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Superglossary - Genetics
Category: Sciences > Genetics
Date & country: 11/12/2013, US
Words: 462


Germ Line
The continuation of a set of genetic information from one generation to the next.

Germ Line Gene Therapy
An experimental process of inserting genes into germ cells or fertilized eggs to cause a genetic cha

Guanine (G)
A nitrogenous base, one member of the base pair gc (guanine and cytosine) in dna.

Gyandromorph
Organisms that have both male and female cells and therefore express both male and female characteri

Haploid
A single set of chromosomes (half the full set of genetic material), present in the egg and sperm ce

Haplotype
A way of denoting the collective genotype of a number of closely linked loci on a chromosome.

Hardy-Weinberg Law
The concept that both gene frequencies and genotype frequencies will remain constant from generation

Hemizygous
Having only one copy of a particular gene. For example, in humans, males are hemizygous for genes fo

Hemophilia
A sex-linked disease in humans in which the blood-clotting process is defective.

Hereditary Cancer
Cancer that occurs due to the inheritance of an altered gene within a family.

Heterogeneity
The production of identical or similar phenotypes by different genetic mechanisms.

Heterozygosity
The presence of different alleles at one or more loci on homologous chromosomes.

Heterozygote
Having two alleles that are different for a given gene.

High-Throughput Sequencing
A fast method of determining the order of bases in dna.

Highly Conserved Sequence
Dna sequence that is very similar across several different types of organisms.

Homeobox
A short stretch of nucleotides whose base sequence is virtually identical in all the genes that cont

Homolog
A member of a chromosome pair in diploid organisms or a gene that has the same origin and functions

Homologies
Similarities in dna or protein sequences between individuals of the same species or among different

Homologous Chromosome
Chromosome containing the same linear gene sequences as another, each derived from one parent.

Homologous Recombination
Swapping of dna fragments between paired chromosomes.

Homology
Similarity in dna or protein sequences between individuals of the same species or among different sp

Homozygote
Having identical alleles at one or more loci in homologous chromosome segments.

Housekeeping Genes
Those genes expressed in all cells because they provide functions needed for sustenance of all cell

Human Artificial Chromosome (HAC)
A vector used to hold large dna fragments.

Human Gene Therapy
Insertion of normal dna directly into cells to correct a genetic defect.

Human Genome Initiative
Collective name for several projects begun in 1986 by doe to create an ordered set of dna segments f

Huntington Disease
A disease characterized by irregular, spasmodic involuntary movements of the limbs and facial muscle

Hybrid
The offspring of genetically different parents.

Hybridization
The process of joining two complementary strands of dna or one each of dna and rna to form a double-

Ichthyosis
Any of several hereditary or congenital skin conditions

Identical Twin
Twins produced by the division of a single zygote

Immunotherapy
Using the immune system to treat disease, for example, in the development of vaccines. May also refe

Imprinting
A chemical modification of a gene allele which can be used to identify maternal or paternal origin o

Imprinting
A phenomenon in which the disease phenotype depends on which parent passed on the disease gene. For

In Situ Hybridization
Use of a dna or rna probe to detect the presence of the complementary dna sequence in cloned bacteri

In Vitro
Studies performed outside a living organism such as in a laboratory.

Incomplete Penetrance
The gene for a condition is present, but not obviously expressed in all individuals in a family with

Independent Assortment
During meiosis each of the two copies of a gene is distributed to the germ cells independently of th

Informatics
The study of the application of computer and statistical techniques to the management of information

Informed Consent
An individual willingly agrees to participate in an activity after first being advised of the risks

Inherit
In genetics, to receive genetic material from parents through biological processes.

Insertion
A chromosome abnormality in which a piece of dna is incorporated into a gene and thereby disrupts th

Intellectual Property Rights
Patents, copyrights, and trademarks.

Interference
One crossover event inhibits the chances of another crossover event. Also known as positive interfer

Interphase
The period in the cell cycle when dna is replicated in the nucleus

Introns
The dna base sequences interrupting the protein- coding sequences of a gene

Isochromosome
A metacentric chromosome produced during mitosis or meiosis when the centromere splits transversely

Isoenzyme
An enzyme performing the same function as another enzyme but having a different set of amino acids.

