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Foodworks International - Gourmet glossary
Category: Food and Drink
Date & country: 22/10/2013, US
Words: 638


Conchiglie
Large shell shaped pasta noodles. These are often stuffed and baked au gratin. Small shells are called conchigliette.

Confit
This is a preparation for meats in order to preserve it for long periods of time when fresh meat would become scarce. The meat is first salted to remove moisture and marinated in red wine. It is then cooked at the barest of simmers, 190 F. submerged in its fat, until the meat is buttery tender. After the meat is cooled, it is stored in crocks and covered with the fat to prevent exposure to air. The whole crock is stored to help age the meat. During this aging period the meat develops a new flavor, rather different from its original. When ready to eat, the meat can be fried in a skillet or grilled until the skin is crisp and the meat is warmed through. Duck confit was once served with potatoes, fried in the same duck fat as the confit. This practice is less popular now due to its high saturated fat content, good companions that go with confit are lentils and / or bitter green salads to balance the richness of the meat. Fatty meats such as duck, goose, and pork work best in confit. Confit is a major component in within the dish cassoulet. Sometimes it is found in use to describe vegetables which are cooked long and slowly to produce a sweetened flavor. Such as within Southern cooking techniques.

Consomm
A clarified broth used as a base for sauces and soups.

Coppa
The loin or shoulder of pork that is cured, cooked and dried. It is served thinly sliced for antipasti or on sandwiches or pizza.

Coq au Vin
A braised chicken dish flavored with red and white wine, bacon, mushrooms, and pearl onions.

Cordial
In the USA, a synonym for liqueur. Within the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia, a thick syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

Corn Syrup
Dextrose, maltose, or glucose obtained through the process of converting starch with use of acids. The syrup is used in baking, primarily to prevent the crystallization of sugar.

Cornmeal
Ground corn (maize).

Coulibiac
A Russian pie / roulade, Traditionally wrapped with Brioche dough and filled with alternating layers of salmon, hard cooked eggs and rice, mushroom duxelle, and vesiga. Vesiga is the spinal marrow of sturgeon and its use has all but disappeared from commercial markets. Crepes are often layered into the bottom of the pie.

Coulis
A puree of fruit or vegetables, used as a sauce or flavoring agent to other sauces or soups. As sauces, they are thinned down just enough to reach the proper consistency, but not so much as to alter the intense flavor of the puree.

Courgette
The French word for zucchini.

Court-Bouillon
A well-seasoned cooking liquor, sometimes made with broth, used to poach fish and shellfish. Court-bouillons mainly consist of wine, wine vinegar, water, herbs, sachet d'spice and onion. Truite au bleu is a perfect example of this technique.

Couscous
A pasta which is formed into tiny pellets through a process called palming being made from semolina ( a flour made from Durum wheat). The name couscous also refers to the famous Maghreb dish in which semolina or cracked wheat is steamed over a spicy lamb stew with various vegetables, chickpeas and raisins, by being placed in the perforated top part of a special pot called a couscoussiere. The cooked semolina is placed onto a large platter, with the meats and vegetables placed decoratively around. Harrissa a hot roasted pepper sauce is served as well. Diners use pieces of leavened flat bread to scoop the couscous from the platter.

Couscous
Small pellets ( grains )of semolina flour that are steamed until tender and sauced with a rich meat, fish, or vegetable stew.

Cr
This is a custard made of milk and eggs. It is used both as a sauce for desserts and as a base for mousses.

Cr
Like the Spanish flan, this is a baked custard that is flavored with caramel. When the dish is inverted, the caramel creates a sauce for the dessert.

Cr
A naturally thickened fresh cream that has a sharp, tangy flavor and rich texture. This is an expensive item to buy, but a good substitute can be made by mixing heavy cream with uncultured buttermilk and allowed to stand, well covered, in a tepid place until thickened.

Cr
This is a thick pastry cream made of milk, eggs, and flour. There are some recipes which will use all or a portion of cornstarch.

Crackling
Crispy pieces of outer skin remaining after the fat is rendered. Commonly made from pork, and it is used in salads, stuffing's, and seasonings.

Cream
This is the portion of milk that rises to the top when milk has not been homogenized. Cream is defined by its varying amounts of butterfat content. Half and half cream is a mixture of milk and cream, resulting in a butterfat content of 12%.to 15 % Sour cream and light cream have a butterfat content of 18 to 20%. Heavy cream will have no less than 30% butterfat, with averages around 36%, and will go as high as 40%. Some special heavy creams can be as high as 52 % butterfat. American heavy cream is satbalized with mono and di glycerides, it also carries calcium carrageanan to add thickness

Crepaze
A cake made of crepes layered with vegetables, cheese, or ham. The cake is then baked to blend the flavors and help set it so that it may be cut into wedges.

