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Foodworks International - Gourmet glossary
Category: Food and Drink
Date & country: 22/10/2013, US
Words: 638


Mignonette
This is a term used to describe coarsely ground pepper used for au poivre preparations and in bouquet garni. This is also used to describe small round pieces of meat or poultry.

Milanese
This is used to describe foods that are dipped in egg and breadcrumbs, sometimes parmesan cheese, and fried in butter.

Mille-Feuille
Small rectangular pastries made of crisp layers of puff pastry and pastry cream. This may also include savory fillings of similar presentation. The word mille-feuille means a thousand leaves.

Mince
To cut food into very tiny pieces. Minced food is cut into smaller, finer pieces than diced food.

Mincemeat
A sweet spicy mixture of candied and fresh fruits, wine, spices, and beef fat. Earlier recipes for this used beef or venison meat and beef fat. It is used primarily as a filling for pies served during the Christmas holiday season.

Minestrone
An Italian vegetable soup with beans and pasta or rice. This may contain any

Mirepoix
A mixture of chopped onion, carrot, and celery used to flavor stocks and soups. Ham or bacon are sometimes added to a mirepoix, depending on the specific preparation.

Mirin
A non-alcoholic version of sake/rice wine. It is sweet and syrupy.

Mise en Place
A term used in professional kitchens to describe the proper planning procedure for a specific station.

Miso
A paste made from fermented soy beans. This is used in Japanese cooking for sauces and soups.

Mixed Spice
A classic mixture generally containing caraway, allspice, coriander, cumin, nutmeg & ginger, although cinnamon & other spices can be added. It is used with fruit & in cakes. (In America 'Pumpkin Pie Spice' is very similar).

Molasses
This is a syrup resulting from the crystallization of raw sugar from the sap. Additional processing results in darker and stronger tasting molasses called black strap.

Mole
An assortment of thick sauces used in Mexican cooking made of chilies. These sauces are made with one or many chilies, and flavored with cumin, coriander, cinnamon, nuts, seeds, and chocolate. Their flavor is rich, smoky, and very complex. Some recipes are made with fresh herbs and have a green color. Chicken, turkey, and pork are then simmered in this sauce.

Monosodium Glutamate
A sodium salt found in wheat, beets, and soy bean products. It is used extensively in Chinese cookery, and thought to help accentuate the flavors of certain foods. Many people suffer serious allergic reactions to this so widespread use has been reduced to the commercial food processing industry.

Monte
( Mount ) To whisk cold butter, piece by piece, into a warm sauce for smooth texture, flavor and sheen. Each piece of butter must be thoroughly incorporated before a new piece is added so that the sauce does not break (or separate into liquid and fat).

Morel Mushroom
This is a wild mushroom with a honeycomb cap and hollow stem. These are very dirty mushrooms and must be cleaned carefully. Morels possess a wonderful earthy flavor, making them good candidates for soups, sauces, and fillings.

Mornay Sauce
A b

Mortadella
Large, lightly smoked sausages made of pork, beef, or veal. These are specialties of Bologna, which is where the US version of this sausage gets its name. Mortadella is a very smooth, pink sausage with a subtle creamy texture. They are studded with cubes of pork fat and peppercorns.

Mostarda di Cremona
These are fruits cooked and marinated in a spicy, mustard flavored syrup. It is a classic accompaniment to bollito misto. These fruits are also used in sauces for veal, and assorted stuffed pasta fillings.

Moussaka
A layered dish of eggplant and lamb with tomatoes and onions. This is all bound with b

Mousse
Sweet or savory dishes made of ingredients which are blended and folded together. These mixtures may be hot or cold, and generally contain whipped egg whites to lighten them. Cream is also used to lighten these dishes, though when used in large quantities, these preparations are called mousselines.

Mousseline
A fine puree of a raw forcemeat which has been formed into an emulsion and has the addition of cream. The product is then cooked and nominally served hot. The term can also describe a hollandaise sauce which has lightly whipped cream folded into it.

Mousseron Mushroom
A wild mushroom with an off-white to beige color. The flavor is full-bodied and the texture is fleshy like bolets.

