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Superglossary - Genetics
Category: Sciences > Genetics
Date & country: 11/12/2013, US
Words: 462


Cytogenetics
The study of the physical appearance of chromosomes.

Cytological Band
An area of the chromosome that stains differently from areas around it.

Cytological Map
A type of chromosome map whereby genes are located on the basis of cytological findings obtained wit

Cytoplasmic Trait
A genetic characteristic in which the genes are found outside the nucleus, in chloroplasts or mitoch

Cytosine (C)
A nitrogenous base, one member of the base pair gc (guanine and cytosine) in dna.

Data Warehouse
A collection of databases, data tables, and mechanisms to access the data on a single subject.

Degenerate Codon
A codon that specifies the same amino acid as another codon.

Deletion
The loss of a segment of the genetic material from a chromosome.

Deletion Map
A description of a specific chromosome that uses defined mutations --specific deleted areas in the g

Deletion Mapping
The use of overlapping deletions to localize the position of an unknown gene on a chromosome or link

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
The molecule that encodes genetic information. Dna is a double-stranded molecule held together by we

Deoxyribose
A type of sugar that is one component of dna (deoxyribonucleic acid).

Diploid
A full set of genetic material, consisting of paired chromosomes one chromosome from each parental s

Directed Evolution
A laboratory process used on isolated molecules or microbes to cause mutations and identify subseque

Directed Mutagenesis
Alteration of dna at a specific site and its reinsertion into an organism to study any effects of th

Directed Sequencing
Successively sequencing dna from adjacent stretches of chromosome.

Disease
Any deviation from the normal structure or function of any part, organ, or system of the body that i

Disease-Associated Genes
Alleles carrying particular dna sequences associated with the presence of disease.

Dmd
Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

DNA Bank
A service that stores dna extracted from blood samples or other human tissue.

DNA Fingerprint Technique
A method employed to determine differences in amino acid sequences between related proteins

DNA Hybridization
A technique for selectively binding specific segments of single-stranded (ss) dna or rna by base pai

DNA Probe
Any biochemical used to identify or isolate a gene, a gene product, or a protein.

DNA Repair Genes
Genes encoding proteins that correct errors in dna sequencing.

DNA Replication
The use of existing dna as a template for the synthesis of new dna strands. In humans and other euka

DNA Sequence
The relative order of base pairs, whether in a fragment of dna, a gene, a chromosome, or an entire g

DNA Sequencing
Plus and minus or 'primed synthesis' method, developed by sanger, dna is synthesized in vitro in suc

Domain
A discrete portion of a protein with its own function. The combination of domains in a single protei

Dominant
Alleles that determine the phenotype displayed in a heterozygote with another (recessive) allele.

Double Helix
The twisted-ladder shape that two linear strands of dna assume when complementary nucleotides on opp

Down Syndrome
A type of mental deficiency due to trisomy (three copies) of autosome 21, a translocation of 21 or m

Draft Sequence
The sequence generated by the hgp as of june 2000 that, while incomplete, offers a virtual road map

Duchenne-Becker Muscular Dystrophy
The most common and severe form of muscular dystrophy

Dwarfism
Conditions of short stature with adult height under 4'10' as adult, usually with normal intelligence

Dystonia
Neurologic condition involving repeated twisting and movement. Involves a variety of muscle groups.

Electrophoresis
A method of separating large molecules (such as dna fragments or proteins) from a mixture of similar

Electroporation
A process using high-voltage current to make cell membranes permeable to allow the introduction of n

Embryonic Stem (ES) Cells
An embryonic cell that can replicate indefinitely, transform into other types of cells, and serve as

Endonuclease
An enzyme that cleaves its nucleic acid substrate at internal sites in the nucleotide sequence.

Endonuclease Restriction Enzyme
A protein that recognizes specific, short nucleotide sequences and cuts dna at those sites. Bacteria

Enzyme
A protein that acts as a catalyst, speeding the rate at which a biochemical reaction proceeds but no

Epistasis
One gene interfers with or prevents the expression of another gene located at a different locus.

Erythrocytes
The hemoglobin-containing cell found in the blood of vertebrates.

Escherichia Coli
Common bacterium that has been studied intensively by geneticists because of its small genome size,

Ethics
The study of fundamental principles which defines values and determines moral duty and obligation.

Euchromatin
The chromatin that shows the staining behavior characteristic of the majority of the chromosomal com

Eugenics
The improvement of humanity by altering its genetic composition by encouraging breeding of those pre

Eukaryote
Cell or organism with membrane- bound, structurally discrete nucleus and other well- developed subce

Eukaryote
Cell or organism with membrane-bound, structurally discrete nucleus and other well-developed subcell

Exogenous DNA
Dna originating outside an organism that has been introducted into the organism.