Crepe
A very thin pancake used for sweet and savory fillings.

Crepinette
A small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat. They are filled with ground pork, veal, or poultry and fried or grilled. Some are shaped into balls. You may also use cooked meat or vegetables to flavor a forcemeat in the crepinette.

Crespelle
An Italian pancake, similar to a crepe, used in place of pasta in preparations of dishes like manicotti and canneloni.

Croque-Monsieur
The French version of a grilled ham and cheese sandwich with Gruyere cheese.

Croquembouche
A grand dessert made up of cream puffs that are dipped in caramel and assembled into a large pyramid shape. The whole dessert is then brushed with more caramel and elaborately decorated.

Croquette
A thick patty made up of cooked foods. These patties or balls are breaded and fried or saut

Crostini
Toasted bread slices which are brushed with olive oil and served with tomatoes, pumate, cheese, chicken liver mousse, bean puree, or tapenade. These are the Italian version of canapes.

Crouton
Bread that is cut into smaller pieces and toasted or fried until crisp. This includes cubes for salads and slices for soups and hors d'oeuvres.

Crudite
A selection of raw vegetables served with a dip.

Culatello
The heart of the prosciutto.

Cumberland Sauce
An English sauce used for ham, game, and p

Cure
To treat food by one of several methods for preservation purposes. Examples are smoking, pickling

Curry Powder
European Expression This is a mix of spices that we have come to know of by the Indian variations found in stores. Yet this is a mixture that is unique to every kitchen. Curry Powders may be mild with spices like cumin, fennel, and coriander; or heated up a little with chilies and pepper; or made fragrant with cinnamon and saffron. All of these are originally known as Garum Masala and all of them have distinctly different applications. Look under the definition for garam masala for more information.

Cuttlefish
A cousin to the squid, that is also prized for its ink sac as well as its flesh.

Dacquoise
A cake made of nut meringues layered with whipped cream or buttercream. The nut meringue disks are also referred to as dacquoise.

Daikon
A large oriental radish with a sweet, fresh flavor. Can be as fat as a football but is usually 2 to 3 inches in diameter. Use raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cook in a variety of ways including stir-fry.

Dal
This is the Indian term for all varieties of dried beans, split peas, and lentils. There are many different varieties of Dal, all of which have a specific use in Indian cooking.

Dashi
A Japanese fish stock made with dried bonito and kombu seaweed. This is used for soups, sauces, and marinades.

Daube
A stew consisting of a single piece of meat such as a shoulder or joint. The meat is stewed in a rich, wine laden broth with herbs and vegetables. The broth is then thickened, reduced and served with the slices of meat and accompanying vegetables.

Dauphine
The name for little puffs made of potato puree, that are mixed with choux paste and deep fried.

Dauphinoise
The name of a potato gratin with lots of cream and garlic, all topped with Gruyere cheese.

Deep-fry
A dry alternative cooking technique which cooks food in hot fat or oil deep enough so that it is completely covered. The cleanliness and temperature of the fat is extremely important. When the fat is not hot enough, the food absorbs fat and becomes greasy. When the fat is too hot, the food burns on the exterior before it has cooked through. Fat at the correct temperature will create a golden crisp, dry exterior and moist interior. An average fat temperature for deep-frying is 375 degrees, but the temperature varies according to the food needing to be fried. Use a deep fryer, an electric fry pan or a heavy pot and a thermometer for deep frying.

Deglaze
The process of removing browned small particles of food from the bottom of a pan after saut

Degorge
1. To sprinkle vegetables with salt to eliminate water. Eggplant for example are generally salted and patted dry before cooking.

Degorge
2. To add cornmeal to water and soak crustaceans in order that they will eliminate the sand in their shells.

Demi-Glace
A rich brown sauce comprising of 50 % Espagnole sauce, which is further enriched with 50 % veal stock and wine and reduced to the original volume thus creating the required consistency. This is a very long procedure and requires constant skimming ( Depouillage ). There are shortened versions of this but which are quite inferior

Dessicated Coconut
Dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so common in other countries.

Devein
To remove the blackish-gray vein from the back of a shrimp. The vein can be removed with a special utensil called a deveiner or with the tip of a sharp knife. Small and medium shrimp are deveined purely for aesthetic purposes only. However, because the veins in large shrimp contain grit, they should always be removed.

Devon Cream
Please refer to Clotted Cream

Dice
To cut food into tiny cubes (between 1/8 inch to 1/4-inch square.

Digestive Biscuits
A whole meal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste. Broken into tint pieces, can be as a substituted for graham cracker crumbs,

Dijonnaise
This is a name given to dishes that contain mustard or are served with a sauce that contains mustard.

