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Superglossary - Psychiatry
Category: Sciences > Psychiatry
Date & country: 15/12/2013, US
Words: 467


Clanging
speech in which words are chosen because of their sounds rather than their meanings. It includes rhy

Classical Conditioning
Elicitation of a response by a stimulus that normally does not elicit that response. The response is

Climacteric
Menopausal period in women. Sometimes used to refer to the corresponding age period in men. Also cal

Clouding Of Consciousness
the patient is drowsy and does not react completely to stimuli. there is disturbance of attention, c

Clozapine
A drug treatment for schizophrenia, which was the prototype atypical antipsychotic. The

Coenestopathic State
localized distortion of body awareness

Cognitive
Pertaining to thoughts or thinking. Cognitive disorders are disorders of thinking, for example, schi

Cognitive Dysfunction
A negative symptom of schizophrenia resulting in impairments of attention, memory, concentration and

Comorbidity
The simultaneous appearance of two or more illnesses, such as the co-occurrence of schizophrenia and

Compensation
A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, by which one attempts to make up for real or fancied d

Compulsion
Repetitive ritualistic behavior such as hand washing or ordering or a mental act such as praying or

Conative
Pertains to ones basic strivings as expressed in behaviour and actions

Concrete Thinking
lack of abstract thinking, normal in childhood, and occurring in adults with organic brain disease a

Condensation
A psychological process, often present in dreams, in which two or more concepts are fused so that a

Confabulation
gaps in memory are unconsciously filled with false memories

Confrontation
A communication that deliberately pressures or invites another to self-examine some aspect of behavi

Constricted Affect
Affect type that represents mild reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression.

Constructional Apraxia
An acquired difficulty in drawing two-dimensional objects or forms, or in producing or copying three

Contingency Reinforcement
In operant or instrumental conditioning, ensuring that desired behavior is followed by positive cons

Conversion
A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, by which intrapsychic conflicts that would otherwise g

Coping Mechanisms
Ways of adjusting to environmental stress without altering ones goals or purposes; includes both con

Coprophagia
Eating of filth or faeces.

Cotards Syndrome
nihilistic delusional disorder in which, for example, patients believe that their money, friends or

Counterphobia
Deliberately seeking out and exposing onself to, rather than avoiding, the object or situation that

Countertransference
The therapists emotional reactions to the patient that are based on the therapists unconscious needs

Cretinism
A type of mental retardation and bodily malformation caused by severe, uncorrected thyroid deficienc

Cri Du Chat
A type of mental retardation. The name is derived from a catlike cry emitted by children with this d

Culture-Specific Syndromes
Forms of disturbed behavior specific to certain cultural systems that do not conform to western noso

Da Costas Syndrome
Neurocirculatory asthenia; soldiers heart; a functional disorder of the circulatory system that is u

Decompensation
The deterioration of existing defenses, leading to an exacerbation of pathological behavior.

Defense Mechanism
Automatic psychological process that protects the individual against anxiety and from awareness of i

Delirium
disorder of consciousness in which the patient is bewildered, disoriented and restless. There may be

Delusion
false personal belief based on incorrect inference about external reality and firmly held despite ev

Delusion
A positive symptom of schizophrenia which manifests as a fixed belief that has no basis in reality a

Delusional Jealousy
The delusion that ones sexual partner is unfaithful. erotomanic A delusion that another person, usua

Delusional Perception
new and delusional significance is attached to a familiar real perception without any logical reason

Delusions Of Infidelity
(pathological jealousy, delusional jealousy, Othellos syndrome) delusional belief that ones spouse o

Delusions Of Reference
the behaviour of others or objects and event (e.g. television broadcasts) believed to refer to onese

Dementia
global organic impairment of intellectual functioning without impairment of consciousness.

Denial
defense mechanism in which the subject acts as if consciously unaware of a wish or reality.

Depersonalization
An alteration in the perception or experience of the self so that one feels detached from, and as if

Depot Injections
These are long-acting intramuscular injections of antipsychotics given every 1 to 4 weeks.

Depression
A mood disorder characterised by feelings of sadness, hopelessness, helplessness, and worthlessness.

Depressive Retardation
lesser form of psychomotor retardation which occurs in depression.

Derailment
A pattern of speech in which a persons ideas slip off one track onto another that is completely unre

Derealization
An alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems strange or unre

Dereistic
Mental activity that is not in accordance with reality, logic, or experience.

