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Superglossary - Psychiatry
Category: Sciences > Psychiatry
Date & country: 15/12/2013, US
Words: 292


Abreaction
An emotional release or discharge after recalling a painful experience that has been repressed becau

Abulia
A lack of will or motivation which is often expressed as inability to make decisions or set goals. Q

Acalculia
The loss of a previously possessed ability to calculate mathematically.

Acting Out
This is the process of expressing unconscious emotional conflicts or feelings via actions rather tha

Acute Dystonia
An extrapyramidal symptom caused by some antipsychotics which takes the form of involuntary twisting

Acute Schizophrenia
(a-cute skiz-o-fre-ne-ah) The height of symptoms of schizophrenia.

Adiadochokinesia
The inability to perform rapid alternating movements of one or more of the extremities. This task i

Affect
pattern of observable behaviours which is the expression of a subjectively experienced feeling state

Affective Disorder
(ah-feck-tiv dis-or-der) A mental disorder in which the main symptom is an abnormal mood; usually de

Affective Flattening
Limited range and intensity of emotional expression. A negative symptom of schizophrenia.

Affective Symptoms
Symptoms of schizophrenia that relate to mood or emotional expression.

Agitation
Excessive motor activity that accompanies and is associated with a feeling of inner tension. The ac

Agnosia
Failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory function; This may be seen in demen

Agnostic Alexia
words can be seen but cannot be read.

Agonist Medication
A chemical entity that is not naturally occuring within the body which acts upon a receptor and is

Agoraphobia
literally a fear of the market place. Generally high levels of anxiety and phobic symptoms. May incl

Agranulocytosis
(ah-gran-yu-lo-si-to-sis) A serious condition in which white blood cells decrease in number or disap

Agraphia
The loss of a pre-existing ability to express ones self through the act of writing.

AIMS
Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale - an assessment tool designed to measure abnormal movements in d

Akinesia
A state of motor inhibition or reduced voluntary movement.

Akinetic Mutism
A state of apparent alertness with following eye movements but no speech or voluntary motor respons

Alexia
Loss of a previously intact ability to grasp the meaning of written or printed words and sentences.

Alexithymia
A disturbance in affective and cognitive function that can be present in an assortment of diagnosti

Algophobia
Fear of pain.

Alogia
An impoverishment in thinking that is inferred from observing speech and language behavior. There m

Amenorrhea
(a-men-o-re-ah) Absence of menstrual periods. This can be a side-effect of antipsychotic medications

Amimia
A disorder of language characterized by an inability to make gestures or to understand the signific

Amnesia
Loss of memory. Types of amnesia include

Amnestic Aphasia
Loss of the ability to name objects.

Amok
seen in South-East Asia. Outburst of aggressive behaviour in which the patient runs amok during a de

Anankastic Personality
Synonym for obsessive-compulsive personality.

Anhedonia
Inability to experience pleasure from activities that usually produce pleasurable feelings. Contras

Anosognosia
lack of awareness of a disease

Antagonist
An agent that has the ability to bind to a receptor and prevent or block a response.

Antidepressant
Medication used to treat depression.

Antipsychotic
Medication used to treat psychosis.

Anxiety
The apprehensive anticipation of future danger or misfortune accompanied by a feeling of dysphoria o

Aphasia
An impairment in the understanding or transmission of ideas by language in any of its forms--reading

Aphonia
An inability to produce speech sounds that require the use of the larynx that is not due to a lesion

Apraxia
Inability to carry out previously learned skilled motor activities despite intact comprehension and

Arrhythmia
Abnormal heart rhythm.

Assimilation
A Piagetian term describing a persons ability to comprehend and integrate new experiences.

Astereognosis
Inability to recognize familiar objects by touch that cannot be explained by a defect of elementary

Ataxia
Partial or complete loss of coordination of voluntary muscular movement.

Attention
The ability to focus in a sustained manner on a particular stimulus or activity. A disturbance in at

Automatism
Automatic and apparently undirected non-purposeful behaviour that is not consciously controlled. See

Autoscopy
Phantom mirror image hallucination in which one sees and recognizes oneself

Autotopagnosia
Inability to localize and name the parts of ones own body. finger agnosia would be autotopagnosia re

Avolition
An inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed activities. When severe enough to be considere

BAS
Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale

Bipolar Disorder
An affective disorder characterized by extreme changes in mood ranging from mania to depression. Thi

Bizarre Delusion
A delusion that involves a phenomenon that the persons culture would regard as totally implausible.

