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Foodworks International - Gourmet glossary
Category: Food and Drink
Date & country: 22/10/2013, US
Words: 638


Fritter
Food that has been dipped in batter and deep fried or saut

Fruit Pectin
A substance found naturally in fruits such as apples, quince, and all citrus fruits. Pectin's ability to gel liquids makes it a key ingredient in jelly and jam making. You can purchase pectin in powder or liquid form, or use high pectin fruits in the recipe.

Fry
To cook food (non-submerged) in hot fat or oil over moderate to high heat. There is very little difference between frying and Saut

Fugu
Japanese for swellfish; globefish; blowfish; balloon fish; puffer. Fugu is caught in winter only, and it is eaten as chiri-nabe (hotpot) or fugu-sashi (raw fugu, sliced paper-thin). Only licensed fugu chefs are allowed to prepare this fish in Japan, since it contains a deadly poison.

Fumet
An aromatic broth made for use in soups and sauces. The flavor of a fumet is usually concentrated on one item, though multiple ingredients may be used. The stock is then reduced to concentrate this flavor. Fish and vegetable broths are more commonly called fumets, but meat may also be used.

Fusilli
Spiral shaped pasta. Some versions are shaped like a spring. Other versions are shaped like a twisted spiral.

Galanga
Used in Thai cooking, galanga is a rhizome similar to ginger in many ways. Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galanga, chicken, green chiles, lemon grass and

Galantine
A pate-like dish made of the skin of a small animal, most often chicken or duck, which is stuffed with a forcemeat of this animal. Additional strips of meat, blanched vegetables, and truffles are also layered with the forcemeat. This is then wrapped or tied and poached in broth. Galantine are always served cold with their aspic, where as ballontines may be hot or cold. These terms are often used interchangeably.

Galette
This is French for pancake, usually sweet, made of batters, doughs, or potatoes.

Garam Masala
This is an Indian curry mixture with a more complex flavor and aroma.

Garbanzo Beans
See Chickpeas. An alternative name

Gazpacho
A cold vegetable soup served throughout all of the Spanish countries. The most common version is one made with a coarse puree of fresh tomatoes flavored with vinegar and olive oil, embellished with diced raw vegetables like onions, cucumbers, and peppers. A light gazpacho is made with a puree of cucumber, and served with an array of garnishes for the diner to choose from. Roasted almonds, avocadoes, and croutons are common garnishes.

Gelatin
A protein produced from animals, used to gel liquids. It is found in granular and sheet form.

Gelato
An Italian frozen dessert, whose popularity has overwhelmed the US, is made of whole milk and eggs. This gives it richness without flavors becoming masked by the fat from cream. The flavors are very intense and the texture is soft and silky.

Genoise
A very rich sponge cake made with eggs and butter. This may be eaten as is with whipped cream or fruit, but also used as the foundation for many other cake preparations.

Ghee
The Indian name for cooking fat. Most commonly used is clarified butter made from the milk of buffaloes and yaks. In regions where milk is unobtainable, mustard and sesame oil are used.

Glace
A highly reduced stock used as an essence in flavoring sauces and enriching soups and stews. Veal glace is used for all meat preparations and stands up the best to the long reduction required. Fish and shellfish glaces are used, but their flavor can become very sharp tasting and bitter from too long of a reduction.

Gluten
Developed from the protein found in wheat flours.

Gnocchi -- 2
is also the name of a pasta with a similar shape.

Gougere
A savory pastry made of choux paste flavored with cheese. This may be made in individual puffs or piped into a ring of puffs, which is served with a pool of sauce in the center of the ring.

Goulash
A Hungarian soup/stew made with beef and liberally seasoned with paprika. Some versions add gremolata at the very end of cooking or sprinkled over the top.

Graham Crackers
A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda taste. Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly the same thing.

Granita
A coarse fruit ice similar to sorbet, without the meringue, which is often flavored with liqueurs.

Grate
To reduce a large piece of food to coarse or fine threads by rubbing it against a rough, serrated surface, usually on a grater. A food processor, fitted with the appropriate blades, can also be used for grating. The food that is being grated should be firm. Cheese that needs to be grated can be refrigerated first for easier grating.

Gratin
Dishes cooked in the oven which form a crust on the surface. This is expedited by placing the dish under the broiler. Breadcrumbs and cheese are often sprinkled on top of these dishes to help form the crust.

Gravlax
Whole salmon fillets that have been cured with salt, sugar, and pepper, then flavored with dill. The salmon is then sliced paper thin and served with pumpernickel bread, sour cream, capers, onion, and lemon. Other spellings for this are gravadlax and gravlox.

