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Foodworks International - Gourmet glossary
Category: Food and Drink
Date & country: 22/10/2013, US
Words: 638


Aboyeur
Expediter or announcer; a station in the brigade system. The aboyeur accepts orders from the dining room, relays them to the appropriate stations of the kitchen, and checks each plate before it leaves the kitchen.

Achar
Very spice relish from the cuisine of India and the Caribbean Islands. Achar may be made from fruits and vegetables.

Acidulated Water
A mixture of water and a small amount of vinegar or lemon juice, used to purify or prevent discoloration in meats and vegetables.

Adobado
Paste or sauce made from chilies, vinegar, and other seasonings. Used as a seasoning for meats.

Adulterated Food
Food that has been contaminated to the point that it is considered unfit for human consumption.

Adzuki Beans
Small reddish brown beans.

Aeriate
To pass dry ingredients through a fine-mesh sifter so large pieces can be removed. The process also incorporates air to make ingredients like flour, lighter. Sifting dry ingredients aerates them while distributing small amounts of chemical leaveners or dry seasoning evenly through the mixture. Use sifters, sieves or tamis to both aeriate and sift.

Agar
A vegetable gelatin made from various kinds of algae or seaweed. The algae are collected, bleached and dried. Then the gelatin substance is extracted with water and made into flakes, granules, powder or strips which are brittle when dry. Primarily used as a thickening agent.

Agnolotti
A small half-moon shaped ravioli.

Aiguillette
Long, thin slices of poultry breast or some other meats.

Aioli
A cold egg and oil emulsion with olive oil and garlic. Many variations of this sauce are made. See the definition under rouille.

Aji
Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers. The species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

Al Carbon
Spanish term for a dish relating to grilled or containing meat.

Al Forno
Italian term describing a dish cooked in the oven.

Al Pastor
A term used in Spanish and Italian referring to a dish cooked in the style of shepherd cooking, usually over a grill or spit

Albumen
The major protein in egg whites.

Alfredo
A pasta sauce originally consisting of butter, cream, and the finest parmesan cheese available. Modern versions add garlic, peas, and less expensive parmesan. All of these will make fine sauces, but nothing can compare to the original version.

Alkalai
A substance that tests at higher than 7 on the pH scale, Alkalis are sometimes described as having a slightly soapy flavor. Olives and baking soda are some of the few alkaline foods.

Allemande
A Liaison of eggs and cream with possibly a little lemon juice

Allemande
A velout

Allspice
The dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

Allumette
Potatoes, cut into pieces the size and shape of matchsticks, 1/8 inch x 1/8 inch x 1 to 2 inches

Almond Paste
A sweet paste made from finely ground blanched almonds mixed with powdered sugar and enough glucose or syrup to bind it together.

Alum
The astringent effect of this chemical makes it useful in home-pickling to give crispness to cucumbers, melon rinds, onions, green beans, and other foods.

Amandine
A French term for any dish with almonds. Alternate spelling is almandine.

Amchoor
Sour, unripe mangoes that are dried and sold in slices and powder. Its primary use is in Indian cooking, giving foods a sweet/sour flavor.

Amino Acid
The basic molecular component of proteins, one of the essential dietary components.

Anaerobic bacteria
Bacteria that does not require oxygen to function.

Anchoiade
A dip made of pureed anchovies mixed with garlic and olive oil. Raw vegetables and bread are served with this dip.

Andouille
A sausage made from the stomach and the intestines of pork. The sausage is dried and smoked, then boiled or steamed to finish cooking. Andouille sausage is used regularly in Creole cooking, but it is popular in French cooking as well. The Creole version of this sausage is much spicier than those made in France.

Angel Food Cake
A type of sponge cake made with egg whites that are beaten until stiff.

Angelica
Licorice flavored stalks from these plants are candied and used primarily in pastry making. Angelica is also used to flavor liqueurs.

Antipasto
The Italian word for snacks served before a meal. These are dishes to peak one's appetite, not quench it. This may consist of one or more dishes of all types of food. Common elements of an antipasto table are cured meats and salamis, olives, marinated vegetables, and cheese.

Aperitif
An alcoholic beverage taken before a meal to stimulate the appetite.

Appareil
A prepared mixture of ingredients used alone or as an ingredient in another preparation.

Aquaculture
The cultivation or farm-raising of fish or shellfish.

Aristology
ar.is.tol.o.gy n. (Greek . dinner + -logy.) The science of dining.

Arrowroot
This is a starch similar in appearance and qualities as cornstarch.

Artichoke
A name shared by three unrelated plants: the globe artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke and Chinese (or Japanese) artichoke. Considered the true artichoke, the globe artichoke is cultivated mainly in California's mid-coastal region. It is the bud of a large plant from the thistle family and has tough, petal shaped leaves. They are available year-round, with the peak season March through May. Buy them when deep green, they will be heavy for their size artichokes with a tight leaf formation.