Mulligatawny
A curried chicken soup adapted by the British from India. Originally the soup was enriched with coconut milk and embellished with almonds and apples. Newer versions make a lighter broth and flavor this with curry and coconut.

Nage
An aromatic broth in which crustaceans are cooked. The shellfish is then served with this broth. The most notable of these dishes is lobster la nage.

Nantua
A name given to dishes containing crayfish. This includes crayfish tails and sauces made with a crayfish fumet.

Nap
To completely coat food with a light, thin, even layer of sauce.

Navarin
French stew made with mutton or lamb and onions, turnips, potatoes, and herbs.

Nicoise
Foods cooked in the style of Nice. These dishes may include garlic, Nicoise olives, anchovies, tomatoes, and green beans. Salad Nicoise is the most famous of all these dishes, consisting of potatoes, olives, green beans, and vinaigrette dressing.

Noisette Butter
Whole butter which has been cooked until it reaches a rich, nutty brown color and aroma.

Noissette --
A small round steak, made of lamb or beef tenderloin. The name can also be applied to a small round shaped potato that is pan fried in Butter

Nori Seaweed
Thin dry sheets of seaweed used in Japanese cooking. It is mainly used to wrap sushi and as garnish for other cold presentations.

Nougat
A candy made from sugar and honey mixed with nuts. This mixture is then formed into slabs and sliced.

Nougatine
A darker candy, made of caramel syrup and nuts. This is rolled into thin sheets and formed into cups or bowls to serve as a vessel for other candy or fruit.

Nuoc-Mam
This is a Vietnamese fish sauce made with fermented fish or shrimp. Another name for this is nam pla.

Nutella
A commercial brand of gianduja. This is a creamy paste of chocolate and

Oeuf
The French word for egg.

Oeuf a la Neige
Sweet meringue puffs that are poached in milk and chilled. When served, these puffs are drizzled with caramel and served with creme anglaise.

Olive Oil
Olive oil has a very distinctive flavor, and has become more prominent in American cooking today. Grading of olive oils are determined by the methods of extraction and the acid content of the resulting oil. Virgin oils are those obtained from the first pressing of the olive without further refinement. The finest olive oil is extra virgin, with an acid content of 1%. Following this are superfine at 1.5%, fine at 3%, and virgin at 4%. Pure olive oils are those which have been extracted by heat. These are of 100% olive oil, but their flavor can result in a harsh, bitter after taste. Pomace olive oil is refined from the final pressings and under heat and pressure. The taste is inferior to other olive oils and should never be substituted for them. Olive oil becomes rancid very easily, more so when exposed to heat or light. Always store tightly sealed in a cool, dark place.

Olives
This is the edible fruit of the olive tree. Found in both green unripe) and black ripe) forms, each must undergo a process to remove the bitterness found in them. This curing process is done with brine solutions, salt curing, and drying.

Opakapaka
Pink snapper. A local Hawaiian favorite, especially around the holidays.

Orzo
Small rice shaped pasta.

Ouzo
A clear anise-flavored liqueur from Greece. It's generally mixed with water which turns it whitish and opaque.

Oyster Mushroom
A wild mushroom that grows in clusters on the side of trees. It is off-white to greyish in color and has a soft texture. These mushrooms have a very subtle flavor. They are also being cultivated in the US, making them readily available in markets and moderately priced.

P
A French term referring to pastes or pastry.

P
A term referring to many different preparations of meat, fish and vegetable pies. The definitions of which have been altered through the years. Originally pat

P
A short crust pastry dough made with butter and strengthened with water. Used as a lining for meat or fish pies.

P
A short crust pastry dough made with butter and eggs.

P
A paste used to make cream puffs,

P
A dough comprised of many alternating layers of butter and pastry. This is an extremely versatile dough though preparation of it is labor intensive and very difficult.

P
Another type of sweet, short crust dough.

P
A sweet, short crust dough for tarts and tartlets.

