Copy of `Superglossary - Geology`

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Superglossary - Geology
Category: Sciences > Geology
Date & country: 15/12/2013, US
Words: 758


Upwelling
Movement of cold water from the floor of a lake or ocean up into a shallow area.

Upwelling Current
The upward movement of cold bottom water in the sea, which occurs when wind or currents displace the

Vadose Water
Water that exists in the pore spaces of a rock or soil, between the ground surface and the water tab

Vadose Zone
The region in the ground between the surface and the water table in which pores are not filled with

Valence Electrons
Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom. The electrons that are typically involved in making che

Valley Glacier
A glacier that is smaller than a continental glacier or an icecap, and which flows mainly along well

Van Der Waals Bond
A bond much weaker than the ionic or covalent, which bonds atoms by small electrostatic attraction.

Varve
A thin layer of fine-grained sediment deposited in the still waters of a lake. Varves are frequently

Vector
A mathematical element that has a direction and magnitude, but no fixed position. Examples are force

Vein
A deposit of foreign minerals within a rock fracture or joint.

Ventifact
A rock that exhibits the effects of sand-blasting or 'snowblasting' on its surfaces, which become fi

Vertical Exaggeration
In making sketches of landscapes and cross-sections, the vertical dimension is frequently exaggerate

Vesicle
Spherical or elongated cavities in an igneous rock that are created when a melt crystallizes with bu

Viscosity
The resistance of a fluid to flow. Fluids with a high viscosity resist flow. Fluids with a low visco

Volcanic Ash
A volcanic sediment of rock fragments, usually glass, less than 4 millimeters in diameter that is fo

Volcanic Ash Fall
An accumulation of volcanic ash produced by an eruption. These can be very thick near the vent and d

Volcanic Ash Flow
A mixture of volcanic ash and gases that moves downhill as a density current in the atmosphere.

Volcanic Block
A pyroclastic rock fragment ranging from about fist- to car-sized.

Volcanic Bomb
A projectile of hot magma or rock that is blown from the vent during a volcanic eruption. These soli

Volcanic Breccia
A rock made up of pyroclastic fragments that are at least 64 millimeters in diameter.

Volcanic Cone
A cone-shaped hill or mountain composed of pyroclastic debris and/or lava which builds up around a v

Volcanic Dome
A steep-sided extrusion of very viscous lava that is squeezed from a volcanic vent without major eru

Volcanic Ejecta Blanket
A collective term for all the pyroclastic rocks deposited around a volcano, especially by a volcanic

Volcanic Emanations
Gases, especially steam, emitted from a vent or released from lava.

Volcanic Neck
A vertical intrusion with the geometry of a volcanic pipe. An erosional remant of a volcanic pipe.

Volcanic Pipe
A vertical or nearly vertical tunnel which connects a magma reservoir to the surface. Magma and gas

Volcano
A vent in Earth's surface through which molten rock and gases escape. The term also refers to deposi

Wadi
A stream valley in an arid region that is dry except during the rainy season.

Warping
In tectonics, refers to the gentle, regional bending of the crust, which occurs in epeirogenic movem

Wasting Natural Resources
Mineral resources that can be extracted by people but which can not be readily replaced by the actio

Water Cycle
The movement of water between the atmosphere, ground and surface water bodies through the processes

Water Mass
A mass of water that fills part of an ocean or lake and is distinguished by its uniform physical and

Water Quality
An assessment of the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, especially how they

Water Table
A level beneath the Earth's surface, below which all pore spaces are filled with water and above whi

Watershed
The geographic area that contributes runoff to a stream. It can be outlined on a topographic map by

Wave Steepness
The maximum height or amplitude of a wave divided by its wavelength.

Wave-Cut Terrace
A level surface formed by wave erosion of coastal bedrock to the bottom of the turbulent breaker zon

Wavelength
An interval of repetition in a wave-like disturbance. The distance between two successive crests or

Weathering
The set of all processes that decay and break up bedrock, by a combination of physically fracturing

Wellhead Price
The value of natural gas at the mouth of the well.

Withdrawal
A removal of water from a surface or ground water source for use.

Worked Over Well
A previously drilled hole that is reentered and treated to improve or initiate a flow of oil and or

Working Interest
An interest in a mineral property that entitles a party to a share of the mineral production, often

Xenoblast
A crystal that has grown in a rock during the process of metamorphism and which has not developed it

Xenolith
A preexisting rock that has been incorporated into magma without melting. When the magma crystallize

Xerophyte
A plant that can survive in a very dry location or climate.

Yazoo Stream
A tributary that parallels the main channel for a considerable distance. Joining of these streams is

Yellow Ground
Oxidized kimberlite. A yellow soil that is characteristic of the area above a kimberlite diamond pip

Yield
The quantity of water, coal, gold or other resource that can be produced from a deposit.

Youth
The earliest stage in the development of a landscape. During this stage streams are actively downcut

Youth (Geomorphology)
A stage in the geomorphic cycle in which a landscape has just been uplifted and is beginning to be d

Zeolite
A group of hydrous aluminosilicates that are similar to the feldspars. They easily lose and regain t

Zinc Blende
A term used in reference to the mineral sphalerite.

Zirconium
A mineral, zirconium silicate. A hard mineral with a high index of refraction that is used as a gems

Zone Of Aeration
A zone between the land surface and the water table where pore spaces are filled mainly with air. Wa

Zone Of Saturation
The zone beneath the water table where all pore spaces are completely filled with water. Water that

Zone Of Weathering
A subsurface area, above the water table, where mineral and organic materials are subject to weather

Zoned Crystal
A crystal that grew while temperatures were changing or while the composition of the parent solution