Asafoetida
A spice used in India and the Middle East for cooking or as a condiment to be sprinkled over food after it has been cooked. It has a bitter taste and a pungent aroma similar to garlic and truffles.

Aspic
A jelly made from stock, fumet, wine, or fruit juices used to form and mold foods. These preparations are often elaborately decorated for use on buffets. Both savory and sweet foods can be set in aspic. Cubes of aspic are a common garnish to fine p

Attelet
Kitchen accessory in the shape of a long pin, or a little skewer with a top in the shape of an ornament such as an eagle or a flower.

Au Jus
Describes meat served in its own natural juices, not with a gravy.

Au Lait
Describes a beverage, such as coffee, made or served with milk.

Au Naturel
In culinary French this term describes food prepared or cooked to resemble its natural state as much as possible, or in other words, food plainly done.

Aubergine
The French word for eggplant.

Aurore
This is a term associated with sauces that have tomato puree or Concass

Baba
A small cake made from an enriched yeast dough, often flavored with candied fruits, and soaked with a rum or Kirsch syrup after baking. This dough is also used to make the larger savarin.

Baekenhofe
An Alsatian stew made of pork, lamb, and beef layered with potatoes and onions. The meat is first marinated in wine and herbs for a minimum of 24 hours, then assembled and baked in a, paste sealed, casserole until the meat is buttery tender. The juices are reduced and the top is browned under the broiler. Crisp bacon and fried leeks are used to garnish this dish.

Bagel
Chewy bread with a hole in the middle

Bain Marie
Simply a water bath. It consists of placing a container of food in a large, shallow pan of warm water, which surrounds the food with gentle heat. The food can be cooked in this manner, either in an oven, or on top of a range. This technique is designed to cook delicate dishes such as custards, sauces and savory mousses without breaking or curdling them. It can also be used to keep foods warm.

Bake Blind
To partially or completely bake an unfilled pastry crust.

Baked Alaska
A dessert comprised of sponge cake topped with ice cream and covered with meringue. The dessert is then placed in a hot oven to brown the meringue before the

Baking Powder
A chemical leavener made with an acidic ingredient and an alkaline one; most commonly these are sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and cream of tartar. When exposed to liquid, it produces a carbon dioxide gas, which will leaven dough's and batters .Double-acting baking powder contains ingredients that produce two leavening reactions, one upon exposure to liquid, the second when heat is applied.

Baking Soda
A leavening agent which is used as an essential ingredient in baking powder. When used alone as a leavener, recipes must include some type of acid to neutralize the resulting sodium carbonate in the finished product. Buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream, and citrus juice are adequate acids to use. One may also use baking soda to help neutralize the acid in recipes that call for large amounts of fruit.

Baklava
A very sweet dessert made of layers of flaky pastry filled with a mixture of ground nuts and sugar. The pastry is sliced, baked, and brushed with a honey syrup flavored with lemon or rosewater.

Ballotine
A Pate

Balsamic Vinegar
A wonderfully fragrant vinegar made from the juice of Trebbiano grapes. The juice is then heated and aged in wooden barrels, evaporating the liquid and concentrating in flavor. The resulting vinegar is deep rich brown with a sweet and sour flavor. Well aged balsamic vinegars are very costly, some reaching an astronomical $200 an ounce. Most

Bannock
Originally applied to bread, this term loosely describes any large round scone or biscuit the size of a dinner plate.

Bap
An oval-shaped white bread roll served for breakfast.

Barding
The practice of wrapping lean cuts of meat to be with thin slices of back fat. The alternative to this is larding, in which long strips of fat are inserted into the cut of meat to keep it moist during cooking.

Baron
A narrow strip of, carrot, turnip, or other firm vegetable.

Barquette
A small oval shaped pastry shell with either sweet or savory fillings.

Basquaise
Food prepared in the style of Basque which often includes tomatoes and sweet or hot red peppers.

Baste
To brush or spoon food as it cooks with melted fat or the cooking juices from the dish. Basting prevents foods from drying out and adds color and flavor.

Batter
A mixture of flour and liquid, with sometimes the inclusion of other ingredients. Batters will vary in thickness but are generally semi-liquid and thinner than dough's. Used in such preparations as cakes, quick breads, pancakes, and crepes.

Baum
See hydrometer

Bavarian Cream
A cream made with pastry cream lightened with whipped cream and stabilized with gelatin. This cream may then be poured into molds, or used as a filling for cakes or pastries. Bavarian cream is often flavored with fruit purees or alcohol.

