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Superglossary - Architecture
Category: Architecture and Buildings
Date & country: 16/12/2013, US
Words: 1141


Delivery Point
A location where a commodity can be delivered to fulfill a futures contract.

Demurrage
The charge that a shipper may be required to pay for detaining a rail car (or water carrier) longer

Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
USDA was originally established in 1862 and raised to cabinet status in 1889. In FY1997 it had an em

Department Of The Interior (DOI)
This cabinet-level agency, also known as the Home Department, was created on March 3, 1849 by an Act

Dermal Toxicity
The ability of a pesticide or other chemical to poison people or animals via skin contact. Many orga

Desiccant
A chemical agent that absorbs moisture

Designated Uses Of Water
Water uses identified in state water quality standards that must be achieved and maintained as requi

Desired Future Condition
Used to describe the future condition of federal forests and rangeland resources that meet managemen

Desired Plant Community
The plant community that has been determined through a land use or management plan to best meet the

Developing Countries
A country with a low per capita income. Terms such as less developed country, least developed countr

Development Easement
A legal agreement by which a landowner surrenders the right to develop a designated parcel of proper

Dietary Guidelines For Americans
Dietary recommendations for healthy Americans age 2 and older about food choices that promote health

Dietary Supplements
Defined by law as a vitamin, mineral, herb, botanical, an amino acid, a dietary substance added to s

Diethylstibestrol (DES)
A synthetic estrogen hormone. DES was used widely in the United States as a growth promoter in cattl

Differential Assessment
Basing the valuation of farmland for property tax purposes on its use for farming rather than on its

Dioxin
Any of a group of toxic chlorinated compounds known chemically as dibenzo-p-dioxins (or the most tox

Direct Payments
Payments (usually in cash but sometimes in commodity certificates) made directly to producers in con

Direct Runoff
Water that flows over the ground surface or through the ground directly into streams, rivers, and la

Disaster Payments
Direct federal payments provided to crop producers when either planting is prevented or crop yields

Discharge
In water resources, the term refers to the flow of surface water in a stream or canal or the outflow

Disease Vectors
Plants or animals that harbor and carry disease organisms which may attack crops or livestock.

Dispute Settlement Body (DSB)
The General Council of the World Trade Organization, composed of all member countries, convenes as t

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
The oxygen freely available in water, vital to fish and other aquatic life and necessary for the pre

Diversion Payments
Payments once but no longer made to farmers who voluntarily reduced their planted acreage of a progr

Dockage
A factor in the grading of grains and oilseeds

Doctrine Of Prior Appropriation
Water rights doctrine adopted by most western states, giving the first person to use water from a st

Domestic Farm Labor
Individuals (and the family) who receive a substantial portion of their income from the production o

Domestic Price
The price at which a commodity trades within a country, in contrast to the world price. For those co

Double Cropping
The practice of consecutively producing two crops of either like or unlike commodities on the same l

Downer (Or Downed Animals)
Commonly used term for animals that are disabled due to illness or injury. A longstanding issue is w

Drainage
Improving the productivity of agricultural land by removing excess water from the soil by such means

Drainage Basin
The area of land that drains water, sediment, and dissolved materials to a common outlet at some poi

Drainage Wells
Wells drilled to carry excess water off agricultural fields. Because they act as a funnel from the s

Dryland Farming
A system of producing crops in semi-arid regions (usually with less than 20 inches of annual rainfal

Dumping
Selling commodities in a foreign market at a lower price than in the domestic market. Under World Tr

Durum Wheat
A species of wheat distinct from wheat used to make bread and other bakery products. The hard, flint

Easement
A landowner sells or surrenders the right to develop a portion of the property, usually in return fo

Economic Research Service (ERS)
USDA

Economies Of Size
The concept that the average cost of production per unit declines as the size of the operation grows

Ecosystem
A functioning community of nature that includes fauna and flora together with the chemical and physi

Effluent
Waste, usually liquid, released or discharged to the environment. Generally the term refers to point

Effluent Limitation
An Environmental Protection Agency 'standard of performance' reflecting the maximum degree of discha

Elderly And Disabled
For food stamp purposes

Elevator
A tall warehouse facility that uses vertical conveyors to raise or elevate grain, generally owned pr

Embargo
A government-ordered prohibition or limitation on trade with another country. Under an embargo, all

Emergency Conservation Program
A program administered by the Farm Service Agency to help farmers to rehabilitate farmland damaged b

Emergency Feeding Agency
This refers to an organization serving the food needs of the poor and unemployed that is designated

Emergency Livestock Feed Programs
The USDA was given permanent authority by the Disaster Assistance Act of 1988 to implement an array

Emerging Markets Program
A program originally authorized by the FACT Act of 1990, and titled the Emerging Democracies Program

