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Foodworks International - Gourmet glossary
Category: Food and Drink
Date & country: 22/10/2013, US
Words: 638


Ras el Hanout
This is a powdered spice mixture, used in Arabic and north African cooking, with a sweet and pungent flavor. See the definition under Charmoula for a description of the ingredients and its applications.

Ratatouille
A vegetable stew consisting of onions, eggplant, sweet peppers, zucchini, and tomatoes flavored with garlic, herbs, and olive oil. Traditionally simmered until all of the vegetables are quite soft and the flavor has blended into one, ratatouille takes on the appearance of marmalade. Newer versions reduce the cooking time, allowing the vegetables to retain some of their original identity.

Ravioli
Stuffed pasta dough served in broth or with sauce. Reduce

Remoulade
This classic French sauce is made by combining mayonnaise (usually homemade) with mustard, capers and chopped gherkins, herbs and anchovies. It's served chilled as an accompaniment to cold meat, fish and shellfish.

Rennet
An extract from the stomach of lambs and calves used in cheese making to coagulate milk. There are also rennet's obtained from vegetables such as cardoons.

Rice
To push cooked food through a perforated kitchen tool called a ricer. The resulting food looks like rice.

Rigatoni
Large pasta tubes with ridged sides.

Rillette
A coarse, highly spiced spread made of meat or poultry and always served cold. This is called potted meat because rillettes are often covered with a layer of lard and stored for a period of time to age the mixture.

Risotto
An Italian preparation of rice resulting in a creamy liaison with stock and butter. This may be served as a first course, main course, or side dish and embellished with meat, seafood, cheese, or vegetables. The best known version of this dish is risotto ala Milanese, with saffron and Reggiano parmesan cheese.

Rissol
Small pies similar to empanadas and piroshki. They are filled with meat, vegetables, or cheese and deep fried.

Rissole
The British version of small savory pies. Roast

Rocky Mountain Oysters
Lamb or cattle testicles, breaded and deep fried.

Rosti
A Swiss potato pancake made from cooked potatoes, sometimes flavored with bacon. Cooked in a steel Rosti pan that is scored in the bottom to allow the butter to pass under the potato during the cooking time

Rouille
A thick sauce similar to aioli, made of dried chiles, garlic, and olive oil. Rouille is traditionally served with bouillabaisse and soup de poisson. Other recipes also add saffron and tomatoes.

Roux
A mixture of flour and fat used to thicken sauces, soups, and stews. Though usually made with butter, roux's are also made with bacon or poultry fats, margarine, and vegetable oil. The mixture is cooked for a brief time to remove the raw taste of the starch from the flour. Longer cooking results in a darker color, which is favorable in Creole cooking where roux's are cooked for long periods until they reach a dark brown color. Roux is classified as White, pale, blond, or brown. The darker the roux the less its capability of thickening and therefore the need to use more.

Sabayon
definition is under zabaglione.

Sable
A rich short cookies similar to shortbread.

Saffron
A spice consisting of the dried stigma of the Crocus sativus plant, originating in the eastern Mediterranean, now grown as well in Spain, France, and South America. It has a characteristic pungent aroma and flavor and bright yellow color. It is also very expensive and used sparingly. The stigma of approximately 5000 crocus will yield about 1 ounce of saffron. Saffron is indispensable in dishes such as paella and bouillabaisse. A good substitute for the yellow color is turmeric, though nothing can replace saffrons unique flavor.

Salt Cod
Cod that has been salted and dried to preserve it for long periods of time. Salt cod is evident in cuisines of the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas. To reconstitute the fish, you must soak it in many changes of fresh water to remove the excess salt. You may then poach the fish until it is just flaking off the bone, or use it raw for other preparations.

Saltimbocca
An Italian dish comprised of thin slices of veal, rolled around ham and cheese, seasoned with sage and braised until tender.