Paella
A Spanish rice dish originating in the town of Valencia. There are hundreds of recipes for paella, all claiming to be authentic. The only ingredients that are necessary for paella are rice, tomatoes, and saffron. Other ingredients are chicken, chorizo, mussels, squid, peppers, and beans. More elaborate preparations include shrimp, lobster, and duck.

Paillard
A piece of meat or fish that has been pounded very thinly and grilled or saut

Palmier
A cookie made of sheets of puff pastry that are rolled in sugar and folded to resemble palm leaves. These cookies are baked until the sugar becomes caramelized.

Pan-bagnat
A sandwich from southern France, consisting of small round loaves of bread which have been hollowed out and filled with onions, anchovies, black olives, and tuna, then drenched in extra virgin olive oil.

Panada
A thick paste used as a binding agent for forcemeats. Flour panadas are made in a style similar to choux paste. Other types use bread crumbs or potato puree.

Pancetta
Cured pork belly that is rolled and tied. Unlike American bacon, this is not smoked.

Panforte
A rich dense torte made of candied fruit and nuts.

Panino
The Italian word for sandwich.

Pannetone
An Italian cake made with a dough rich in egg yolks, traditionally served around Christmas time. The dough is studded with raisins, candied fruits, and occasionally pistachios.

Panzanella
A salad consisting of toasted cubes of bread tossed with vegetables and vinaigrette. The salad is then marinated for at least one hour. The bread should be very firm so that it will endure the soaking of dressing. Vegetables can include tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, and onions. Lots of garlic, capers, black olives, and anchovies are added to the salad.

Pappardelle
Wide flat pasta noodles served with rich, hearty sauces.

Parboil
To boil food briefly in water, cooking it only partially. Parboiling is used for dense food like carrots and potatoes. After being parboiled, these foods can be added at the last minute to quicker-cooking ingredients. Parboiling insures that all ingredients will finish cooking at the same time. Since foods will continue to cook once they have been removed from the boiling water, they should be shocked in ice water briefly to preserve color and texture. Cooking can then be completed by saut

Pare
To remove the thin outer layer of foods using a paring knife or a vegetable peeler.

Pasilla Chili Pepper
Called a chilaca in its fresh form. The mature chilaca turns from dark green to dark brown. After drying (when it becomes a pasilla) it changes to a blackish-brown. It has a rich hot flavor and is generally ground and used for sauces.

Pasta e Fagioli
A rich bean soup with pasta, in which a large sausage(such as cotechino) has been cooked. The soup is eaten first, followed by the sausage served with mustard and bread.

Pastilla(Bistella)
A Moroccan pie made with chicken wrapped in phyllo dough. When finished cooking, the pastilla is dusted with sugar and cinnamon.

Pastry Cream
A cooked custard thickened with flour. Some versions may use cornstarch or a mixture of the two starches.

Paupiette
A thin slice of meat, like a scaloppini, which is stuffed and rolled. These may also be made of fish or vegetables.

Pavlova
A dessert invented in NZ, the main ingredients being sugar and egg white. A pavlova has crisp meringue outside and soft marshmallow inside, and has approximately the dimensions of a deep dessert cake. Commonly pavlovas are topped with whipped cream and fresh fruit, especially kiwifruit, passion fruit or strawberries.

Penne
Quill-shaped pasta tubes with smooth sides. Those with ridges are called penne rigati. These are also called mostaciolli. Large quill-shaped tubes are called manicotti.

Perilla
A Japanese herb that has a dark, russet-purple dentate leaf. It has a complex sweetness, and is wonderful in meat sauces and to make vinegar

Persillade
A mixture of chopped parsley and garlic, added to recipes at the end of cooking.

Pesto
A delicious composition (sauce ) used for pastas, grilled meats, and poultry. This is made of fresh basil, garlic, olive oil, and parmesan cheese. Some versions will also add parsley and walnuts or pine nuts. The ingredients are ground into a paste and moistened with the olive oil. Pesto is also used to describe similar sauces that contain other herbs or nuts. Petit Four

Piroshki
Small Russian meat pies, like empanadas, eaten for lunch or snacks.