Emission
Waste released or emitted to the environment. The term is commonly used in referring to discharges o

End-Use Certificate
The North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act mandates end-use requirements for wheat a

Endangered Species
Species of animals or plants likely to go extinct in the foreseeable future unless current trends ar

Endocrine Disruptor
A chemical agent that interferes with natural hormones in the body. Hormones are secreted by endocri

Environment
The totality of the surrounding external conditions

Environmental Assessment
Under implementing regulations of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, a document used by

Environmental Equity- Justice
Equal protection from environmental hazards for individuals, groups, or communities regardless of ra

Epidemiology
Study of the distribution of disease, or other health-related conditions and events in human or anim

Equivalence
A term applied by the Uruguay Round Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS)

Erosion
The wearing away of the land surface. Unconsolidated materials, such as soil, erode more rapidly tha

Erosion (Erodibility) Index (EI)
The erosion (sometimes called erodibility) index is created by dividing potential erosion (from all

Estuary
Regions of interaction between rivers and near-shore ocean waters, where tidal action and river flow

Ethanol
C2H5OH

Euro
The single currency of the 11 countries that are members of the European Monetary Union, one of the

European Community (EC)
A regional organization created by the Treaty of Rome (1957), which provided for the gradual elimina

European Monetary Union (EMU)
As agreed in the Maastricht Treaty, 11 European Union members began participating in the EMU on Janu

European Union (EU)
Since 1993, the term used to describe the European Community and related institutions. The entry int

Eutrophication
The process by which a body of water acquires a high concentration of plant nutrients, especially ni

Evans-Allen Funds
Federal funds distributed to the 1890 land grant colleges of agriculture under a provision in the Na

Evapotranspiration
The loss of water from the soil both by evaporation and by transpiration from the plants growing in

Excess Land
Irrigable land, other than exempt land, owned by any landowner in excess of the maximum acreage limi

Exotic Species
A species that is not native to a region.

Experimental Use Permit
A permit under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act that authorizes the testing o

Export Allocations Or Quotas
Controls applied to exports by an exporting country to limit the amount of goods leaving that countr

Export Credit Revolving Fund
The Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 authorized a revolving loan fund that would provide short-term

Export Enhancement Program (EEP)
A program that USDA initiated in May 1985 under the CCC Charter Act to help U.S. exporters meet comp

Export Incentive Program (EIP)
A federal export promotion effort operated by the Foreign Agricultural Service. Assistance is provid

Export Licenses
A government document authorizing the export of specific goods in specific quantities to a particula

Export PIK
A program used in the 1980s that made payment-in-kind to U.S. exporters as export subsidies for surp

Export Subsidy
A direct or indirect compensation provided by government to private commercial firms to promote expo

Exposure Assessment
Identifying the pathways by which toxicants may reach individuals, estimating how much of a chemical

Extension Service
Refers to a nationwide continuing education system that is based on the academic programs of the lan

Extra-Long Staple (ELS) Cotton
Also called American Pima, this cotton has a staple length of 1-3/8' or more, is characterized by fi

FACT Act Of 1990
Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990

Failed Acreage
Tracts of properly-planted and managed crops that did not grow or were destroyed due to a natural di

FAIR Act Of 1996
Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996

Fair Information Practices
A set of standards developed in the early 1970s to describe how information should be used and prote

Fair Market Value (FMV)
The amount in cash, or on terms reasonably equivalent to cash, for which in all probability somethin

Fallow Cropland
Cropland left idle during the growing season, sometimes called summer fallow. It may be tilled or sp

Family Farm
As defined by USDA regulations, a farm that (1) produces agricultural commodities for sale in such q

Farm
As defined for purposes of the Census of Agriculture since 1978, a farm is any place that has, or ha

Farm Acreage Base
The total of the crop acreage bases (wheat, feed grains, cotton, and rice) for a farm for a year, th

Farm Bill
A phrase that refers to a multi-year, multi-commodity federal support law. It usually amends some an

Farm Credit Act Of 1971
P.L. 92-181 (December 10, 1971) recodified all previous acts governing the Farm Credit System (FCS,

Farm Credit Administration (FCA)
The independent federal regulator responsible for examining and insuring the safety and soundness of

Farm Credit Banks
Institutions within the Farm Credit System (FCS) that make direct long-term agricultural loans secur

Farm Credit System (FCS)
A network of cooperatively owned lending institutions and related service organizations serving all

Farm Credit System Assistance Board
A temporary board created by the Agricultural Credit Act of 1987 and responsible for approving Farm

Farm Equity
The net worth of the farm sector

Farm Income
Several measures are used to gauge the earnings of a farming operation over a given period of time:

Farm Income And Balance Sheet
The income statement measures the profitability of a farm business for a particular period of time,