Saltpeter
The name for potassium nitrate, which is used primarily in the meat industry to help preserve cured meats. It gives a distinctive pink color to hams and bacon. There are recent reports from the USDA that nitrates, and nitrites are carcinogenic.

Sambal Ulek (Sambal Oelek)
A paste made by crushing red chilies with a little salt. Can be made by crushing chopped deseeded chilies in a mortar with salt, or purchased at some delicatessens or Asian food stores.

Sambuca
An anise-flavored, not-to-sweet Italian liqueur which is usually served with 2 or 3 dark-roasted coffee beans floating on top.

Samoosa
An Indian snack of deep fried dumplings stuffed with curried vegetables. Most common of the fillings is potatoes or cauliflower with peas.( Bhaji ) or Mutton ground and cooked with Garum masala ( Kheema )

Santen/Coconut Milk
Can be bought in cans or in powdered form, or made as follows: To 2.5 cups boiling water add the grated flesh of one coconut (or 4 cups Dessicated coconut). Leave to stand 30 minutes, squeeze coconut and strain. Use within 24 hours. Known as Narial ka dooth in India, Santen in Indonesia and Malaysia.

Sashimi
A Japanese dish of raw fish, shellfish, and mollusks served with soy sauce, wasabi, and pickled vegetables. Sushi is similar but it is served with vinegared rice, and may also include nori seaweed, vegetables, and strips of cooked eggs similar to omelets. A common accompaniment to this is pickled ginger.

Satay
Also spelled sat

Saut
( to Jump ) ( Dry heat with fat ) To cook food quickly in a small amount of fat or oil, until brown, in a skillet or ( Saut

Savarin
A ring-shaped cake made of a rich yeast dough, soaked with a rum syrup, and filled with pastry or whipped cream.

Scald
To dip fruits or vegetables in boiling water in order to loosen their skins and simplify peeling. The produce should be left in the water for only 30 seconds to prohibit cooking, and should be shocked in an ice water bath before the skin is removed.

Scale
To remove the scales from the skin of a fish using a dull knife or a special kitchen tool called a fish scaler.

Scampi
Another word for langoustine. This word is used loosely in the US as a description of large 15 and under shrimp, broiled with butter, lemon, and garlic.

Scone
A small, lightly sweetened pastry similar to American biscuits, often flavored with currants.

Scotch Bonnet Pepper
Capsicum tetragonum. Similar to Habanera Pepper.

Scrapple
Scrapple is boiled, ground leftover pieces of pig, together with cornmeal and spices. Good scrapple, particularly served with a spicy tomato catsup, is food for the gods.

Scungilli
Also a Mollusk Gastropod

Sea Urchin
A round spiny creature found off the coasts of Europe and America. The only edible portion is the coral, usually eaten raw with fresh lemon juice.

Sear
( Dry heat ) To brown meat or fish quickly ( Maillard Protein Reaction ) extremely high heat either in a fry pan, Searing helps seal in the food's juices and provides a crispier tasty exterior. Seared food can then be eaten rare or roasted or braised to desired degree of doneness.

Season
1 To add flavor to foods through the addition of condiments or cooking applications or both.

Season
2 Coat the cooking surface of a new pot or pan with a vegetable oil, then heat in a 350 degree oven for about an hour. This fills in the microscopic machine faults in the metal of the pot or pan surface, particularly cast-iron, and helps prevent foods from sticking.

Seed
To remove the seeds from fruits and vegetables.

Segment
To remove the flesh sections of citrus fruit from the membranes. Using a sharp knife, cut away all of the skin and pith from the outside of the fruit. Place the knife between the membrane and the flesh of one section and slice down. Turn the knife catching the middle of the fruit. Slice up removing each section sans membrane.

Semolina
A coarse or fine ground flour made from durum wheat, used in the making of pasta and bread.

Shallots
Small pointed members of the onion family that grow in clusters something like garlic and have a mild, onion taste. Not the same as green/spring onion. Shortbread

Shoyu
Japanese for Soy Sauce.

