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Superglossary - Genetics
Category: Sciences > Genetics
Date & country: 11/12/2013, US
Words: 462


Achondroplasia
The most common and well known form of short limbed dwarfism characterized by a normal trunk size wi

Additive Genetic Effects
When the combined effects of alleles at different loci are equal to the sum of their individual effe

Adenine (A)
A nitrogenous base, one member of the base pair a- t (adenine- thymine).

Advanced Maternal Age
Women over age 34 (age 35 at delivery) at increased risk for nondisjunction trisomy in fetus.

Affected Relative Pair
Individuals related by blood, each of whom is affected with the same trait. Examples are affected si

Aggregation Technique
A technique used in model organism studies in which embryos at the 8-cell stage of development are p

Alcoholism
A chronic and progressive condition characterized by the inability to control the consumption of alc

Allele
Alternative form of a genetic locus

Allogeneic
Variation in alleles among members of the same species.

Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP)
A protein excreted by the fetus into the amniotic fluid and from there into the mother's bloodstream

Alternative Splicing
Different ways of combining a gene's exons to make variants of the complete protein

Alu Repetitive Sequence
The most common dispersed repeated dna sequence in the human genome accounting for 5% of human dna.

Amino Acid
Any of a class of 20 molecules that are combined to form proteins in living things. The sequence of

Amino Acid Sequence
The linear order of the amino acids in a protein or peptide.

Amniocentesis
Prenatal diagnosis method using cells in the amniotic fluid to determine the number and kind of chro

Amniocyte
Cells obtained by amniocentesis.

Amplification
An increase in the number of copies of a specific dna fragment

Amplification
Any process by which specific dna sequences are replicated disproportionately greater than their rep

Aneuploidy
State of having variant chromosome number (too many or too few). (i.e. Down syndrome, turner syndrom

Angelman Syndrome
A condition characterized by severe mental deficiency, developmental delay and growth deficiency, pu

Anticipation
Each generation of offspring has increased severity of a genetic disorder

Antisense
Nucleic acid that has a sequence exactly opposite to an mrna molecule made by the body

Apert Syndrome
A condition caused by the premature closure of the sutures of the skull bones, resulting in an alter

Apoptosis
Programmed cell death, the body's normal method of disposing of damaged, unwanted, or unneeded cells

Arrayed Library
Individual primary recombinant clones (hosted in phage, cosmid, yac, or other vector) that are place

Artificial Insemination
The placement of sperm into a female reproductive tract or the mixing of male and female gametes by

Assembly
Putting sequenced fragments of dna into their correct chromosomal positions.

Autoradiography
A technique that uses x-ray film to visualize radioactively labeled molecules or fragments of molecu

Autosomal Dominant
A gene on one of the non-sex chromosomes that is always expressed, even if only one copy is present.

Autosome
A chromosome not involved in sex determination. The diploid human genome consists of 46 chromosomes,

Avuncular Relationship
The genetic relationship between nieces and nephews and their aunts and uncles.

Backcross
A cross between an animal that is heterozygous for alleles obtained from two parental strains and a

Bacteriophage
A virus whose host is a bacterium

Barr Body
The condensed single x-chromosome seen in the nuclei of somatic cells of female mammals. Base pair a

Base
One of the molecules that form dna and rna molecules.

Base Pair (BP)
Two nitrogenous bases (adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine) held together by weak bonds. Two

Base Sequence
A partnership of organic bases found in dna and rna

Base Sequence Analysis
A method, sometimes automated, for determining the base sequence.

Baysian Analysis
A mathematical method to further refine recurrence risk taking into account other known factors.

Becker Muscular Dystrophy
X-linked condition characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting

Behavioral Genetics
The study of genes that may influence behavior.

Bioinformatics
The science of managing and analyzing biological data using advanced computing techniques. Especiall

Bioremediation
The use of biological organisms such as plants or microbes to aid in removing hazardous substances f

Biotechnology
A set of biological techniques developed through basic research and now applied to research and prod

Birth Defect
Any harmful trait, physical or biochemical, present at birth, whether a result of a genetic mutation

Blast
A computer program that identifies homologous (similar) genes in different organisms, such as human,

Cancer
Diseases in which abnormal cells divide and grow unchecked. Cancer can spread from its original site

Candidate Gene
A gene located in a chromosome region suspected of being involved in a disease.

Capillary Array
Gel-filled silica capillaries used to separate fragments for dna sequencing. The small diameter of t

Carcinogen
Something which causes cancer to occur by causing changes in a cell's dna.