Pissaladiere
A southern French pizza consisting of a thick bread crust covered with cooked onions flavored with garlic. The pizza is then topped with black olives and anchovies.

Pita Bread
Flat round bread made with or without a pocket.

Poach
To cook food by gently simmering in liquid at 160 F.to 170 F. Deep poach is where the item to be cooked in this manner is totally submerged. Another technique of Poach is the shallow poach where the item is place with a flavorful cold liquid and the liquid will only come part way to the top of the item being cooked. The pan is covered with a paper cartouche and the item is then cooked to doneness

Polenta
The Italian version of cornmeal mush. Coarsely ground yellow cornmeal is cooked with stock or water and flavored with onions, garlic, and cheese. Polenta may be eaten fresh out of the pot, as a perfect accompaniment to stews. Polenta may also be poured into a greased pan and allowed to set. It is then sliced, saut

Posole
Pozole

Pot Roast
To cook meat slowly by moist heat in a covered pot.( Braise ) The meat is first browned, then braised either on top of the stove or in the oven. Pot roasting is best for tougher cuts of meat which require longer cooking times to break down connective tissue.

Poutine
French fries with cheese curds and gravy.

Praline
In French cookery this is a powder or paste made of caramelized almonds and/or hazelnuts. American cookery refers to a candy consisting of caramel and pecans.

Profiterole
A small puff made with pate choux usual filled an served as an appetizer.

Prosciutto
The Italian word for ham, usually referring to the raw cured hams of Parma. Though once very difficult to obtain in the United States due to USDA and FDA regulations, fine prosciutto's from Italy and Switzerland are now being imported. These hams are called prosciutto crudo. Cooked hams are called prosciutto cotto. Prosciutto is best when sliced paper thin served with ripe figs or wrapped around grissini.

Pumate
Italian for sun-dried tomatoes.

Puree
To grind or mash food until completely smooth. This can be done using a food processor or blender or by pressing the food through a sieve.

Puttanesca
A piquant pasta sauce made of tomatoes, onions, black olives, capers, anchovies, and chile flakes. The hot pasta is tossed in this sauce prior to serving. Some recipes leave the ingredients raw, allowing the heat of the pasta to bring out the flavors.

Pyramide Cheese
A truncated pyramid is the shape of this small French Chevre that is often coated with dark gray edible ash. The texture can range from soft to slightly crumbly and depending upon it's age, in flavor from mild to sharp. It is wonderful served with crackers or bread and fruit.

Quadriller
To mark the surface of grilled or broiled food with a crisscross pattern of lines. The scorings are produced by contact with very hot single grill bars which brown the surface of the food. Very hot skewers may also be used to mark the surface.

Quahog
The American Indian name for the East Coast hard shell clam. It is also used to describe the largest of these hard shell clams. Other names used are, chowder or large clam.

Quatre-epices
A French spice mixture containing ground cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, and pepper. This mixture is used to season stews and p

Quenelle
A dumpling made from fish or meat forcemeat.

Quesadilla
Originally a corn masa empanada filled with meat then deep fried. Modern versions found throughout restaurants in the US are made with flour tortillas that are filled with cheese and folded over when cooked.

Quiche
An open top pie made of eggs, milk or cream, and anything else within reach. The most famous of these is the quiche Lorraine of Alsace, made with bacon and Gruyere cheese.

Quince
This yellow-skinned fruit looks and tastes like a cross between an apple and a pear. Its texture and flavor make it better cooked than raw. Its high pectin content make it ideal for use in jams, jellies, and preserves.

Quinoa
Pronounced (KEEN-wah). A natural whole grain grown in South America. Originally used by the Incas some 5000 years ago, it can be substituted for rice in most recipes. It is a unique grain in that it serves as a complete protein containing essential amino acids.

Radicchio
A member of the chicory family with red and white leaves. The different varieties range from mild to extremely bitter. The round Verona variety are the most common in the US. Radicchio is used most often in salads, but is quite suitable to cooked preparations.

Ragout
A French term for stew made of meat, fish, or vegetables.