Dim Sum
A selection of small dishes served for snacks and luncheon in China. Dishes of this nature will include a wide selection of fried and steamed dumplings, as well as various other sweet and savory items.

Ditalini
Short pasta tubes.

Dolma
A cold hors d'oeuvre made of grape leaves stuffed with cooked rice, lamb, and fine diced onion. Marinated with olive oil and lemon. Vegetarian versions of this are also made.

Donax
type of Clam.

Dredge
an action that lightly coats food that is going to be pan fried or saut

Duchess
The name for potato puree that is enriched with cream, then piped into decorative shapes and browned in the oven. They are often piped around the rim of a platter onto which a roast or whole fish may be served.

Durian
A large fruit from southeast Asia that has a creamy, gelatinous texture and a rather nauseating smell similar to that of smelly feet. The flesh is savored by many from Southeast Asia, Those that are not local find it a difficult flavor and aroma to become accustomed to.

Duxelle
Finely chopped mushrooms that are cooked in butter with shallots and wine. When cooked dry, duxelle make a good filling for omelets, fish, and meat. They may also be moistened with wine or broth and served as a sauce. Duxelle are also flavored with fresh herbs and brandy or Madeira.

Egg Threads
Lightly beaten eggs that are poured slowly into a hot broth, creating irregular shaped threads used to garnish soups.

Eggplant
A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable. Called Brinjal in parts of India and Aubergine in various other countries.

Emincer
To cut fruit into thin slices, shorter than for julienne. This term is most often used

Empanada
A small savory pie from Spain and South America. Fillings may be made of meat, seafood, or vegetables. The fillings can be seasoned in many ways. Those from around Spain are flavored with peppers, onions, and tomatoes. Those from South America have a sweet/sour undertone from the addition of raisins and green olives. Crusts may be made from bread dough or flaky dough like pate brisee and puff pastry.

Emulsify
To bind together two liquid ingredients that normally do not combine smoothly, such as water and fat. Slowly add one ingredient to the other while mixing rapidly. This action disperses tiny droplets ( colloids )of one liquid in the other. Mayonnaise and vinaigrettes are emulsions. 3 styles of emulsion are possible -- Unstable or temporary --Semi Stable and Stable.

Entrecote
A steak cut from the rib section of beef. It is boneless and has a very thin layer of fat. Though steaks cut from the loin ends of the rib are a finer quality steak, the whole rib may be used for entrecote. The term is sometimes used referring to a strip steak. This is not an accurate description. This cut of beef is called the faux-filet or contre-filet.

Escabeche
A highly seasoned marinade used to flavor and preserve food. Fish and chicken are the most common foods used for escabeche. First the meat is fried and placed in a dish large enough to hold all of the food in one layer. Then a marinade made of onions, peppers, vinegar, and spices is poured over the food while hot. The whole dish is then allowed to rest overnight and served cold. Escalope

Espagnole Sauce
This is the foundation of all of the brown sauces. A number of modifications have been made of this sauce since its conception. The sauce is now made of a rich brown veal stock thickened with a brown roux. The sauce is then simmered with a mirepoix, bouquet garni, and wine. The long, slow cooking help to purify and concentrate its flavor. It is finally strained through very fine muslin. Demi-glace and glace de viande are all structured around a fine espagnole sauce.

Essence/Extract
While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A stock is a water extract of food. Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in Asian cooking (yulada). Oils and water essences are becoming popular as sauce substitutes. A common water essence is vegetable stock. A broth is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for 12-24 hours. Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not possible to have a water extract of vanilla (natural bean) but vanillin (chemical synth ) is water sol. There are also emulsions lemon pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar) Oils, such as orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in seal ed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

Falafel
A Middle Eastern specialty consisting of small, deep-fried croquettes or balls made of highly spiced, ground chickpeas. They're generally tucked inside pita bread, sandwich style, but can also be served as appetizers. A yogurt or tahini-based sauce is often served with falafel.

Farfalle
Bowtie shaped pasta.

Fava Bean
This tan, rather flat bean resembles a very large lima bean. It comes in a large pod which, unless very young, is inedible. Fava beans can be purchased dried, cooked in cans and, infrequently, fresh. If you find fresh Fava beans, choose those with pods that aren't bulging with beans, which indicates age. Fava beans have a very tough skin, which should be removed by blanching before cooking. They're very popular in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern dishes. They can be cooked in a variety of ways and are often used in soups. Also called Faba bean, broad bean and horse bean.

Feija~O
Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans. Not to be confused with:

Feijoada Completa
A Brazilian dish very similar to cassoulet, made with black beans. Sausage, bacon, ham, and various cuts of pork are cooked in with the beans. The traditional accompaniments are plain white rice, cooked greens, fresh orange slices, and a very hot sauce, similar to pico de gallo, called molho carioca. Toasted cassava flour is used as a condiment, to be added by each diner. This too is a very substantial dish and needs little else to accompany it.