Junk DNA
Stretches of dna that do not code for genes

Karyotype
A photomicrograph of an individuals chromosomes arranged in a standard format showing the number, si

Karyotype
A photomicrograph of an individual's chromosomes arranged in a standard format showing the number, s

Kilobase (KB)
Unit of length for dna fragments equal to 1000 nucleotides.

Klinefelter Syndrome
An endocrine condition caused by a an extra x-chromosome (47,xxy)

Knockout
Deactivation of specific genes

Library
An unordered collection of clones (i.e., cloned dna from a particular organism), whose relationship

Linkage
The proximity of two or more markers (e.g., genes, rflp markers) on a chromosome

Linkage Disequilibrium
Where alleles occur together more often than can be accounted for by chance. Indicates that the two

Linkage Map
A map of the relative positions of genetic loci on a chromosome, determined on the basis of how ofte

Lligase
An enzyme that functions in dna repair.

Localize
Determination of the original position (locus) of a gene or other marker on a chromosome.

Locus (Pl. Loci)
The position on a chromosome of a gene or other chromosome marker

Logarithm of the Odd (LOD) Score
A measure of the likelihood of two loci being within a measurable distance of each other.

Long-Range Restriction Mapping
Restriction enzymes are proteins that cut dna at precise locations. Restriction maps depict the chro

Macrorestriction Map
Map depicting the order of and distance between sites at which restriction enzymes cleave chromosome

Mapping Population
The group of related organisms used in constructing a genetic map.

Marfan Syndrome
Autosomal dominant condition of connective tissue

Marker
A gene with a known location on a chromosome and a clear-cut phenotype, used as a point of reference

Marker
An identifiable physical location on a chromosome (e.g., restriction enzyme cutting site, gene) whos

Mass Spectrometry
An instrument used to identify chemicals in a substance by their mass and charge.

Megabase (MB)
Unit of length for dna fragments equal to 1 million nucleotides and roughly equal to 1 cm.

Meiosis
The process of two consecutive cell divisions in the diploid progenitors of sex cells. Meiosis resul

Mendelian Inheritance
One method in which genetic traits are passed from parents to offspring. Named for gregor mendel, wh

Messenger RNA (MRNA)
An rna molecular that functions during translation to specify the sequence of amino acids in a nasce

Metaphase
A stage in mitosis or meiosis during which the chromosomes are aligned along the equatorial plane of

Methylation
Addition of a methyl group (-ch3) to dna or rna.

Methylmalonic Acidemia
A group of conditions characterized by the inability to metabolize methylmalonic acid or by a defect

Microarray
Sets of miniaturized chemical reaction areas that may also be used to test dna fragments, antibodies

Microbial Genetics
The study of genes and gene function in bacteria, archaea, and other microorganisms. Often used in r

Microinjection
A technique for introducing a solution of dna into a cell using a fine microcapillary pipet.

Micronuclei
Chromosome fragments that are not incorporated into the nucleus at cell division.

Missense Mutation
A change in the base sequence of a gene that alters or eliminates a protein.

Mitochondrial DNA
The genetic material found in mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell. Not in

Mitosis
The process of nuclear division in cells that produces daughter cells that are genetically identical

Model Organisms
A laboratory animal or other organism useful for research.

Modeling
The use of statistical analysis, computer analysis, or model organisms to predict outcomes of resear

Molecular Biology
The study of the structure, function, and makeup of biologically important molecules.

Molecular Farming
The development of transgenic animals to produce human proteins for medical use.

Molecular Genetics
The study of macromolecules important in biological inheritance.

Molecular Medicine
The treatment of injury or disease at the molecular level. Examples include the use of dna-based dia

Monogenic Disorder
A disorder caused by mutation of a single gene.

Monosomy
Possessing only one copy of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two copies.

Morbid Map
A diagram showing the chromosomal location of genes associated with disease.

Multifactorial
A characteristic influenced in its expression by many factors, both genetic and environmental.

Multiplexing
A laboratory approach that performs multiple sets of reactions in parallel (simultaneously)

Murine
Organism in the genus mus. A rat or mouse.

Mutagen
An agent that causes a permanent genetic change in a cell. Does not include changes occurring during

Mutagenicity
The capacity of a chemical or physical agent to cause permanent genetic alterations.

Mutation
Any heritable change in dna sequence. Compare polymorphism.

Myotonic Dystrophy
A combination of progressive weakening of the muscles and muscle spasms or rigidity, with difficulty

Neurofibromatosis
One of the most common single gene conditions affecting the human nervous system