Shred
To cut food into thin strips. This can be done by hand or by using a grater or food processor. Cooked meat can be shredded by pulling it apart with two forks.

Sieve
To strain liquids or particles of food through a sieve or strainer. Press the solids, using a ladle or wooden spoon, into the strainer to remove as much liquid and flavor as possible.

Sift
To pass dry ingredients through a fine mesh ( Tamis )

Simmer
( Moist technique ))To cook food in liquid over gentle heat, 185 F.to 195 F just below the boiling point, low enough so that tiny bubbles just begin to break the surface.

Skate wings
This is the edible portion of the skate. The flesh, when cooked, separates into little fingers of meat and has a distinctive rich, gelatinous texture. The taste is similar to that of scallops.

Skewer
To spear small pieces of food on long, thin, pointed rods called skewers.

Skim
To remove the scum that rises to the surface from a liquid when it is boiled. The top layer of the liquid, such as the cream from milk or the foam and fat from stock, soups or sauces, can be removed using a spoon, ladle or skimmer. Soups, stews or sauces can be chilled so that the fat coagulates on the surface and may be easily removed before reheating.

Skin
To remove the skin from food before or after cooking. Poultry, fish and game are often skinned for reasons of appearance, taste and diet.

Smoke
To expose fresh food to smoke from a wood fire for a prolonged period of time. Traditionally used for preservation purposes, smoking is now a means of giving flavor to food. Smoking tends to dry the food, kills bacteria, deepens color and gives food a smoky flavor. The duration of smoking varies from 20 minutes to several days. The more widely used woods are Hickory

Smorgasbord
A Swedish buffet of many hot and cold dishes served as hors d'oeuvres or as a full meal. Similar buffets are served throughout Scandinavia, as well as the Soviet Union. Common elements of a smorgasbord are pickled herring, marinated vegetables, smoked and cured salmon and sturgeon, and a selection of canap

Soba Noodle
Buckwheat noodles resembling spaghetti, used in Japanese cooking.

Soy Sauce
A condiment from Southeast Asia and Japan made from fermented soybeans. There are different varieties of soy sauce available. Darker, stronger sauces are used for cooking while lighter ones are used as sauces and seasonings. Japanese soy sauce is called shoyu.

Speck
Cured and smoked pork flank.

Spiedini
An Italian word for skewers of meat or fish grilled over a flame or under a broiler.

Spring Roll
Thin sheets of dough which are filled with meat, seafood, or vegetables and rolled into logs. Spring rolls are most often deep fried, though they may also be steamed. Chinese versions use wheat doughs, while the Vietnamese and Thai versions use a rice paper wrapper.

Squash
A family of seed vegetables. All but two have a thick, hard, usually inedible rind, rich-tasting meat, and lots of seeds. There are also things called summer squashes, which have edible rinds, milder meats, and usually fewer seeds. An example of this type is the Zucchini ( Courgette )

Steam
To cook food on a rack or in steamer basket over a boiling liquid in a covered pan. Steaming retains flavor, shape, texture, and nutrients better than boiling or poaching.

Stock
A flavorful broth made from meats, fish, shellfish, and vegetables. These are used as the basis of sauce and soup making.

Strudel
Paper thin pastry rolled around sweet fillings of fruit, nuts, or cheese. Savory versions of this are similar to the Russian coulibiac.

Sugar Syrup
Differentiating from natural syrups, this term refers to a solution of sugar and water. Simple syrups are made with equal quantities of water and sugar. Heavy syrup is made with twice as much sugar as water. These types of syrups are used in making sorbets, soft drinks, and for soaking cakes.

Supreme
The skinned full breast of a chicken with the tender in tacked

Sweat
To cook vegetables in minimum fat or liquid

Swede
In the United States of America it is known as a Rutabaga.

Sweetbread
The culinary term for the thymus gland of an animal. Those of veal and lamb are most commonly eaten. The pancreas is also considered a sweetbread, but its taste and texture is inferior to that of the thymus gland.