Carrier
An individual who possesses an unexpressed, recessive trait.

Cdna
Complementary dna produced from a rna template by the action of rna- dependent dna polymerase.

Cdna Library
A collection of dna sequences that code for genes. The sequences are generated in the laboratory fro

Cell
The basic unit of any living organism that carries on the biochemical processes of life.

Centimorgan (CM)
A unit of measure of recombination frequency. One centimorgan is equal to a 1% chance that a marker

Centromere
A region of a chromosome to which spindle traction fibers attach during mitosis and meiosis

Charcot-Marie Tooth Disease
A condition characterized by degeneration of the motor and sensory nerves that control movement and

Chimera (Pl Chimaera)
An organism that contains cells or tissues with a different genotype. These can be mutated cells of

Chimeraplasty
An experimental targeted repair process in which a desirable sequence of dna is combined with rna to

Chloroplast Chromosome
Circular dna found in the photosynthesizing organelle (chloroplast) of plants instead of the cell nu

Chorionic Villus Sampling
An invasive prenatal diagnostic procedure involving removal of villi from the human chorion to obtai

Chromomere
One of the serially aligned beads or granules of a eukaryotic chromosome, resulting from local coili

Chromosomal Deletion
The loss of part of a chromosome's dna.

Chromosomal Inversion
Chromosome segments that have been turned 180 degrees. The gene sequence for the segment is reversed

Chromosome
The self-replicating genetic structure of cells containing the cellular dna that bears in its nucleo

Chromosome Banding
A technique for staining chromosomes so that bands appear in a unique pattern particular to the chro

Chromosome Painting
Attachment of certain fluorescent dyes to targeted parts of the chromosome. Used as a diagnositic fo

Chromosome Region P
A designation for the short arm of a chromosome.

Chromosome Region Q
A designation for the long arm of a chromosome.

Chromosomes
The self- replicating genetic structures of cells containing the cellular dna that bears in its nucl

Cleft Palate
Congenital condition with cleft lip alone, or with cleft palate

Clone
An exact copy made of biological material such as a dna segment (e.g., a gene or other region), a wh

Cloned DNA
Any dna fragment that passively replicates in the host organism after it has been joined to a clonin

Clones
A group of cells derived from a single ancestor.

Cloning
Using specialized DNA technology to produce multiple, exact copies of a single gene or other segment

Cloning Vector
Dna molecule originating from a virus, a plasmid, or the cell of a higher organism into which anothe

Codominance
Situation in which two different alleles for a genetic trait are both expressed.

Codon
A sequence of three nucleotides in mrna that specifies an amino acid.

Coisogenic Or Congenic
Nearly identical strains of an organism

Comparative Genomics
The study of human genetics by comparisons with model organisms such as mice, the fruit fly, and the

Complementary DNA (CDNA)
Dna that is synthesized from a messenger rna template

Complementary Sequence
Nucleic acid base sequence that can form a double-stranded structure with another dna fragment by fo

Complex Trait
Trait that has a genetic component that does not follow strict mendelian inheritance. May involve th

Confidentiality
In genetics, the expectation that genetic material and the information gained from testing that mate

Congenital
Any trait present at birth, whether the result of a genetic or nongenetic factor.

Consanguinity
Genetic relationship. Consanguineous individuals have at least one common ancestor in the preceding

Conservative Change
An amino acid change that does not affect significantly the function of the protein.

Conserved Sequence
A base sequence in a dna molecule (or an amino acid sequence in a protein) that has remained essenti

Constitutive Ablation
Gene expression that results in cell death.

Contig
Group of cloned (copied) pieces of dna representing overlapping regions of a particular chromosome.

Contig Map
A map depicting the relative order of a linked library of overlapping clones representing a complete

Contigs
Groups of clones representing overlapping regions of a genome.

Contiguous Genes
Genes physically close on a chromosome that when acting together express a phenotype.

Cornelia De Lange Syndrome
Condition involving growth deficiency, significant developmental delay, anomalies of the extremities

Cosmid
Artificially constructed cloning vector containing the cos gene of phage lambda. Cosmids can be pack

Cpg Islands
Areas of multiple cg repeats in dna.

Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome
A chromosomal condition (monosomy 5p). Name comes from the distinctive mewing cry of affected infant

Crossing Over
The breaking during meiosis of one maternal and one paternal chromosome, the exchange of correspondi

Crossovers
The exchange of genetic material between two paired chromosome during meiosis.

Cystic Fibrosis
An autosomal recessive genetic condition of the exocrine glands, which causes the body to produce ex