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Foodworks International - Gourmet glossary
Category: Food and Drink
Date & country: 22/10/2013, US
Words: 638


Boucher
Butcher.

Boudin
Smooth sausages of two types. Boudin blanc contain veal, pork, and chicken. Boudin noir are made with blood and rice or potatoes. The latter type are popular in European and Creole cooking.

Bouillabaisse
A rich fish stew from southern France. This was once a poor man's meal made of any fish available. Modern versions include lobster and shrimp. The broth is flavored with garlic, orange peel, fennel, and saffron. Olive oil is added to the stew and rapidly boiled to form an emulsion and blend it in the broth. The stew is served with croutons and rouille, a variation of aioli.

Bouillon
Flavorful Broth. derived of meat

Boulanger
Baker, specifically of breads and other non sweetened dough's.

Bound Salad
See Combination Salad

Bouquet Garni
A sachet of herbs, containing parsley, thyme, and bay leaf. Variations may include rosemary, marjoram, fennel, leeks, celery leaves, and black pepper.

Bourguignonne
Foods cooked in the style of Burgundy. This includes red wine, mushrooms, pearl onions, and bacon.

Bourride
Another fish stew from southern France. Here the broth, in which large pieces of fish are poached, is strained and thickened with aioli. The two are then served together in shallow bowls with bread or croutons.

Braise
A moist cooking method in which the main item, usually meat, is seared in fat, then simmered in stock or another liquid in a covered vessel.

Bran
The outer husk of grains such as wheat, containing a high percentage of fiber. White flours have the bran removed. Whole wheat flours may contain all or part of the bran.

Brandade
A puree of salt cod mixed with olive oil and potatoes. Another version of brandade is covered with Gruyere cheese and browned in the oven. Both are served with croutons.

Brazier/Brasier
A pan, designed specifically for braising, that usually has two handles and a tight fitting lid. Often is round but may be square or rectangular.

Breading Procedure
The standard procedure for coating raw or cooked foods with bread crumbs, nuts or a meal such as cornmeal,

Bresaola
A cured and dried beef filet from Italy with a more delicate texture but stronger flavor than that of prosciutto. A Swiss version of this is called Bundnerfleisch. This style is pressed into a rectangular shape and has a bit drier texture than bresaola. Both are served thinly sliced with bread and fruit or pickled vegetables.

Bridie
A Scottish term applied to a semi-circular pastry.

Brigade System
The kitchen organization system instituted by Auguste Escoffier. Each position has an assigned station and well-defined tasks and responsibilities.

Brine
A salt, water, and seasonings solution used to preserve foods.

Brioche
A very rich bread with butter and eggs. Brioche is baked in many shapes though the brioche e tete is best known. The dough can be flavored with nuts or candied fruit, as well as herbs and spices. It may also be used to wrap foods like coulibiac. Slices of toasted brioche are the perfect companion to foie gras and gravad lax.

Brisket
A cut of beef from the lower forequarter, best suited for long-cooking preparations like braising. Corned beef is cured beef brisket.

Broccolirabe
A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young. Looks like broccoli but has skinnier stalks. The leaves, stems and florets are eaten. Really good saut

Brochette
Skewers of meat, fish, or vegetables that are grilled over a flame and simply served.

Broil
A dry heat cooking method in which items are cooked by a radiant heat source placed above the food.

Broth
A flavorful, aromatic liquid made by simmering water or stock with meat, vegetables, and/or spices and herbs.

Brown
A procedure involving the searing of the outer services of an item such as meat so as to create a Mailard Protein Reaction inhibiting the juice flow somewhat.

Brown Stock
An amber liquid produced by simmering browned bones and meat (usually veal or beef) with vegetables and aromatics (including caramelized mirepoix).

Brunoise
A very fine dice usually applied to vegetables. 1/8 inch x 1/8 inch square.

Bruschetta
Grilled slices of bread brushed with olive oil and fresh garlic. This was the original garlic bread.

Bucatini
Long, narrow tubes of pasta usually served with a hearty meat sauce.

Buffet
A vast array of hot and cold foods, often elaborately garnished.

Bulgur
Cracked wheat made from the whole kernel that has been cooked and dried. Most commonly used in breads and tabbouleh salad.

Bumper
Similar to a turnover, but slightly larger.

