept, similar to revenue insurance, that envisions an insurance program that would insure farm

Income Protection (IP)
A form of revenue insurance that protects a grower of an insurable crop whenever low prices, low yie

Income Support
Generally, programs providing direct, income-supplementing payments to farmers. Intended to protect

Indemnity Payment
The payment that eligible producers receive if they realize a qualifying crop loss under crop insura

Industrial Crops
Crops that primarily have industrial applications in contrast to food or livestock feed uses. Indust

Industrialization
When used in agriculture, this term generally refers to the consolidation of farms into very large p

Inert Ingredient
Pesticide components such as solvents, carriers, dispersants, and surfactants that are not active ag

Infant Formula Cost-Containment
Refers to statutory provisions in the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 that require state WIC agencies to

Infiltration
The downward entry of water into soil. Also called percolation. A high rate of infiltration means th

Infoshare
USDA established this program in 1993 to merge and coordinate the business management and informatio

Insecticide
A pesticide used to kill, deter, or control insects.