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Superglossary - Architecture
Category: Architecture and Buildings
Date & country: 16/12/2013, US
Words: 1141


Biomass
The generic term for any living matter that can be converted into usable energy through biological o

Biopesticide
A pesticide that is biological in origin (i.e., viruses, bacteria, pheromones, natural plant compoun

Blair House Agreement
The November 1992 agreement between the United States and the European Union on export subsidy and d

Blend Price
Primarily used in the federal milk marketing order program. Represents the weighted average price of

Blended Credit
A federal export promotion program operated from 1983 to 1985 by the Foreign Agricultural Service. F

Blending
In grain marketing, the combining of two different qualities of grain in order to change the total v

Blue Box Policies
Direct payments, under the definition of 'production-limiting' measures as defined in Article 6 of t

Board Foot
A measure for lumber, equal to a 1-inch thick board that is 1 foot long and 1 foot wide in nominal d

Boll Weevil
An insect pest of cotton that is the subject of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service eradic

Bonus Commodities
From the agricultural perspective, these are commodities donated to domestic feeding programs that U

Botanical Pesticides
Pesticides whose active ingredients are plant-produced chemicals such as nicotine, rotenone, or stry

Bottom
Usually synonymous with 'vessel' or 'ship.' A ship of American registry may be referred to as a 'U.S

Bound Tariff Rate
The most-favored-nation tariff rate resulting from negotiations under the General Agreement on Tarif

Bovine Somatotropin (Bst)
Also called bovine growth hormone, bst is a naturally occurring protein that has been genetically en

Bovine Tuberculosis
A highly contagious disease of cattle that causes severe economic losses, especially in dairy herds.

Boxed Beef
Beef that a packer cuts into relatively small pieces, seals in vacuum packs, and ships in cardboard

Breastfeeding Promotion
Relates to activities required to be carried out by state and local agencies using federal funds pro

Broadcast Application
The spreading of pesticides or fertilizers over an entire area (see band application).

Broiler
A young chicken, usually 6 to 8 weeks old and 3 to 5 pounds, raised primarily for its meat.

Brucellosis
A highly contagious disease of cattle, goats, sheep, and swine that can be transmitted to humans (un

Bt
Bacillus thuringiensis is a naturally occurring soil bacterium commonly known as Bt. It is a biologi

Buffer Strips
Slender areas of permanent vegetation, often planted along the edge or the contour of a field, usual

Bulgur
Wheat that has been parboiled, dried, and partially debranned for later use in cracked or whole grai

Bulk Carrier
Refers to two types of cargo ships

Bulk Commodities
Generally, high volume, low value unprocessed agricultural commodities, which are treated as though

Bureau Of Land Management (BLM)
A bureau within the Department of the Interior that has exclusive jurisdiction over about 268 millio

Bureau Of Reclamation (BOR)
A bureau within the Department of the Interior, whose mission is to manage, develop, and protect wat

Burley Tobacco
The main type of air-cured tobacco

Bushel
A dry volume measure of varying weight for grain, fruit, etc., equal to four pecks or eight gallons

Business Incubator
A facility that supports the development and operation of a number of small start-up businesses. Ten

Cabotage
Trade or transport in coastal waters between ports within the same country. U.S. 'cabotage' legislat

Cairns Group
An informal association of 15 agricultural exporting countries, formed in 1986 at Cairns, Australia.

Call Option
A contract that entitles the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to purchase an underlying futu

Campylobacteriosis
A diarrheal disease often caused by the type of bacteria known as Campylobacteria jejuni (C. Jejuni)

Canadian Wheat Board (CWB)
A quasi-governmental self-financed agency, established in 1935, that markets Canadian wheat, oats, a

Cancellation
Refers to an action taken under Section 6(b) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide A

Capper-Volstead Act
P.L. 67-146 (February 18, 1922), with a bit of exaggeration, is sometimes called the Magna Carta of

Captive Supply
Products that manufacturers or processors own or contract to purchase for future delivery so as to h

Carbon Sequestration
Retention of carbon in ways that prevent or delay its emission to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.

Carcass Weight
The weight of an animal after slaughter and removal of most internal organs, head, and skin. On aver

Carcass-By-Carcass Inspection
Usually refers to language in the federal Meat Inspection Act and the Poultry Products Inspection Ac

Carcinogen
Any substance that produces or promotes cancer. This is a key consideration in evaluating the safety

Cargo Preference
The Cargo Preference Act (P.L. 83-664) requires that whenever the federal government pays for equipm

Cargo Preference Act
P.L. 83-644 (August 26, 1954), as amended, contains permanent legislation concerning the transportat

Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI)
A permanent program designed to increase private investment, trade, and tourism in Caribbean countri

Carrier
An inert material added to an active ingredient in a pesticide to enhance its delivery or effectiven

Carrying Capacity
The maximum stocking rate for livestock possible without damaging vegetation or related resources. C

Carryover
The supply of a farm commodity not yet used at the end of a marketing year and carried over into the

Cartel
An alliance or arrangement among industrial or commercial enterprises or nations aimed at limiting c

