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Haberman Fabrics - Textile terms
Category: General technical and industrial > Fabrics
Date & country: 09/10/2013, US
Words: 227


Interlining
Any fabric inserted between the outer fabric and the inner lining for shape retention, bulk or warmth.

Interlock
A stretchable fabric in a variation of a rib stitch, with two finely ribbed fabric layers joined by interlocking. Plain interlock, double knit fabrics are more stable and heavier than single knits.

Iridescent Fabric
Fabric with changeable color effect created by using contrasting colors in the warp (vertical fibers) and weft (horizontal fill).

Jacquard
A fabric woven on a versatile Jacquard loom which allows total manipulation of the warp and weft yarns to create intricate deigns. Damask and brocade are jacquard fabrics, as they are woven on a jacquard loom.

Jacquard Knits
A patterned double knit fabric with made with a jacquard-type mechanism to allow manipulation of weft fibers.

Jersey Knit
A single, flat knit made with interlooping yarns that has fine lengthwise ribs on the right side and uniform texture on the back. Jersey comes in many fibers including cotton, wool, silk, nylon, and polyester. It has a soft hand, drapes well and has moderate stretch. Fabric tends to run and it has poor shape retention without blending with spandex.

Kente Cloth
Hand woven cotton fabrics with intense colors and intricate geometric designs made in West Africa. Printed cotton fabric with designs inspired by the hand-wovens are also available.

Knit
Fabric made by interlooping yarns on knitting machines. Various styles are available.

Lace
Open work fabric with complex designs created in a variety of ways on a background of mesh or net. Originally hand made, now generally made on specific machines for each style. Cotton, nylon and viscose are the most common fibers used.

Lam
A woven or knit fabric using metallic fibers in plain or brocade designs. Some fibers are metal or metal wrapped yarn, or metal-coated plastic. Fabrics are often lightweight and can be soft and drapeable, or crisp. Lame tends to be delicate, fraying easily, and requiring care in handling. Laser Cut

Lawn
A semi-crisp, finely woven, smooth, plain weave cotton or occasionally linen. It is primarily used in dresses, blouses, collars, and cuffs and heirloom sewing. It is also a very comfortable underling or lining.

Leatherette
Synthetic leather with or without stretch. Embossed surface designs mimic textures of various leathers from patent leather to ostrich. Often a polyurethane laminate. Fabrics have no grain and do not fray, but retain pin holes.

Leno
An open weave fabric created by warp fibers twisted around each other and interlaced with weft yarns. Sheer and strong, leno can be made of cotton, linen, other natural fibers or man-made ones.

Liberty of London
A trademark of Liberty Ltd. In England for hand-blocked or machine printed prints in silk, rayon cotton, and wool challis.

Linen
Generally plain weave fabric that is made with woody fibers from inside the stems of flax plants. Stronger, more lustrous and crisp than cotton, linen is cool, comfortable, and absorbent. It is sometimes blended with softer fibers to lessen wrinkling. Linen is woven in very lightweight

Linen-Look
Plain weave fabric with slight slub texture using man-made fibers like polyester or viscose or cotton-polyester blends to resemble linen, but cost less and wrinkle less.

Lyocell
The generic name for a new family of biodegradable, environmentally friendly, solvent spun cellulose fibers from the wood pulp of trees in managed forests. It has the look, drape, absorbency, comfort and hand of fine cotton, and is stronger wet or dry than traditional cellulosic fibers (rayon). It blends well with other fibers and dyes as vividly as rayon and silk. Tencel

Madras
Plain woven cotton in shirting weight, often in plaids, checks or stipes, originally from Madras India. Its colors are know to bleed or fade with laundering.

Marocain
A crepe fabric with a wavy cross rib construction used mainly for women

Marquisette
A very lightweight, sheer, open mesh fabric. Originally in cotton, silk or wool; now nylon or polyester. Used for millinery, eveningwear and mosquito netting.

Matelass
A medium to heavy weight compound fabric that looks padded or quilted. Made in most fiber types. It may be bulky, and difficult to ease. Popular for bedspreads, blankets, upholstery and slipcovers, and when in more formal fibers, eveningwear jackets and coats.

Matka
An rough textured Indian fabric made of spun silk fibers.

Matte Jersey
Dull surface, tricot knit fabric with made with fine crepe yarn.

Matte Satin
Medium weight, somewhat firm, satin fabric with reduced luster. May be made of silk, but often polyester. Used for formal dresses and bridal gowns.

Melton
A dense, felted heavy weight, firm fabric with a plain face used for over coats. Lighter weights are made for use in other apparel and for collars. Generally woven in wool or wool blends.

Mercerised
Fiber treated to increase luster.

Merino
High quality wool from Merino sheep, originally from Spain, but exported to many countries including Italy and Australia.

Mesh
Fabric with a regular, open texture. May be knitted or woven, fine or coarse.

Metallic
A woven or knit fabric using metallic fibers in plain or brocade designs. Some fibers are metal or metal wrapped yarn, or metal-coated plastic. Fabrics are often lightweight and can be soft and drapeable, or crisp. Lame tends to be delicate, fraying easily, and requiring care in handling.

Micro-Fleece
A super-fine denier luxurious fleece with a velvety hand.

Microfibre
Extremely fine denier synthetic fibers, lighter than silk fiber. Used to make lightweight fabrics with very soft hand, good drape, and water resistance. Most often use acrylic, polyester, nylon or rayon fiber.

