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Superglossary - Architecture
Category: Architecture and Buildings
Date & country: 16/12/2013, US
Words: 1141


Abandoned Wells
Abandoned drainage wells and abandoned water wells on vacant farmsteads are of particular concern fo

Acid Deposition
Abnormally acidic (low ph) precipitation (or dry deposition) resulting from emissions of sulfur and

Acquired Lands
Lands in federal ownership that were obtained by the federal government through purchase, condemnati

Acre
1 acre=43,560 sq. Ft.=208.7 ft.2 =0.405 hectares

Acre-Foot
The volume of water that would cover one acre of land (43,560 square feet) to a depth of one foot, e

Acreage Allotment
Under provisions of permanent commodity price support law, a farm

Acreage Base (Or Base Acres)
A farm

Acreage Conservation Reserve
The cropland acreage diverted from production under the acreage reduction program.

Acreage Diversion Programs
Historically, commodity programs included provisions to reduce commodity supplies by diverting acrea

Acreage Limitation
With respect to commodity policy, acreage limitation might refer to planting constraints under an ac

Acreage Reduction Program (ARP)
A no longer authorized annual cropland retirement program for wheat, feed grains, cotton, or rice in

Action Levels
As opposed to tolerances (which are established for pesticide residues occurring as a direct result

Active Ingredient
In any pesticide product, the component that kills, or otherwise controls, target pests. Pesticides

Actual Production History (APH)
A measure of an individual farmer

Actuarially Sound
The financial goal of any insurance program (including the federal crop insurance program) is to ope

Acute Toxicity
The ability of a substance to cause harmful effects soon after a single exposure or dose. Also, any

Ad Valorem Duty
A tariff expressed as a fixed percentage of the value of the imported commodity or product. Generall

Additional Peanuts
Peanuts sold from a farm in any marketing year in excess of the amount of quota peanuts (see peanut

Adjusted World Price
As part of the upland cotton and the rice marketing assistance loan programs, USDA calculates and pu

Adjusted World Price (AWP)
As part of the upland cotton marketing assistance loan program, USDA calculates and publishes, on a

Administrative Convergence
USDA in 1998 was developing a plan to consolidate the administrative functions (e.g., accounting, bu

Administrative Procedure Act
P.L. 79-404 (July 11, 1946), as amended, establishes, among other things, minimum procedural require

Adulterated Food
Generally, impure, unsafe, or unwholesome

Advance Deficiency Payments
Initial payments (ranging from 30 to 50% of the total payment) made to crop producers when they sign

Aflatoxin
Aflatoxin is a naturally occurring mycotoxin produced by two types of mold

Aggregate Measure Of Support (AMS)
An indicator of the amount of domestic support for agriculture. As used in the Uruguay Round Agreeme

Agreement On Agriculture
The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture reached in 1994 and implemented in U.S. law by the Urugua

Agribusiness
Agriculturally related businesses that supply farm inputs (such as fertilizer or equipment) or are i

Agricultural Act Of 1949
P.L. 89-439 (October 31, 1949), along with the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, makes up the maj

Agricultural Act Of 1954
P.L. 83-690 (August 28, 1954) established a flexible price support for basic commodities (excluding

Agricultural Act Of 1956
P.L. 84-540 (May 28, 1956) created the Soil Bank Program (Title I of was called the Soil Bank Act),

Agricultural Act Of 1970
P.L. 91-524 (November 30, 1970) initiated a significant change in commodity support policy. This 3-y

Agricultural Adjustment Act Of 1938
P.L. 75-430 (February 16, 1938) was enacted as an alternative and replacement for the farm subsidy p

Agricultural Attache Counselor
An agricultural expert, employed by the Foreign Agricultural Service, on the staff of an U.S. embass

Agricultural Credit Act Of 1987
P.L. 100-233 (January 6, 1988) was enacted in response to the severe financial crisis of the early-

Agricultural District
A planning term which defines an area in which farming is the preferred economic activity. Districts

Agricultural Diversification
A system of farming that encourages production of a variety of plants and animals and their products

Agricultural Pollution
Wastes, emissions, and discharges arising from farming activities. Causes include runoff and leachin

Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
A USDA agency employing federal scientists to conduct basic, applied, and developmental research in

Agricultural Trade Office
The Agricultural Trade Act of 1978 directed the establishment of trade offices in major centers of c

Agricultural Zoning
A designation intended to protect farmland and farming activities from incompatible nonfarm uses. Ag

Agriculture And Food Act Of 1981
P.L. 97-98 (December 22, 1981) was the 4-year omnibus farm bill that continued and modified commodit

Air Pollution
Contamination of the atmosphere by substances that, directly or indirectly, adversely affect human h

Alar
Trade name for daminozide, a plant regulator and therefore classed as a pesticide, that makes apples

Alcohol
The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds that includes methanol, ethanol, isopropyl

Allotment
In conjunction with commodity support programs, acreage allotments and marketing quotas serve to lim

