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Superglossary - Architecture
Category: Architecture and Buildings
Date & country: 16/12/2013, US
Words: 1141


Common External Tariff (CXT)
A tariff rate applied by a regional grouping of countries as a unit. For example, the European Commu

Community Facilities Program (CFP)
Administered by the Rural Housing Service of USDA, the CFP provides grants, loans, and loan guarante

Community Food Projects
A program administered by the Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service providing

Comparative Advantage
Refers to the economic theory that in international trade it is more advantageous for a country to d

Competitive Advantage
A situation in which one country, region, or producer can produce a particular commodity more cheapl

Competitive Bidding (For WIC)
With respect to the WIC program, refers to the method for containing program costs, particularly for

Competitive Foods (In Meal Service)
Foods that may be regulated for sale in competition with the school lunch and breakfast programs und

Competitive Imports
A term used by the Economic Research Service in its reporting of agricultural trade statistics to de

Composting
The controlled biological decomposition of organic material, such as sewage sludge, animal manures,

Con Act
Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act of 1961.

Concentration (Economic)
A measure of the degree to which a few large firms dominate total sales, production, or capacity wit

Concessional (Export) Sale
A sale in which a foreign buyer is allowed loan payment terms that are more favorable than those obt

Conditional Registration
Under special circumstances, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) permits

Conjunctive Use
Water management methods. Usually used to describe the practice of storing surface water in a ground

Conservation
The management of human and natural resources to provide maximum benefits over a sustained period of

Conservation (Cross) Compliance
A provision originally authorized by the Food Security Act of 1985 that requires farmers who operate

Conservation Easement
Acquisition of rights and interest to a property to protect identified conservation or resource valu

Conservation Farm Option Program
A provision of the FAIR Act of 1996 authorizes a pilot program for producers who receive production

Conservation Plan
A combination of land uses and farming practices to protect and improve soil productivity and water

Conservation Practice
Any technique or measure used to protect soil and water resources for which standards and specificat

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)
A program, created in the Food Security Act of 1985, to retire from production up to 45 million acre

Conservation Tillage
Any tillage and planting system that leaves at least 30% of the soil surface covered by residue afte

Conserving Use Acreage
Farmland diverted from crop production to an approved cultural practice that prevents erosion or oth

Considered Planted
Refers to a provision of the Agricultural Act of 1949 that was used to implement the base acreage an

Consolidation
In agriculture and other economic sectors, consolidation usually is a reference to the trend from nu

Consumer Price Index (CPI-U)
The Bureau of Labor Statistics

Consumer Subsidy Equivalent (CSE)
A measure of the value of monetary transfers to consumers resulting from agricultural policies in a

Consumptive Water Use
Water removed from available supplies without return to a water resources system, e.g., water used i

Continuous Inspection
USDA

Contour Farming
Field operations (such as plowing, planting, cultivating, and harvesting) at right angles to the nat

Contract
Written or oral agreement spelling out the parties

Contract Acreage
Enrolled 1996 commodity base acreage under the FAIR Act of 1996 for wheat, feed grains, upland cotto

Contract Commodity
The commodities previously eligible for deficiency payments and now eligible for production flexibil

Contract For Future Sale
A sales contract under which a farmer agrees to deliver products of specified quality and quantity t

Contract Payments Under AMTA
Some $36 billion in payments to be made to farmers for contract crops for fiscal years 1996-2002 und

Contract Production
A form of vertical integration where a firm commits to purchase a commodity from a producer at a pri

Contract Sanctity
The concept that U.S. agricultural products already contracted to be exported should not be subject

Conventional Agriculture
Generally used to contrast common or traditional agricultural practices featuring heavy reliance on

Conventional Tillage
Tillage operations considered standard for a specific location and crop and that tend to bury the cr

Converted Wetland
Under the swampbuster program, these are wetlands that were drained or altered to improve agricultur

Conveyance Loss
Water loss in pipes, channels, conduits, ditches by leakage or evaporation.

Cooperative
An enterprise or organization owned by and operated for the benefit of those using its services. In

Cooperative Extension System
A federal-state-local cooperative education system that provides continuing adult education based on

Cooperator Program
Officially known as the Foreign Market Development Program (FMDP). One of the agricultural export pr

Coordinated Review Effort (CRE)
Food and Consumer Service reviews of the National School Lunch Program conducted in cooperation with

Corn Belt
That area of the United States where corn is a principal cash crop, including Iowa, Indiana, most of

Corn Gluten
A byproduct of wet milling of corn. Corn gluten is used as a medium-protein (20-24%), medium-fiber (

Corporate Farm
A form of farm ownership which is a separate legal entity from the owners of the farm. Changes in th

Cosmetic Appearance
Section 1351 of the FACT Act of 1990 defines the term as 'the exterior appearance of an agricultural