Fenugreek
A very hard seed grown in the Middle East, which is used as a spice. Its dominant flavor and

Fettucine
Flat narrow pasta noodles less than wide and a bit thicker than tagliatelle.

Ficelle
The French word for string. This is a term used in cooking to describe foods that have been tied to a string and cooked in a broth. This was a practice in villages when a communal pot was used to cook food. The string was used in order to allow the owners to identify and recover their piece of meat. This is generally applied to tough cuts of meat that require long periods of cooking. Yet, some restaurants are using the term to describe a more tender cut of meat that is poached in a rich broth. Beef filet and duck breasts are two good choices for this type of preparation.

Filberts
See Hazelnuts. --- French term for Hazelnuts

Fillet
To create a fillet of fish or meat by cutting away the bones. Fish and boning knives help produce clean fillets.

Financier
A small cake or cookie that is made with ground nuts and whipped egg whites. These are soft like sponge cake, and have a rich flavor of nuts.

Fines Herbes
A mixture of chopped fresh herbs consisting of tarragon, parsley, chervil and chives. Dried herbs may also be used, but their delicacy is lost.

Finnan Haddie
The Scottish expression for smoked haddock.

Five Spice Powder
A dry spice mix used in Chinese cooking consisting of cinnamon, star anise, pepper, clove, and fennel.

Flan
This is a term that may be used to describe two different preparations. The first use of this word is describes an open top tart that is filled with pastry cream and topped with fruit. Flan is used in Spanish and Mexican cooking to describe an egg custard that is baked in a large shallow dish, and flavored with caramel. The dish is inverted when served and the excess caramel is used as a sauce for the flan. The flan may be flavored with orange, anise, cinnamon, or liqueur.

Fleuron
A small crescent shaped pastry made of puff dough that is used to garnish fish dishes and soups.

Florentine
This is used to describe foods that are cooked in the style of Florence. The word is most commonly associated with dishes containing

Flour
This is the finely ground grain of wheat, corn, rice, oat, rye, or barley. Unless specified, this term refers to wheat flour. Flour is milled from a variety of wheats containing different amounts of protein. The different levels of protein give each flour unique qualities as does the balance of polysaccharides

Focaccio
An Italian flatbread made with pizza or bread dough, that can be baked plain or topped with onions, zucchini, eggplant, cheese, or whatever you choose.

Foie Gras
This literally means goose liver, but the term is used to describe the fattened liver of both duck and geese. The birds are force fed a rich mixture to help expedite this process. These livers are praised for their delicate flavor and rich, buttery texture. The largest production of commercial foie gras is done in France and Israel. The US will only allow this product to be imported in a cooked stage, either canned, vacuum-sealed, or frozen. These are inferior products and will never highlight the true delicacy of foie gras. But fresh foie gras is now available from breeders in the US. These foie gras are very fine specimens, but a very high price goes along with them. Foie gras is prepared in a vast number of ways, though one should remember to keep these as simple as possible to avoid masking the flavor of this treasure.

Fold
To combine a light mixture like beaten egg whites with a much heavier mixture like whipped cream. In a large bowl, place the lighter mixture on top of the heavier one. Starting at the back of the bowl, using the edge of a rubber spatula, cut down through the middle of both mixtures, across the bottom of the bowl and up the near side. Rotate the bowl a quarter turn and repeat. This process gently combines the two mixtures.

Fondant
This is an icing made of sugar syrup and glucose, which is cooked to a specific temperature and then kneaded to a smooth, soft paste. This paste can then be colored or flavored and used as an icing for cakes and petit fours.

Fondue
There are several different types of fondue, the most notable of which is cheese

Fonduta
An Italian style fondue made of Fontina cheese and served over toast or polenta. Exceptional with truffles.

Fougasse
A flatbread from France that was once served sweetened with sugar and orange water. It is now more commonly seen as a bread eaten with savory dishes. In this case, the dough is brushed with olive oil and sprinkled with herbs or salt before baking.

Foyot
This is a variation of a b

Frangipane
A pastry cream made of butter, eggs, flour, and finely ground almonds or macaroons. Modern versions will use a combination of cornstarch and flour. The nuts must be very finely ground for this to be successful. This type of raw cream is baked in the pastry shell or cr

Fricassee
A stew prepared without the initial browning of the meat. Though chicken is the most common form of this type of stew, fish, vegetables, and other meats are prepared in this manner.

Frito Mist
An Italian mixed fried platter, similar to the Japanese tempura platter. A mixture of vegetables, meat, and fish are dipped in a light batter and quickly deep fried to prevent a saturation of grease into the food.

Frittata
An Italian open-faced omelets.