Butcher
A chef or purveyor who is responsible for butchering meats, poultry, and occasionally fish. In the brigade system, the butcher may also be responsible for breading meat and fish items and other mise en place operations involving meat.

Butter
A cooking and eating fat that is made from sweet or sour cream and, by federal law, must contain a minimum of 80% butterfat. Butter absorbs odors easily and is highly susceptible to rancidity. To avoid either of these problems, store butter in the refrigerator no longer than 2 weeks.

Butter-Cultured
Cultured butter is butter churned from cultured cream (cream fraiche). Most butter produced in the U.S. before 1920 was cultured butter, but in the 20's, the U.S.Government guaranteed the sale of every pound of butter produced, so quality became a non-issue and sweet cream butter prevailed.

Buttercream
A mixture of butter, sugar, and eggs or custard; it is used to garnish cakes and pastries.

Butterfly
To split food (meat, fish, fowl) down the center, cutting almost, but not completely through. The two halves are then opened flat to resemble a butterfly.

Buttermilk
Originally a by-product of butter making, buttermilk is commercially produced by adding lactic acid culture to skimmed or partially skimmed milk.

Cabanossi
A salami-type sausage popular in Southern Europe.

Calabacita
A variety of summer squash found in Latin American and Mexican cooking.

Calamari
The Italian word for squid.

Caldo Verde
A Portuguese soup made from a veloute with sharp flavored cabbage, potatoes, chicken and vegetables and olive oil. In some regions a Sausage is then cooked in the soup.

Calzone
A half-moon shaped pizza turnover, often served with sauce over the top rather than inside.

Canape
Small open-faced sandwiches served as snacks or for lunch. They may be served hot or cold, but they are often elaborately garnished.

Cannelloni
An Italian dish made of sheets or tubes of pasta filled with meat, cheese or fish, sauced and baked au gratin. Variations of this use thin pancakes, called crespelle, which are similar to crepes and are filled and cooked in the same manner as the pasta.

Cannoli
A crisp pastry tube filled with sweetened ricotta cheese, chocolate chips, and usually candied fruit. Cinnamon and vanilla are common flavorings for this cheese mixture.

Caper
The pickled bud from the caper bush which is used in sauces and as condiments for smoked fish and nicoise salad.

Capicolla
A coarse Italian pork sausage. Usually highly seasoned, this sausage is served cold, thinly sliced, as for proscuitto.

Capon
A castrated chicken that is savored for its delicate taste and texture. Once castrated, the chicken would become fattened, yielding tender, juicy flesh. This method of raising chickens is not practiced much anymore, since most chickens are butchered at a young age and still very tender.

Caponata
Best known as a spread or cold salad containing eggplant, celery, tomatoes, raisins, and pine nuts seasoned with vinegar and olive oil. Modern variations will add other vegetables such as zucchini and season it with fresh herbs.

Capsicum
A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavor. Can be orange, red, yellow, green or Purple. Also known as Bell Pepper.

Caramelize
To heat sugar until it liquefies and becomes a clear caramel syrup ranging in color from golden to dark brown. Fruits and vegetables with natural sugars can be caramelized by saut

Carbonara
An ultra-rich pasta sauce consisting of pancetta, eggs, and parmesan cheese. Actually less of a sauce than a preparation, hot pasta is tossed with the rendered pancetta fat, the eggs, and then the cheese. Crisp pancetta and black pepper are tossed into the pasta just before serving.

Cardinal
Fish dishes which have sauces made with lobster fumet and are garnished with lobster meat.

Cardoon
A vegetable from the artichoke family that looks like celery. Cardoons may be eaten raw or cooked and served like any vegetable.

Carob
The seed from the carob tree which is dried, ground, and used primarily as a substitute for chocolate.

Carpaccio
An Italian dish, ( Named after an Italian artist who always used red predominately ) made of paper thin slices of beef dressed with olive oil and parmesan cheese. Slices of raw white truffles are an excellent partner to this dish.

Cassoulet
A dish from southwest France consisting of white beans and an assortment of meats like confit, lamb, pork, and Toulouse sausage. The dish is enriched with large amounts of duck fat and is baked until the top which is covered with sugar and white bread crumbs is brown and crispy. Variations of this dish include seafood and lentils. This dish is very substantial and needs nothing else to be served with it but a bitter green salad to cut through the richness.