Cost Insurance And Freight (CIF)
In general, c.i.f. Means that the seller

Cost Of Production
The average unit cost (including purchased inputs and other expenses) of producing an agricultural c

Cost-Benefit Analysis
A quantitative and sometimes qualitative evaluation of the costs which would be incurred by some act

Cost-Containment (For WIC)
Refers to statutory provisions in the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 that require state agencies to con

Cotton Competitiveness Provisions
Provisions added by the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 to the cotton program

Countertrade
A trade transaction of goods and services without the exchange of money. Forms of countertrade inclu

Countervailing Duty
A charge levied on an imported article to offset the unfair price advantage it holds due to a subsid

Country-Of-Origin Labeling
Under Section 304 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, most products entering the United States mu

County Committees
Panels of three to five farmers, elected by other farmers, to oversee the local operation of commodi

County Executive Director (CED)
The supervisor hired by the Farm Service Agency county committee to manage the day-to day activities

County Loan Rate
Nonrecourse loan rates vary from county to county to account for transportation cost differences to

County Office
Usually refers to the local office of the Farm Service Agency, where farmers go to conduct business

County Payments
Forest Service payments of 25% of gross revenues from each national forest to the states for use on

Cover Crop
A close-growing crop, planted primarily as a rotation between regularly planted crops, or between tr

Cow-Calf Operator
A ranch or farm where cows are raised and bred mainly to produce calves usually destined for the bee

Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD)
A sporadic and rare, but fatal human disease that usually strikes people over 65. It occurs worldwid

Critical Control Point
An operation (practice, procedure, process, or location) at or by which preventive or control measur

Critical Habitat
Under the Endangered Species Act, critical habitat is an area essential to the conservation of a lis

Crop Acreage Base
A crop-specific measure equal to the average number of acres planted (or considered planted) to a pa

Crop Insurance
Insurance that protects farmers from crop losses due to natural hazards. Hail and fire insurance are

Crop Reports
Reports compiled by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) on various commodities that

Crop Residue
That portion of a plant, such as a corn stalk, left in the field after harvest. Crop residues are me

Crop Revenue Coverage (CRC)
A form of revenue insurance that protects a producer

Crop Rotation
The growing of different crops, in recurring succession, on the same land in contrast to monoculture

Crop Scouting
Precise assessments of pest pressure (typically insects) and crop performance to evaluate economic r

Crop Share Rent
In contrast to cash rent, the tenant farmer pays the landlord a share of the crop. This arrangement

Crop Year
The year in which a crop is produced. This contrasts with the marketing year, which is the 12-month

Cropland
Land used primarily for the production of row crops, close-growing crops, and fruit and nut crops. I

Cross Compliance
A no longer used requirement that a farmer who participates in a price support program for one crop

Crush Spread
In the soybean futures market, the simultaneous purchase of soybean futures and the sale of soybean

Cultural Methods
Practices used to enhance crop and livestock health and prevent weed, pest or disease problems witho

Custom Feeders
Producers who provide the service of feeding animals (e.g., cattle, hogs) they do not own, in return

Customs Union
An agreement between two or more countries to remove trade barriers between each other and to establ

Dacthal (DCPA)
A selective herbicide, trade name Dacthal, used especially on vegetables. DCPA and its breakdown pro

Dairy Diversion Program
A voluntary supply control program authorized by the Dairy Production Stabilization Act of 1983, und

Dairy Price Support Program
The federal program that maintains a minimum farm price for milk used in the manufacture of dairy pr

Dairy Promotion Program
The Dairy Production Stabilization Act of 1983 authorized a national producer program for dairy prod

Dairy Termination Program
Also called the whole herd buyout, this program was authorized by the Food Security Act of 1985. Und

Data Call-In
A part of the Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) process of developi

DDT
The abbreviated name of a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloromethane. I

Dealer Trust
The Packers and Stockyards Act includes provisions aimed at protecting the financial interests of li

Debt-Asset Ratio
A financial ratio that measures the percentage of a farm operator

Decoupling
The concept of separating federal farm payments from the requirement that farmers produce specified

Deductions (Food Stamps)
When calculating a household

Deferred Pricing
A cash forward contract that provides for determining price by formula at a later date. This also ma

Deficiency Payments
Direct government payments made to farmers who participated in an annual commodity program for wheat

Defoliant
A chemical that removes leaves from trees and growing plants

Delaney Clause
The Delaney Clause in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) states that no additive shall

Delayed Pricing
A type of deferred pricing that provides for transfer of title before the price is determined and fi

Delivery
In settlement of a futures contract, the tender and receipt of the actual commodity, the cash value

Delivery Month
The specified month within which a futures contract matures and can be settled by delivery. Also ref