Grecque
Foods that are prepared in the style of Greece. This is usually used for dishes with lemon, garlic, and olive oil. But the addition of tomatoes, peppers, and fennel often allows a dish to be called

Green Shallots
an inaccurate but occasionally used name for Scallions.

Gremolata
A mixture of chopped parsley, garlic, and lemon peel. This is added to stews at the end of their cooking time to add a pungency to the dish. Used in some recipes for Osso Bucco a la Milanese, and Hungarian goulash.

Grill
In the United Kingdom, the same as a USA broiler; in the USA, a device for cooking food over a charcoal or gas fire, outdoors.

Grind
To reduce food to small pieces by running it through a grinder. Food can be ground to different degrees, from fine to coarse.

Grissini
Italian bread sticks.

Grits
Usually a breakfast item in the US Southern region. Made from the kernel of corn. When corn has been soaked in lye and the casing has been removed it becomes Hominy. The lye is rinsed out very well and the corn is left to harden. Then the swollen hominy is ground up to the texture of tiny pellets. When boiled with water, millk and butter it becomes a cereal similar to cream of wheat. It's used as a side dish for a good old fashioned

Gruyere
A moderate-fat cow's-milk cheese with a rich, sweet, nutty flavor that is prized for both out-of-hand eating and cooking. It's usually aged for 10 to 12 months and has a golden brown rind and a firm, pale-yellow interior with well-spaced medium-size holes.

Guacamole
A dip made of mashed avocadoes seasoned with onions, tomatoes, chilies, and cilantro. This is mostly eaten as a dip for fried corn

Gumbo
A thick soup/stew made with meat or seafood served over plain white rice. Okra, fil

Habanera Pepper
A type of hot chili. The Scotch Bonnet Pepper is similar.

Half and Half
A mixture of half cream and half whole milk.

Hard Rolls
A sandwich type of roll that is a little crusty on the outside and soft on the inside. Can be made with poppy seeds or sesame seeds or plain. Often called a Kaiser roll.

Harissa
A spice mixture used as both a condiment and a seasoning. Harissa is a paste of chilies and garlic used to enhance North African food (and is fairly popular in other parts of the Middle East, though it is probably of Berber origin). It is fairly similar to the Indonesian

Hazelnuts
A small nut with a hard, glossy shell. Also known as filberts.

Hing
Also known as asafetida, and devil's dung. A light brown resin sometimes used as a substitute for garlic ands onions, or in its own right and not as a substitute for anything, it can be found in Indian groceries. Claimed properties : laxative, aphrodisiac, colic cure. A required ingredient in the Indian Tadkaa

Hoisin Sauce
A rich, dark, sweet barbecue sauce used in Chinese cooking for marinades and basting. Hoisin sauce is easily recognizable in Mu Shu pork and Peking duck. The sauce is made from soybean flour, chilies, red beans, and many other spices.

Hollandaise Sauce
This is the most basic of the egg and oil emulsified sauces. The only flavoring is fresh lemon juice. This sauce must be kept warm, as excessive heat will cause it to break. Because this is kept warm, it is not safe to keep it for long periods of time and should never be reused from another meal period.

Homogenize
To create an emulsion by reducing all the particles to the same size. The fat globules are broken down mechanically by heating them quickly and then forcing them under extreme pressure through tiny holes of equal size until they are evenly distributed throughout the liquid. Homogenized milk and some commercial salad dressings are two examples of homogenized foods.

Hundreds and Thousands
Also known as sprinkles or as Nonpareils: small round balls of multicolored sugar used as toppings on cakes and desserts.

Hydrometer
A device used to measure specific gravity; it shows degrees of concentration on a scale called The Baum

Hyssop
Any of various herbs belonging to the mint family with aromatic, dark green leaves that have a slightly bitter, minty flavor. Hyssop adds intrigue to salads, fruit dishes, soups and stews. It is also used to flavor certain liquors such as Chartreuse.

Infuse
To steep an aromatic ingredient in hot liquid until the flavor has been extracted and absorbed by the liquid. Teas are infusions. Milk or cream can also be infused with flavor before being used in custards or sauces.

Infusion
An infusion is the flavor that's extracted from any ingredient such as tea leaves, herbs or fruit by steeping them in a liquid such as water, oil or vinegar.

Involtini
Thin slices of meat or fish which are stuffed and rolled. They may then be saut

Jambalaya
A Creole version of paella, though more highly spiced. The only consistent ingredients among all of the jambalaya recipes are rice, tomatoes, peppers, and onions. Ingredients used for jambalaya are ham, oysters, chicken, Andouille sausage, duck, shrimp,

Jerusalem Artichoke
A tuber, also called sunchoke, with a very firm flesh and a flavor reminiscent of globe artichokes. These are used as a vegetable, in soups, or cooked and served in salads.