Casein
The major portion of milk protein, manufactured from skim milk and used in processed foods (such as

Cash Commodity
The physical or actual commodity as distinguished from the futures contract. Sometimes called spot c

Cash Grain Farm
A farm where corn, grain sorghum, small grains, soybeans, or field peas and beans account for at lea

Cash In Lieu Of Commodities
Refers to cash provided to food program operators (e.g., elderly nutrition programs, child care food

Cash Market
The market for the cash commodity (as contrasted to a futures contract), taking the form of - (1) an

Cash Price
The price in the marketplace for actual cash or spot commodities to be delivered via customary marke

Cash Settlement
A method of settling certain futures contracts or option contracts whereby the seller (or short posi

Catastrophic Crop Insurance (CAT)
A component of the federal crop insurance program, authorized by the Federal Crop Insurance Reform A

Cattle Cycle
The approximately 10-year period in which the number of U.S. beef cattle is alternatively expanded a

Census Of Agriculture
A comprehensive set of quantitative information on the agricultural sector of the U.S. economy, brok

Center For Veterinary Medicine
An agency within the Food and Drug Administration that is responsible for assuring that all animal d

Center Pivot Irrigation
A self-propelled irrigation system in which a single pipeline supported on towers rotates around a c

Certificates (Commodity)
Legal instruments, entitling a qualified bearer to a specific dollar value of USDA surplus commoditi

Channelization
Engineering watercourses by straightening, widening, or deepening them so water will move faster. Wh

Check-Off Program
Usually, a reference to the generic research and commodity promotion programs for farm products that

Chemigation
The application of a pesticide and/or fertilizer through any irrigation system. This delivery techni

Chemosterilant
A chemical that controls pests by preventing reproduction, thereby causing the population to collaps

Child Nutrition Act Of 1966
P.L. 89-642 (October 11, 1966) was an anti-hunger initiative begun by the Johnson Administration as

Child Nutrition Programs
A grouping of programs funded by the federal government to support meal and milk service programs fo

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
Also known as organochlorines, these synthetic organic compounds contain chlorine. They tend to be p

Chlorophenoxy Herbicides
A class of pesticides that includes 2,4-D. They mimic plant hormones. Uses of some have been cancele

Cholinesterase Inhibitors
A class of chemicals that includes numerous insecticides, such as parathion or carbaryl. They inhibi

Chronic Toxicity
The capacity of a substance to cause long-term or delayed adverse health effects. For example, a can

Class I Differential
Under federal milk marketing orders, the minimum price a processor must pay for milk used for fluid

Class I Equivalency
The amount of less productive land in a water district receiving Bureau of Reclamation water (Classe

Class I Land
Under reclamation law, Class I land is defined as irrigable land within a particular agricultural ec

Class I Railroad
Any railroad with annual gross revenues of at least $250 million (in 1991), according to the U.S. De

Classified Pricing
The pricing system of federal milk marketing orders, under which milk processors pay into a pool for

Clayton Act
A 1914 law that supplemented the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 by clarifying market activities (inc

Clean Air Act
The primary federal law governing efforts to control air pollution. Federal legislation addressing a

Clean Water Act
This is the principal law governing pollution of the nation

Coastal Zone Management Program
P.L. 92-583 (October 27, 1972) created the Coastal Zone Management Program in 1972 to provide grants

Cobank
National Bank for Cooperatives.

Code Of Federal Regulations (CFR)
The codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executi

Codex Alimentarius Commission
A joint commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization,

Coliform Index
A rating of the purity of water based on a count of fecal coliform bacteria. The presence of fecal c

Colonia
A substandard housing area defined in the Housing Act of 1949 as any identifiable community that

Combine
A self-propelled grain harvester. In one operation it combines cutting, threshing, separation, clean

Commodity Assistance Program
A title often used to refer to a variety of domestic programs receiving food in the form of USDA sup

Commodity Certificates
Payments issued by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) in lieu of cash payments to participants i

Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC)
A wholly owned government corporation created in 1933 to stabilize, support, and protect farm income

Commodity Distribution
Direct donation of food products by the federal government to needy persons, schools, and institutio

Commodity Distribution Program
This program supplies authority for the Secretary of Agriculture to use agricultural surplus removal

Commodity Exchange
An organization operating under a set of bylaws aimed at promoting trade in one or more commodities

Commodity Exchange Authority
A former regulatory agency of USDA established to administer the Commodity Exchange Act prior to 197

Commodity Import Programs (Cips)
The U.S. Agency for International Development uses a small portion of U.S. foreign aid funds to make

Commodity Letters Of Credit (CLOC)
Food instruments issued in lieu of commodities to certain designated schools participating in the Na

Commodity Loan Rates
Price per unit (pound, bushel, bale, or hundredweight) at which the CCC provides nonrecourse loans t

Commodity Programs
This term is usually meant to include the commodity price and income support programs administered b

Commodity Promotion Programs
Programs that advertise and promote an agricultural commodity or product without reference to the sp

Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
The set of legislation and practices jointly adopted by the nations of the European Union (EU) in or