Blunted Affect
reduction in emotional expression

Body Image
Ones sense of the self and ones body.

BPRS
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale - an assessment tool for the evaluation of drug treatment effects on

Bradykinesia
Neurologic condition characterized by a generalized slowness of motor activity.

Brocas Aphasia
Loss of the ability to comprehend language coupled with production of inappropriate language.

Capgras Syndrome
a person who is familiar to the patient is believed to have been replaced by a double

Catalepsy
Waxy flexibility--rigid maintenance of a body position over an extended period of time.

Catatonic Schizophrenia
(kat-a-ton-ik skiz-o-fre-ne-ah) Schizophrenia characterized by marked disturbance which may involve

Catharsis
The healthful (therapeutic) release of ideas through talking out conscious material accompanied by a

Causalgia
A sensation of intense pain of either organic or psychological origin.

Central Aphasia
difficult in arranging words in their correct sequence

Central Nervous System (CNS)
The brain and spinal cord. The CNS is responsible for coordinating the activities of all parts of th

Cerea Flexibilitas
The waxy flexibility often present in catatonic schizophrenia in which the patients arm or leg remai

Cerebrovascular Ischaemia
A reduction in oxygen reaching the brain as a result of obstruction of the blood supply or inadequat

CGI
Clinical Global Impression - an assessment tool for the evaluation of drug treatment effects on dise

Chlorpromazine
A typical antipsychotic.

Chronic Schizophrenia
(kron-ik skiz-o-fre-ne-ah) A disorder in which the symptoms of schizophrenia persist long-term.

Circumstantiality
slowed thinking incorporating unnecessary trivial details. Eventually the goal of the thought is rea

Clanging
speech in which words are chosen because of their sounds rather than their meanings. It includes rhy

Classical Conditioning
Elicitation of a response by a stimulus that normally does not elicit that response. The response is

Climacteric
Menopausal period in women. Sometimes used to refer to the corresponding age period in men. Also cal

Coenestopathic State
localized distortion of body awareness

Compulsion
Repetitive ritualistic behavior such as hand washing or ordering or a mental act such as praying or

Conative
Pertains to ones basic strivings as expressed in behaviour and actions

Confabulation
gaps in memory are unconsciously filled with false memories

Confrontation
A communication that deliberately pressures or invites another to self-examine some aspect of behavi

Constricted Affect
Affect type that represents mild reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression.

Coping Mechanisms
Ways of adjusting to environmental stress without altering ones goals or purposes; includes both con

Coprophagia
Eating of filth or faeces.

Countertransference
The therapists emotional reactions to the patient that are based on the therapists unconscious needs

Cri Du Chat
A type of mental retardation. The name is derived from a catlike cry emitted by children with this d

Culture-Specific Syndromes
Forms of disturbed behavior specific to certain cultural systems that do not conform to western noso

Da Costas Syndrome
Neurocirculatory asthenia; soldiers heart; a functional disorder of the circulatory system that is u

Defense Mechanism
Automatic psychological process that protects the individual against anxiety and from awareness of i

Delusion
false personal belief based on incorrect inference about external reality and firmly held despite ev

Delusion
A positive symptom of schizophrenia which manifests as a fixed belief that has no basis in reality a

Delusional Perception
new and delusional significance is attached to a familiar real perception without any logical reason

Delusions Of Reference
the behaviour of others or objects and event (e.g. television broadcasts) believed to refer to onese

Dementia
global organic impairment of intellectual functioning without impairment of consciousness.

Denial
defense mechanism in which the subject acts as if consciously unaware of a wish or reality.

Depot Injections
These are long-acting intramuscular injections of antipsychotics given every 1 to 4 weeks.

Depressive Retardation
lesser form of psychomotor retardation which occurs in depression.

Derailment
A pattern of speech in which a persons ideas slip off one track onto another that is completely unre

Derealization
An alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems strange or unre

Detachment
A behavior pattern characterized by general aloofness in interpersonal contact; may include intellec

Diplopia
Double vision due to paralysis of the ocular muscles; seen in inhalant intoxication and other condit

Disconnection Syndrome
Term coined by Norman Geschwind (1926-1984) to describe the interruption of information transferred

Double Bind
Interaction in which one person demands a response to a message containing mutually contradictory si