Exons
Portion of a gene included in the transcript of a gene and survives processing of the rna in the cel

Exonuclease
An enzyme that cleaves nucleotides sequentially from free ends of a linear nucleic acid substrate.

Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)
A short strand of dna that is a part of a cdna molecule and can act as identifier of a gene. Used in

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A link between excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy and birth defects

Filial Generation (F1-F2)
Each generation of offspring in a breeding program, designated f1, f2, etc.

Fingerprinting
In genetics, the identification of multiple specific alleles on a person's dna to produce a unique i

Finished DNA Sequence
High-quality, low error, gap-free dna sequence of the human genome. Achieving this ultimate 2003 hgp

Flow Cytometry
Analysis of biological material by detection of the light- absorbing or fluorescing properties of ce

Flow Cytometry
Analysis of biological material by detection of the light-absorbing or fluorescing properties of cel

Flow Karyotyping
Use of flow cytometry to analyze and separate chromosomes according to their dna content.

Forensics
The use of dna for identification. Some examples of dna use are to establish paternity in child supp

Fragile Sites
A non-staining gap of variable width that usually involves both chromatids and is always at exactly

Fragile-X Syndrome
X-linked trait

Fraternal Twin
Siblings born at the same time as the result of fertilization of two ova by two sperm. They share th

Full Gene Sequence
The complete order of bases in a gene. This order determines which protein a gene will produce.

Functional Genomics
The study of genes, their resulting proteins, and the role played by the proteins the body's biochem

Gamete
An haploid cell.gel electrophoresis the process by which nucleic acids (dna or rna) or proteins are

GC-Rich Area
Many dna sequences carry long stretches of repeated g and c which often indicate a gene-rich region.

Gene
The fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. A gene is an ordered sequence of nucleotid

Gene Amplification
Any process by which specific dna sequences are replicated disproportionately greater than their rep

Gene Chip Technology
Development of cdna microarrays from a large number of genes. Used to monitor and measure changes in

Gene Expression
The process by which a gene's coded information is converted into the structures present and operati

Gene Family
Group of closely related genes that make similar products.

Gene Map
The linear arrangement of mutable sites on a chromosome as deduced from genetic recombination experi

Gene Mapping
Determination of the relative positions of genes on a dna molecule (chromosome or plasmid) and of th

Gene Pool
All the variations of genes in a species.

Gene Prediction
Predictions of possible genes made by a computer program based on how well a stretch of dna sequence

Gene Product
The biochemical material, either rna or protein, resulting from expression of a gene. The amount of

Gene Therapy
An experimental procedure aimed at replacing, manipulating, or supplementing nonfunctional or misfun

Gene Transfer
Incorporation of new dna into and organism's cells, usually by a vector such as a modified virus. Us

Genetic Code
The sequence of nucleotides, coded in triplets (codons) along the mrna, that determines the sequence

Genetic Counseling
The educational process that helps individuals, couples, or families to understand genetic informati

Genetic Discrimination
Prejudice against those who have or are likely to develop an inherited disorder.

Genetic Engineering
Altering the genetic material of cells or organisms to enable them to make new substances or perform

Genetic Illness
Sickness, physical disability, or other disorder resulting from the inheritance of one or more delet

Genetic Linkage Map
A chromosome map showing the relative positions of the known genes on the chromosomes of a given spe

Genetic Marker
A gene or other identifiable portion of dna whose inheritance can be followed.

Genetic Mosaic
An organism in which different cells contain different genetic sequence. This can be the result of a

Genetic Polymorphism
Difference in dna sequence among individuals, groups, or populations (e.g., genes for blue eyes vers

Genetic Predisposition
Susceptibility to a genetic disease. May or may not result in actual development of the disease.

Genetic Screening
Testing groups of individuals to identify defective genes capable of causing hereditary conditions.

Genetic Testing
Analyzing an individual's genetic material to determine predisposition to a particular health condit

Genetic Variation
A phenotypic variance of a trait in a population attributed to genetic heterogeneity.

Genetics
The study of the patterns of inheritance of specific traits.

Genome
All of the genes carried by a single gamete

Genome Project
Research and technology-development effort aimed at mapping and sequencing the genome of human being

Genomic Library
A collection of clones made from a set of randomly generated overlapping dna fragments representing

Genomics
The study of genes and their function.

Genotype
The genetic constitution of an organism, as distinguished from its physical appearance (its phenotyp

Germ Cell
A sex cell or gamete (egg or spermatozoan).haldane equation haldane's law