Jicama
A large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and white crunchy flesh. Its

Joint
To cut meat and poultry into large pieces at the joints using a very sharp knife.

Julienne
Foods that are cut in long, thin strips. The term is usually associated with vegetables, but may be applied to cooked meat or fish.

Jus
A rich, lightly reduced stock used as a sauce for roasted meats. Many of these are started by deglazing the dripping within a roasting pan, then that is reduced to achieve the rich flavor desired. jus lie is one that has been slightly thickened with cornstarch or flour.

Kebab
Also spelled kabob, these are skewers of meat, fish, or vegetables grilled over a fire. All countries serve some version of this dish.

Kedgeree
A British variation of an Indian dish with rice, smoked fish, hard cooked eggs, and b

Kefir
A fermented milk drink similar to a lassi, flavored with salt or spices. Where available, kefir is made with camel's milk

Ketchup
A term derived from Asian cookery, this sauce is known to be a sweet sauce made from tomatoes. Other forms of ketchup are made from walnuts, mushrooms, and grapes.

Key Limes
Citrus fruit, about the size of golf balls, and round. The fruits are pale yellow-green, the juice is yellow and very tart, more so than standard limes. Grow in Florida, the Keys and other tropical places in the Caribbean. Used in Key Lime Pie, with egg yolks and condensed milk and in a Sunset Key with amaretto.

Kirsch
A clear brandy distilled from cherry juice and pits. In cookery, it's most prominently known as a flavorful addition to fondue and cherries jubilee.

Knead
To mix and work dough into a smooth, elastic mass. Kneading can be done either manually or by machine. By hand, kneading is done with a pressing-folding-turning action. First the dough is pressed with the heels of both hands and pushed away from the body so the dough stretches out. The dough is then folded in half, given a quarter turn, and the process is repeated. Depending on the dough, the kneading time can range anywhere from 5 to 15 minutes. During kneading, the gluten strands stretch and expand, enabling dough to hold in gas bubbles formed by a leavener, which allows it to rise.

Kombu (Konbu)
A large edible seaweed used in Japanese cooking.

Kugelhopf
A yeast cake from Alsace baked in a large crown-like earthenware dish. It is similar to brioche, though less rich, and flavored with currants or golden raisins and almonds. This is mainly eaten for breakfast.

Kumquat
A very small citrus fruit with the unique quality of having a sweet skin and bitter flesh. These are used in pastry making, preserves, and chutneys.

Langouste
The French name for the spiny lobster, differentiating from Maine lobsters in that they have no claws. Langoustes are warm water crustaceans that can be found in the South Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and off the coasts of South America, Australia and the West Indies.

Langoustine
The French name for Dublin prawn. These are small pink crustaceans resembling crayfish, with a taste and texture closest to lobster. Their claws are quite long but have no edible meat in them. Like the langouste, these are found in warm waters.

Larding
A technique by which thin strips of backfat, or vegetables, are inserted into a piece of meat. These strips help the meat to remand juicy during cooking. Larding with vegetables gives the meat a contrast of color plus the addition of flavor. This practice is not used as often now because of the higher quality of meat available to us.

Lasagna
Sheets of pasta which are layered with sauce and cheese and baked au gratin. Meat, fish, shellfish, and vegetables are all used as fillings for this dish. Recipes from Northern Italy are simple preparations consisting of little more than sauce and cheese.

Lassi
A frothy yogurt drink, sweet or salty, flavored with pistachios, cardamom, cumin, or rose water.

Lemonade
In the US, a drink made of lemon juice, sugar and water; in the UK, a carbonated drink that doesn't necessarily contain anything closer to a lemon than a bit of citric acid. Sprite (TM) and 7-Up (TM) are examples of what would be called lemonade in many countries.

Liaison
( Close connection or bond ) The process of thickening a sauce, soup, or stew. This includes all roux's, starch and water mixtures slurries), beurre maniere

Linguine
Long, oval shaped pasta noodles. Hand cut versions of this are very narrow flat noodles.

Linzertorte
An Austrian pastry comprised of a short crust dough flavored with ground almonds and hazelnuts, cinnamon, and lemon zest. This is then spread with raspberry jam and topped with a cross-hatch of dough. Almond paste is sometimes layered underneath the raspberry jam. Other versions of this use fresh cranberries or apricots in the filling.

Lobster Mushroom
A wild mushroom that has a firm texture and a red and orange color like lobster shells.

Lox
Brine-cured

Lychee
A small fruit from China and the West Indies, with a hard shell and sweet, juicy flesh. The flesh is white with a gelatinous texture and a musky, perfumed flavor.