Bearnaise
This is the most notable of all the hollandaise sauce variations. It is made with a wine and vinegar reduction flavored with tarragon. This sauce makes a good companion to grilled meats and fish. whisked to introduce air into a mixture with the aid of a wooden spoon, whisk, or electric mixer in order to achieve a light, fluffy texture.

Beetroot
Called beet in US. The red, succulent root of a biennial plant (Beta vulgaris).Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of one of the most well-known borschts.

Beignet
A French term for a type of doughnut. Dough or batter is deep fried and dusted w/sugar or glazed with a flavored syrup.

Belle Helene
Best known as the name of a dessert with poached pears, ice cream, and chocolate sauce. It is also a term used in French cookery as a name for a garnish to grilled meat dishes.

Belle-Helene
This is best known as the name of a dessert with poached pears, ice cream, and chocolate sauce. This is also used in French cookery as a name for a garnish to grilled meat dishes.

Bench Proof
In yeast dough production, It is the rising stage that occurs after the dough is formed and Molded, just before baking.

Benne Seeds
An African term for sesame seeds.

Bermuda Onion
A large sweet onion with many regional names. Can also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

Beurre Blanc
( Stratafication ) An emulsified sauce made usually of a wine or vinegar reduction blended with softened butter. This may be flavored in many ways, for fish, vegetables, and poultry dishes. This is a very tricky sauce and does not hold for long periods of time. Because of this, modern versions add a touch of cream ( Stabilized Stratafication ) to stabilize the sauce for longer periods of time.

Beurre Manie
A mixture of flour and whole butter is kneaded to a smooth paste. This is then used in small quantities to adjust the thickness of sauces and stews. The sauce must then be cooked for a period of time, to remove the starchy taste of the flour. An Egg and Cream ( Allemande ) liaison is used to finish the sauce off, to mask any raw starch flavor possibly still present.

Beurre Noir
Black butter. Butter that has been cooked to a very dark deep brown; a sauce made with browned butter, vinegar, chopped parsley, and capers. It is usually served with fish.

Beurre Rouge
Red Butter

Binder
An ingredient or appareil used to thicken a sauce or hold together another mixture of ingredients.

Biscotti
Dry Italian cookies flavored with almonds, chocolate, or anise seed, used for dunking in coffee and sweet dessert wine.

Bisque
A rich shellfish soup made with the shells of the animal. The soup is enriched with cream and Cognac and garnished with pieces of the shell fish meat. This name is also used to describe vegetable soups prepared in the same manner as shellfish bisques.

Bistella
See Pastilla for a definition.

Bivalve
A mollusk with two hinged shells. Clams, Mussels, Oysters etc.

Blanch
Moist heat technique of cooking foods in boiling water for a brief period of time. This applies primarily to vegetables so as to reduce their final cooking time. But blanching may be done to fish or meat as well.

Blancmange
A sweet, flavored cream mold set with gelatin.

Blanquette
A stew of white meats, usually veal, without any initial browning. Sauce is thickened with roux and enriched with eggs & cream.

Blend
To amalgamate ingredients of different textures to a smooth texture by mixing them with spoon, beater or liquidizer.

Blini
A small pancake made of buckwheat flour and leavened with yeast. These pancakes are often brushed with large amounts of melted butter and served with caviar and sour cream. Other versions may be made of vegetable purees or semolina flour.

Blintz
A stuffed crepe or thin pancake. The filling is usually made of a fresh cheese or cottage cheese, and often topped with fresh fruit or fruit preserves.

Bloom
To soften and rehydrate gelatin in warm liquid before use.

Boletus
A family of wild mushrooms known for their rich taste and meaty texture. Porcinis and cepes are two members of this family of mushroom.

Bollito Misto
An Italian stew consisting of various cuts of meat, including zampone, boiled in a rich broth with vegetables. The whole dish is served with cornichons, pickled onions and a variation of chutney called mostarda di Cremona. These are whole or large pieces of fruit cooked in a spicy mustard flavored syrup. Other common sauces are salsa verde and mayonnaise.

Bolster
A collar or shank at the point on a knife where the blade meets the handle.

Boning Knife
A thin-bladed knife used for separating raw meat from the bone; its blade is usually about 6 inches long.

Bordelaise
This is a term primarily used to describe a brown sauce that includes shallots and red wine. Some versions of this sauce include slices of bone marrow added at the end of cooking. Fish dishes with this name will be cooked with white Bordeaux wine.

Borscht
A rich soup from Eastern Europe containing beets or cabbage. Other ingredients may include potatoes, beans, meat or sausage. The best known of these soups is a cold version based on beets and served with sour cream, but hot versions are very common.

Botulism
A food-borne illness caused by toxins produced by the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium botulinum.

Bouchee
A small round puff pastry shell used for sweet or savory fillings.