Caul Fat
The stomach lining of pork which is used in place of backfat for pates and to encase fabricated rolled meats and crepinettes.

Caviar
These are the eggs from sturgeon that have been salted and cured. Grading for caviar is determined by the size and color of the roe and the species of the sturgeon. Beluga caviar, which is the most expensive of the three major types of caviar, are dark grey in color and are the largest eggs. Ossetra caviar are light to medium brown and are smaller in size than Beluga. Sevruga caviar comes from the smallest eggs, they are also the firmest in texture and are grey in color. Pressed caviar is made of softer, lower quality eggs and have a stronger, more fishy flavor. The expression Malossol is used to describe the amount of salt used in the initial curing process. The roe from other fish such as salmon, lumpfish, and whitefish are not considered caviars, regardless of their label. These should be addressed as roe. Caviar should be served as simply as possible. Traditional accompaniments, inspired by the Russians, are sour cream, blinis, and ice cold vodka. Lemon and minced onion are often served with caviar, Their flavors will only detract from the pure delicate flavor of the caviar.

Celeriac
The root of a type of celery with a firm texture and a clean, sweet flavor of celery.

Cepes
A wild mushroom of the boletus family known for their full flavor and meaty texture.

Chai
The Indian name for tea, often served with milk and sugar.

Channel
(Canelle ) To create small V-shaped grooves over the surface of fruits or vegetables for decorative purposes using a canelle knife. The fruit or vegetable is then sliced, creating a decorative border on the slices.

Chanterelle
A wild mushroom with a golden color and a funnel-shaped cap. The whole mushroom is edible and is savored for its exquisite flavor and firm texture when cooked.

Chantilly
This is a name for sweetened whipped cream flavored with vanilla. The term may also be used to describe sauces that have had whipped cream folded into them. This includes both sweet and savory sauces.

Chapati
A whole wheat Indian flatbread that can be grilled or fried.

Charcuterie
The French word for the variety of pork preparations that are cured, smoked, or processed. This includes sausages, hams, pates, and rillettes. This term may also imply the shop in which these products are sold and the butchers who produce it.

Charlotte
The name for two different styles dessert. The first preparation is made of slices of bread which line a mold, which is then filled with fruit, and baked until the bread acquires a golden color and crisp texture. The second version, similar to the first, lines a mold with cake or ladies fingers and is filled with a bavarian cream. These may also be filled with whipped cream or even a fruit mousse. More elaborate versions layer the cake with jam, then slices of this cake is used to line the mold.

Chateaubriand
A thick slice of beef from the heart of the tenderloin, grilled or saut

Chaud-Froid
Meat or fish that has been poached or roasted, chilled and served cold, masked with a thick sauce and glazed with aspic. The whole preparation was once quite popular and used consistently on elaborate buffets. Modern tastes have moved away from this style of food, opting for cleaner, less adulterated flavors.

Chayote
A pear shaped squash, used in Latin American cooking, with a taste of zucchini. Chayote may be eaten raw or cooked as you would any summer squash.

Cherimoya
Also called the custard apple, this is a tropical fruit with a creamy texture and sweet pineapple flavor.

Chervil
A mild-flavored member of the parsley family, this aromatic herb has curly, dark green leaves with an elusive anise flavor. Though most chervil is cultivated for its leaves alone, the root is edible and was, in fact, enjoyed by early Greeks and Romans. Today it's available dried but has the best flavor when fresh. Both forms can be found in most supermarkets. It can be used like parsley but its delicate flavor can be diminished when boiled.

Chevre
The French word for goat, generally referring to goat's milk cheeses.

Chiboust
A custard made originally as the filling for the g

Chicharron
Crispy fried pigskin used in Mexican cooking for salads, fillings and snacks.

Chicken-Maryland
In Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken, crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream sauce.

Chickpeas
Cicer arietinum. Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

Chiffonade
A very fine julienne of vegetables usually associated with leafy herbs, lettuce, or greens. Literally translated from French, the term means 'made of rags'.

Chilaquiles
A family style Mexican dish of refried corn tortillas simmered in a sauce of tomatoes, chilies, and garlic. This is a highly seasoned dish, often served as a brunch or lunch dish with eggs or grilled meats.

Chinese Parsley
See Cilantro.