Allowable Sale Quantity (ASQ)
A forestry term defined in law as the maximum amount of timber that can be sold every year, forever,

Alternative Agriculture
A systematic approach to farming intended to reduce agricultural pollution, enhance sustainability,

Alternative Fuels
Substitutes for traditional liquid, oil-derived motor vehicle fuels like gasoline and diesel. Includ

Ammonia
A pungent alkaline gas, a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3). It is formed naturally when bacte

Animal Damage Control (ADC) Program
Renamed in 1997 as the Wildlife Services (WS) program, it is an Animal and Plant Health Inspection S

Animal Drugs
Drugs intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in an

Animal Feeding Operation
Facilities where animals are kept and raised in confined situations

Animal Identification And Traceback
Currently, the private marketing system, assisted by computerization of records, generally can trace

Animal Protein
Protein used in livestock feed that is derived from meatpacking or rendering plants, surplus milk or

Animal Unit
A standard measure, based on feed requirements, used to combine various classes of livestock accordi

Animal Unit Month (AUM)
An animal unit month (AUM) is the amount of forage needed to sustain one animal unit, or its equival

Animal Welfare Act
P.L. 89-544 (August 24, 1966) was enacted to curb the theft and mistreatment of dogs and cats for ex

Antemortem
Before slaughter. As used in the meat and poultry inspection program, the term refers to the examina

Antibiotics
Chemical substances produced by microorganisms or synthetically that inhibit the growth of, or destr

Antidumping Duty
A duty or levy imposed under authority of Title VII of the U.S. Tariff Act of 1930. Title VII states

Aquaculture
The National Aquaculture Act of 1980 defines aquaculture as 'the propagation and rearing of aquatic

Aquifer
An underground geological formation, or group of formations, containing usable amounts of groundwate

Area Yield Options Contract
A contract entitling the holder to receive a payment when the area yield is below (above) the put (c

Arid
A relatively dry climate in which annual precipitation is less than 10 inches, which generally is in

Asian Long-Horned Beetle
A serious pest of hardwood trees in its native China that by 1998 had been found in 14 states in the

Assessment
Generally an automatic or mandatory deduction from a producer

Assimilative Capacity
The ability of a body of water to cleanse itself

Atrazine
A selective herbicide, widely used on corn. It is environmentally significant, since it was the seco

Attainment Area
An area considered to have air quality as good as or better than the National Ambient Air Quality St

Attractant
A chemical or agent that lures insects or other pests by stimulating their sense of smell. Attractan

Australian Wheat Board (AWB)
A statutory marketing agency, which handles Australia

Balance Of Payments
An accounting statement measuring the value of goods, services and capital exchanged between a count

Balance Of Trade
The difference in value between a country

Band Application
The spreading of chemicals over, or next to, each row of plants in a field, as opposed to broadcast

Bank For Cooperatives (BC)
Lending institution within the Farm Credit System that provides credit to agricultural cooperatives

Bargaining Association
A farmer cooperative intended primarily to influence farm prices or other terms of trade between the

Barrows And Gilts
A barrow is a young castrated male hog

Barter
A form of countertrade in which goods having comparable values are exchanged under a single contract

Base (Or Contract) Acreage
A farm

Base Period Price
The average price for an item in a specified time period used as a base for an index - such as 1910-

Base Property
For the Bureau of Land Management

Base Rates
The minimum cash price for national forest timber to be cut and removed.

Basic Commodities
Six agricultural crops (corn, cotton, peanuts, rice, tobacco, and wheat) declared by permanent law a

Basic Formula Price (BFP)
Calculated monthly by USDA, the BFP is the base price for all milk regulated by federal milk marketi

Basing Point
A geographical site used to establish fixed rates and/or prices for federal milk marketing orders. G

Basis
The difference between the current spot price (or cash price) of a commodity and the price of the ne

Basis Risk
The possibility of unexpected variation in basis and a resulting loss of expected revenue when a fut

Beef (Cattle) Price Index (BPI)
An index of the weighted average annual price for beef cattle, excluding calves, for a 16 western st

Below-Cost Timber Sale
A timber sale from national forest lands in which the expected federal revenues are less than the es

Best Management Practices (BMP)
A conservation practice or combination of practices designed to maintain agricultural productivity w

BICO Report
The Foreign Agricultural Service

Bilateral Trade Agreement
A trade agreement between any two countries. The agreement may be either preferential (the obligatio

Bio-Security; Bio-Terrorism
Bio-security refers to the policies, and measures taken, for protecting a nation

Bioaccumulation
The absorption and concentration of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, and certain pesticides in plants

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
A measure of the amount of oxygen consumed by natural, biological processes that break down organic

Biodiesel
Biodiesel is registered with the Environmental Protection Agency as a pure fuel or as a fuel additiv

Biological Control
The practice of using beneficial natural organisms to attack and control harmful plant and animal pe

Biological Monitoring
Using living organisms to test the quality of either effluent to be discharged into receiving waters

Biologics
Immunization vaccines, bacterins, antigens, and antitoxins and other preparations made from living o