Syllabub
An English dessert comprised mainly of whipped cream sweetened with sugar and flavored with sherry, brandy, or cointreau. Lemon zest, fruit preserves or puree may also be swirled into the cream.

Tabasco Sauce
A thin spicy sauce made of vinegar, red peppers, and salt, developed in America by Edmund McIlhenny at his home on Avery Island before the U.S. Civil War. The McIlhenny Company is the sole supplier of Tabasco

Tabbouleh
A Lebanese salad made of softened bulgur tossed with vegetables and seasoned with lemon and mint.

Tagine
A Moroccan dish named after the cooking utensil in which it has been cooked. These stews may contain poultry, fish, meat, or vegetables and are highly spiced with sweet overtones common in North African cuisine.

Tagliatelle
A flat ribbon pasta, narrower than Fettucine, measuring approximately 6mm across.

Taglierini
A flat ribbon pasta, narrower than tagliatelle, measuring approximately 3mm across.

Tahini
Butter A paste made from sesame seeds, used primarily in hummus and baba ganoush.

Tamari
Tamari is a type of soy sauce, usually used in Japanese food. You can easily substitute with Chinese Light Soy or regular Japanese soy sauce.

Tamarind
This is the fruit pod of trees originally from Africa, now common in Asia, India, and the West Indies.

Tangelo
Citrus fruit cross of a tangerine and a pomelo. Larger than a mandarin and a little smaller than an average-size

Tapenade
A paste made from cured black olives seasoned with olive oil, garlic, anchovies, capers, lemon, and marc or cognac. This is common in Provence, where it is served with croutons and raw vegetables to dip. This also makes a good

Taramasalata
A Greek dip made of olive oil and Cod fish roe with the consistency similar to that of mayonnaise.

Tartare
This is a term which has several meanings. It is often used to describe the preparation of raw beef called

Tarte Flamb
An Alsatian pizza with a thin crust topped with fresh white cheese, onions, and bacon. This is also called an Alsatian fire pie.

Tarte Tatin
A type of tart in which the pastry is baked on top of the fruit, then inverted when finished baking. Apples are traditionally used, becoming soft and caramelized during baking.

Temper
1. To slowly bring up the temperature of a colder ingredient by adding small amounts of a hot or boiling liquid,

Tenderize
To make meat more tender by pounding with a mallet, marinating for varying periods of time, or storing at lower temperatures. Fat may also be placed into a piece of meat to make it more tender during cooking.

Terasi
A kind of pungent shrimp paste, used in very small quantities. May be crushed with spices, grilled or fried before adding to other ingredients. Also known as balachan/blacan (Malaysia), kapi (Thailand) and ngapi (Burma).

Terrine
See the description under Pates.

Tiramisu
An Italian dessert which gained dramatic popularity in the US. Tiramisu consists of sponge cake, soaked with an espresso syrup and layered with a sweetened mascarpone cheese and chocolate sauce.

Toad in the Hole
An English dish consisting of pieces of meat or sausages covered with batter and baked in the oven.

Tocino
Cured ham with added color.

Tofu
Also called bean curd, this is made from processed soy beans. It comes in various degrees of firmness and is a

Torta Rustica
A large pie similar to coulibiac, filled with salmon, cabbage or spinach, eggs, and mushrooms. Other

Tortellini
A stuffed pasta made from little rounds of dough, then twisted to form dumplings. Fillings can be made with anything and are served sauced or in a simple broth.

Tortelloni
This is a larger version of the tortellini.

Tortilla
A thin pancake made of cornmeal or flour. They are served both soft and fried, being an integral part of

Tournedo
A slice of beef from the heart of the tenderloin, approximately 2 inches thick, and tied around the center.

Tourte
Similar to p

Trennette
Flat noodles, wider than Fettucine, that have one flat edge and one scalloped edge.

Tripe
The stomach of beef, pork, and sheep.