Lyonnaise Sauce
A classic French sauce preparation made with saut

Macaire
A potato pancake made with seasoned potato puree.

Macaroon
A small round cookie that has a crisp crust and a soft interior. Many versions bought commercially have been thoroughly dried. These cookies may be made from almonds, though coconut is common in the US. The may also be flavored with coffee, chocolate, or spices. Amaretti, from Italy, are a type of macaroon.

Macedoine
A mixture of fruit or vegetables. Vegetable macedoine are cut into small dice and used as a garnish to meats. Fruit macedoine

Macerate
Soaking fruit or vegetables in wine, liquor, or syrup so that they may absorb these flavors. Salt and sugar macerations are used to draw excess moisture out of the food for a secondary preparation. This is done for canning, jam and preserve making, and to remove bitter flavors from vegetables.

Mache
A wild lettuce with small round leaves that may be used for salads or cooked and used as you would spinach. The taste is a little less pronounced than spinach. Mache grows

Madeleine
A small shell shaped cookie or cake made from a rich batter similar to genoise. These may be flavored with almonds, lemon, or cinnamon.

Magret
The breast meat from a mallard or Barbary duck. These ducks are specially raised for foie gras. Their breasts are large and have a much thinner layer of fat than do the Peking or Long Island duckling.

Malanga
The word used in the Spanish-speaking parts of the Caribbean for Taro root (or a close relative of Taro.) It is prepared by either boiling and mashing like potatoes, or slicing and frying into chips. It is also used in soups as a thickening agent.

Marengo
A chicken stew made with wine, tomatoes, and garlic. The stew is served over toast, garnished with crayfish and fried eggs. The modern versions of this omit the eggs and substitute shrimp for the crayfish. Of course, other liberties have been taken with this recipe to include black olives, peppers, and veal. The dish is rumored to have been named for the dish served to General Bonaparte after his army's defeat of the Austrians in the battle of Marengo.

Margarine
A solid fat invented in 1869 by the French chemist Henri Mege- Mouries. Margarine was first invented to replace butter in cooking and baking. It was then made solely of beef fat. Margarine is now made with a variety of fats, alone or with others, along with the addition of water, whey, yellow coloring, and vitamins. Beef fat is still used today,

Marinate -( From the Latin -Marine
to submerge -- To soak food in a seasoned liquid mixture for a certain length of time. The purpose of marinating is to add flavor and/or tenderize the food. Due to the acidic ingredients in many marinades, foods should be marinated in glass, ceramic or stainless steel containers. Foods should also be covered and refrigerated while they are marinating. When fruits are soaked in this same manner, the process is called macerating.

Marzipan
An almond paste with the addition of egg whites. This mixture is kneaded intoa smooth paste and used to wrap or layer cakes and candies. Marzipan is also shaped into figures of animals, fruits, and vegetables, and sold in pastry or candy shops.

Mascarpone
A rich triple cream, fresh cheese from Italy with a texture resembling that of solidified whipped cream.

Matafan
A thick pancake eaten sweet as a snack, or savory as an accompaniment to cheese. They are also made with bacon, spinach, and potatoes.

Matelote
A French fish stew made with wine. The Alsatian version of this dish is made with freshwater fish, Riesling wine, and thickened with cream and egg yolks. The Normandy version includes seafood and is flavored with cider and Calvados. These stews are normally embellished with pearl onions and mushrooms.

Mayonnaise
This is the mother of all of the cold egg and oil emulsified sauces. Commercial versions are made with inferior oils and are far to thick for proper utilization. A hand made version has a rich, subtle flavor and silky texture. You should always use a neutral oil or a good oil. Avoid using an extra-virgin olive oil, which will offer too strong of a flavor for most usage.

Melba
The name of a popular dessert created by Auguste Escoffier. Poached peach halves are served with vanilla ice cream and topped with fresh raspberry sauce. Named after Dame Nellie Melba, the famous opera singer when she had a severe sore throat

Menudo
A soup similar to pozole with the addition of tripe and meat broth. This, too, is served with assorted condiments for the diners to choose from.

Meringue
Whipped egg whites to which sugar has been added to form a stiff paste. These are used to lighten mousses, cakes, and pastry creams. Unsweetened versions are used to lighten forcemeats. Meringue is also baked in a very low oven, forming crisp shells which are filled with fruit or ice cream. Small dried meringue shells are called vacherin.

Mesclun
This is a mix of very young lettuces and greens. Often this mix is stretched with herb or flower sprigs and bitter greens. These greens should be dressed very lightly, with a flavorful oil and vinegar, so that their flavor will not be masked.