Detachment
A behavior pattern characterized by general aloofness in interpersonal contact; may include intellec

Diplopia
Double vision due to paralysis of the ocular muscles; seen in inhalant intoxication and other condit

Disconnection Syndrome
Term coined by Norman Geschwind (1926-1984) to describe the interruption of information transferred

Disinhibition
Freedom to act according to ones inner drives or feelings, with less regard for restraints imposed b

Disorientation
Confusion about the time of day, date, or season (time), where one is (place), or who one is (person

Displacement
A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, in which emotions, ideas, or wishes are transferred fr

Dissociative Disorder
disorder in which there is a disturbance in the normal integration or awareness of identity, conscio

Distractibility
The inability to maintain attention, that is, the shifting from one area or topic to another with mi

Double Bind
Interaction in which one person demands a response to a message containing mutually contradictory si

Drive
Basic urge, instinct, motivation; a term used to avoid confusion with the more purely biological con

DSM-IV
fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the Americ

Dyad
A two-person relationship, such as the therapeutic relationship between doctor and patient in indivi

Dysarthria
Imperfect articulation of speech due to disturbances of muscular control or in coordination.

Dysgeusia
Perversion of the sense of taste.

Dyskinesia
Distortion of voluntary movements with involuntary muscular activity.

Dyslexia
Inability or difficulty in reading, including word-blindness and a tendency to reverse letters and w

Dysphoric Mood
An unpleasant mood, such as sadness, anxiety, or irritability.

Dyssomnia
Primary disorders of sleep or wakefulness characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia as the major pres

Dystonia
Disordered tonicity of muscles.

ECG
An ECG, or electrocardiogram is an electrical recording of the heart used in the investigation of he

Echolalia
automatic imitation of anothers speech.

Echopraxia
Repetition by imitation of the movements of another. The action is not a willed or voluntary one and

Ecstasy
feeling of intense rapture.

Ego
part of the mental apparatus that is present at the interface of the perceptual and internal demand

Ego Ideal
The part of the personality that comprises the aims and goals for the self; usually refers to the co

Ego-Dystonic
Referring to aspects of a persons behavior, thoughts, and attitudes that are viewed by the self as r

Egomania
pathological preoccupation with oneself.

Eidetic Image
vivid and detailed reproduction of a previous perception e.g. a photographic memory.

Elaboration
An unconscious process consisting of expansion and embellishment of detail, especially with referenc

Elevated Mood
An exaggerated feeling of well-being, or euphoria or elation. A person with elevated mood may descri

Engram
A memory trace; a neurophysiological process that accounts for persistence of memory

Ethnology
A science that concerns itself with the division of human beings into races and their origin, distri

Euphoric Mood
exaggerated feeling of well-being. It is pathological.

Euthymic
Mood in the normal range, which implies the absence of depressed or elevated mood.

Expansive Mood
Lack of restraint in expressing ones feelings, frequently with an overvaluation of ones significance

Expressive Aphasia
difficulty in expressing thoughts in words whilst comprehension remains.

Extinction
The weakening of a reinforced operant response as a result of ceasing reinforcement. See also operan

Extracampine Hallucination
hallucination occurring outside ones sensory field.

Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS)
Movement disorders which can be a side effect of antipsychotic medications. They include acute dysto

Extraversion
A state in which attention and energies are largely directed outward from the self as opposed to inw

Fantasy
An imagined sequence of events or mental images (e.g., daydreams) that serves to express unconscious

Flashback
A recurrence of a memory, feeling, or perceptual experience from the past.

Flat Affect
almost no emotional expression at all -the patient typically has an immobile face and monotonous voi

Flight Of Ideas
speech consists of a stream of accelerated thoughts with abrupt changes from topic to topic and no c

Flooding
A behavior therapy procedure for phobias and other problems involving maladaptive anxiety, in which

Folie � Deux
A shared psychotic disorder between 2 people, usually people who are mutually dependent upon each ot

Formal Thought Disorder
An inexact term referring to a disturbance in the form of thinking rather than to abnormality of con

Formication
The tactile hallucination or illusion that insects are crawling on the body or under the skin.

Fragmentation
Separation into different parts, or preventing their integration, or detaching one or more parts fro

Free Association
In psychoanalytic therapy, spontaneous, uncensored verbalization by the patient of whatever comes to

Free-Floating Anxiety
pervasive and unfocused anxiety.

Fregolis Syndrome
patient believes that a familiar person, who is often believed to be the persons persecutor, has tak

Freudian Slips (Parapraxes)
unconscious thoughts slipping through when one is off guard.