Copy of `Superglossary - Genetics`

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Superglossary - Genetics
Category: Sciences > Genetics
Date & country: 11/12/2013, US
Words: 462


Shotgun Method
Sequencing method that involves randomly sequenced cloned pieces of the genome, with no foreknowledg

Sickle Cell Anemia
An hereditary, chronic form of hemolytic anemia characterized by breakdown of the red blood cells

Single- Gene Disorder
Hereditary disorder caused by a mutant allele of a single gene (e.g., duchenne muscular dystrophy, r

Single-Gene Disorder
Hereditary disorder caused by a mutant allele of a single gene (e.g., duchenne muscular dystrophy, r

Somatic Cell
Any cell in the body except gametes and their precursors.

Somatic Cell Gene Therapy
Incorporating new genetic material into cells for therapeutic purposes. The new genetic material can

Somatic Cell Genetic Mutation
A change in the genetic structure that is neither inherited nor passed to offspring. Also called acq

Somatic Cell Hybrid
Hybrid cell line derived from two different species

Somatic Cells
Any cell in the body except gametes and their precursors.

Somatic Mutation
A mutation occurring in any cell that is not destined to become a germ cell

Southern Blotting
A technique for transferring electrophoretically resolved dna segments from an agarose gel to a nitr

Spectral Karyotype (SKY)
A graphic of all an organism's chromosomes, each labeled with a different color. Useful for identify

Spina Bifida
A congenital condition that results from altered fetal development of the spinal cord, part of the n

Splice Site
Location in the dna sequence where rna removes the noncoding areas to form a continuous gene transcr

Sporadic Cancer
Cancer that occurs randomly and is not inherited from parents. Caused by dna changes in one cell tha

Stem Cell
Undifferentiated, primitive cells in the bone marrow that have the ability both to multiply and to d

Structural Genomics
The effort to determine the 3d structures of large numbers of proteins using both experimental techn

Substitution
In genetics, a type of mutation due to replacement of one nucleotide in a dna sequence by another nu

Suppressor Gene
A gene that can suppress the action of another gene.

Syndrome
A recognizable pattern or group of multiple signs, symptoms or malformations that characterize a par

Syngeneic
Genetically identical members of the same species.

Synteny
Genes occurring in the same order on chromosomes of different species.

Tandem Repeat Sequences
Multiple copies of the same base sequence on a chromosome

Targeted Mutagenesis
Deliberate change in the genetic structure directed at a specific site on the chromosome. Used in re

Tay-Sachs Disease
A fatal degenerative disease of the nervous system due to a deficiency of hexosamidase a, causing me

Technology Transfer
The process of converting scientific findings from research laboratories into useful products by the

Telomerase
The enzyme that directs the replication of telomeres.

Telomere
The ends of chromosomes. These specialized structures are involved in the replication and stability

Teratogenic
Substances such as chemicals or radiation that cause abnormal development of a embryo.

Teratogens
Any agent that raises the incidence of congenital malformations.

Thymine (T)
A nitrogenous base, one member of the base pair a- t (adenine- thymine).

Toxicogenomics
The study of how genomes respond to environmental stressors or toxicants. Combines genome-wide mrna

Trait
Any detectable phenotypic property of an organism.

Transcription
The synthesis of an RNA copy from a sequence of DNA (a gene)

Transcription Factor
A protein that binds to regulatory regions and helps control gene expression.

Transcriptome
The full complement of activated genes, mrnas, or transcripts in a particular tissue at a particular

Transduction
The transfer of bacterial genetic material from one bacterium to another using a phage as a vector.

Transfection
The introduction of foreign dna into a host cell.

Transfer RNA (TRNA)
A class of rna having structures with triplet nucleotide sequences that are complementary to the tri

Transferase
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of functional groups between donor and acceptor molecules.

Transformation
A process by which the genetic material carried by an individual cell is altered by incorporation of

Transgenic
An experimentally produced organism in which dna has been artificially introduced and incorporated i

Transgenic Organism
One into which a cloned genetic material has been experimentally transferred, a subset of these fore

Translation
The process in which the genetic code carried by mrna directs the synthesis of proteins from amino a

Translocation
A chromosome aberration which results in a change in position of a chromosomal segment within the ge

Transposable Element
A class of dna sequences that can move from one chromosomal site to another.

Triplet Code
A code in which a given amino acid is specified by a set of three nucleotides.

Trisomy
Possessing three copies of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two copies.

Tumor Suppressor Gene
Genes that normally function to restrain the growth of tumors

Unesco
United national educational, scientific, and cultural organization.

Uracil
A nitrogenous base normally found in rna but not dna

Vector
A self-replicating dna molecule that transfers a dna segment between host cells.

Virus
A noncellular biological entity that can reproduce only within a host cell. Viruses consist of nucle

Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome
An autosomal dominant condition characterized by the anomalous growth and proliferation of blood ves

Western Blot
A technique used to identify and locate proteins based on their ability to bind to specific antibodi

Western Blotting Analysis
A technique used to identify a specific protein

Wild Type
The form of an organism that occurs most frequently in nature.

Xenograft
Tissue or organs from an individual of one species transplanted into or grafted onto an organism of

XYY Syndrome
Genetic condition in males with extra y chromosome (in 1 in 1000 male births). Symptoms

Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC)
A vector used to clone dna fragments (up to 400 kb)

Zinc-Finger Protein
A secondary feature of some proteins containing a zinc atom

Zoo Blot
northern analysis of mRNA from different organisms.