Chipotle
A dried and smoked jalape

Chive
Related to the onion and leek, this fragrant herb has slender, vivid green, hollow stems. Chives have a mild onion flavor and are available fresh year-round. They are a good source of vitamin A and also contain a fair amount of potassium and calcium. Chocolate

Chorizo
A spicy pork sausage from all Hispanic countries, ranging in seasoning from mild and sweet to fiercely hot. Hotter versions come from areas of Spain and Portugal. Mexican versions contain a large variety of chilies and have a mealier texture and more complex flavor. Some of them even use fresh herbs giving it a green color. Portugal makes a cousin to this sausage called the linguisa, that is smoked and much hotter.

Choron
A variation of Bearnaise sauce with tomato puree or Concass

Chou route
An Alsatian specialty consisting of sauerkraut that is simmered with assorted fresh and smoked meats and sausages. This is a grand dish served on huge platters so that diners may witness all of the components displayed at one time. The kraut is first washed, then seasoned with garlic, caraway seeds, and white wine. The meats are layered in the casserole with the kraut and cooked until all the meat is tender and the flavors have blended together. Pork sausages, smoked pork shanks and shoulders, and fresh pork loin are all used. A variation of this, though not actually called a choucroute, is a whole pheasant cooked in sauerkraut with champagne. There are other recipes that consist of solely fish in

Chutney
The name for a large range of sauces or relishes used in East Indian cooking.

Cioppino
A rich fish stew from San Francisco made with shrimp, clams, mussels, crabs, and any available fish. The broth is flavored with tomato,

Civet
A French stew usually containing game, though duck and goose are used. The meat is marinated in red wine for long periods of time, then stewed with pearl onions and bacon. The sauce was once thickened with blood, but that is a method not used much anymore.

Clafoutis
A dessert of fruit, originally cherries, covered with a thick batter and baked until puffy. The dessert can be served hot or cold.

Clarify
To remove sediment from a cloudy liquid, thereby making it clear. To clarify liquids, such as stock, egg whites and/or eggshells are commonly added and simmered for approximately 15 minutes. The egg whites attract and trap particles from the liquid. After cooling, strain the mixture through a cloth-lined sieve to remove residue. To clarify rendered fat, add a very little hot water which is the evaporated over high for about 15 minutes. The mixture should then be strained through several layers of dry cheesecloth and chilled. The resulting layer of fat should be completely clear of residue. Clarified butter is butter that has been heated slowly so that its milk solids separate and sink, and can be discarded. The resulting clear liquid can be used at a higher cooking temperature and will not go rancid as quickly as unclarified butter.

Cock-a-Leekie
A thick Scottish soup made with chicken, leeks, and barley. Modern versions have lightened up this soup by using a chicken broth garnished with leeks and barley.

Cockles
common name for certain marine bivalves, related to the quahog and the razor clam. The name cockle applies especially to the common edible European species. Cockles have two hinged, heart-shaped shells with prominent ribs. The muscular, pointed foot is used for locomotion. About 200 species are known, most of them native to the tropics. The cockle, which may attain a length of up to 15 cm (6 in), lives on sand near the water's surface and feeds on tiny sea plants and animals.

Cocoa Powder
This is the dried powder formed from chocolate liquor after the cocoa butter content has been reduced. This mixture is then dried and ground into a fine powder. The Dutch processing of cocoa is treated with an alkali to give a darker appearance and a less bitter taste. Breakfast cocoa has sugar, milk solids, and other flavorings added to it.

Coconut Milk
This is not the liquid that is found in the center of coconuts, but a thick liquid made by steeping fresh grated coconut in hot water. The hot water helps to extract the fat from the coconut meat, which carries so much of this flavor.

Colombo
A West Indian stew seasoned with a spice mixture of the same name. This is similar to curry powder, containing coriander, chilies, cinnamon, nutmeg, saffron, and garlic. The stew may contain pork, chicken, or fish. Vegetables are cooked in the stew and rice and beans are served on the side. Compote

Combination Salad
A salad that is composed of a variety of ingredients which would include items such as Poultry, Fish, Seafood, Pasta, and or Potatoes combined with a dressing, whether it be of a vinaigrette based or creamy style.

Concass
The term for chopping a vegetable coarsely. This is used most often when referring to chopped tomatoes.

Conch
A Mollusk Gastropod