Modacrylic
A man-made flame-resistant fiber, similar to acrylic, with warm hand and good bulk. Heat sensitive, so irons at lower temperatures. Used to make faux fur pile fabrics and children

Modal
Polynosic rayon. Regenerated cellulose fiber with higher strength when wet. Hand resembles cotton.

Mohair
A Durable and resilient long-hair fabric made from the angora goat.

Moire
Wavy, water-marked pattern produced by embossing fabric with engraved rollers. Pattern is only permanent on acetate-rayon blends. Used for eveningwear, drapery and bedspreads. Moire fabric is a crisp faille or ribbed weave, often in rayon, silk, acetate or cotton.

Moleskin
Originally a heavy, durable napped cotton. Now refers to any fiber fabric with a short, dense mole-like brushed nap on one face.

Momme
A Japanese unit of weight measurement for silk. One momme weighs 3.75 grams per unit. The higher the number, the heavier the silk.

Monk
A heavy, coarse basket weave fabric, generally of cotton, linen, rayon, wool or synthetic fibers. Stability of the fabric depends on the tightness of the weave. Used for drapery and upholstery.

Mousseline
Sheer to semi-opague, lightweight, plain weave fabric. Derived from the French for muslin fabric, but is much more finely woven. Made of silk, rayon, wool or other fibers. Resembles chiffon but is more crisp.

Mud Cloth
Hand woven and printed coarse cotton from Africa.

Muslin
Plain weave fabric that can be lightweight and sheer to heavier, coarse sheeting weight. Cotton or cotton blend. Natural, bleached or dyed.

Ninon
Sheer, crisp, plain weave fabric made with high twist yarns. Originally made of silk, now nylon and other synthetics.

Non-Pill Fleece
Polyester fleece treated to reduce pilling.

Non-Static Polyester Lining
Polyester lining treated to prevent static electricity build-up. Many versions loose this quality with repeated washings.

Non-Woven
Fabric made of interlocking fibers held together in a random web or mat by fusing or bonding.

Novelty
Fabrics that are not plain, having intentionally interesting qualities in the texture of the yarn, weave or print design.

Nylon
Fabric made of manufactured polyamide fiber. Strong, resilient, and flexible.

Oil Cloth
Originally oil, but now cloth coated with plastic resin. Waterproof, easy to clean. Used for tablecloths, tote bags, aprons, shelf lining, placemats.

Olefin
Strong, lightweight, soil, mildew and abrasion resistant fiber manufactured from a polymer containing propylene and ethelyne. Used for apparel, furniture and carpeting.

Ombr
Fabric with gradually changing color, either printed or yarn-dyed.

Organdy
Stiff, plain weave, open, translucent cotton fabric. Springy, easily creasing, fabric used for interfacing, collars, and dresses.

Organic Cotton
Fabric from cotton plants grown where toxic chemicals have been eliminated for a minimum of three years.

Organza
A lightweight, sheer, crisp, plain weave fabric, generally in silk, polyester, rayon or nylon. Silk organza will wrinkle and press easily, fray and have little elasticity. Comes in solid colors or prints. Silk satin organza has more weight and a satin finished face, and makes wonderful evening wear.

Orlon
Brand name of an acrylic fabric.

Ottoman
A tightly woven, stiff fabric with a distinct ribbed pattern formed by weft covered fill yarns .

Oxford cloth
Plain or basket weave, durable fabric with a soft hand. Better qualities are mercerized.

Paisley
Intricate, multi-color curled teardrop motif typically printed on fine lightweight wool (or other fiber) challis fabric. Originated in Paisley, Scotland.

Pann
Lightweight, lustrous velvet with pile pressed flat in one direction. Available in silk, man-made fibers and blends.

Pashmina
Plain weave, soft, lightweight fabric made of cashmere and wool in varying proportions. Better quality has highest proportions of cashmere to wool. Used for shawls and scarves.

Passementerie
Decorative braid made in lustrous fibres in many styles, some open patterns, used for apparel and home d

Peach Skin
Micro-fiber fabric with soft brushed surface hand to resemble texture of actual peach skin.

Peau de Soie
Medium to heavy weight silk satin fabric with dull luster, used for formalwear and bridal dresses. May be single or double face construction with slightly grainy surface texture. Available also in man-made fibers.

Percale
Medium weight, smooth, firm, plain weave cotton fabric with no less than 180 yarns per square inch.

Petersham ribbon
Ribbed ribbon used for embellishment, to face millinery, structure waistbands, and reinforce front jacket/sweater edges. Turn of weft fibers creates side edges. Woven in rayon or cotton.

Picot
Trim consisting of small decorative edge loops.

Piqu
Medium weight, novelty weave cotton or cotton blend with dimensional weave in a waffle and birds-eye patterns.

Plaid
Like Scottish tartans, plaids are fabrics with bars and spaces that cross each other at right angles. Proper layouts for apparel and d

Pliss
Fabrics with a puckered or crinkled surface, achieved by treating with caustic solutions that shrink or blister fibers. Can be made with many fibers.

Pointelle
A type of knit fabric with a stitch design that resembles lace.

Polyamide
Synthetic fibers used to create fabric, known as nylon. It is strong, resilient, and flexible.

Polyester
A manufactured fiber that is strong, resilient, abrasion and wrinkle resistant. It

Pongee
Originally a lightweight, crisp fabric made of wild Chinese silk fibers with irregular, rough texture, generally in natural or ecru color. Now also made of synthetic fibers. For blouses and dresses, lightweight pants, skirts.

Ponte di Roma
A plain, double jersey knit fabric, usually in solid colors, with good elasticity.

Poplin
Mediumweight, plain woven fabric with a fine cross-weave cord texture. Heavier than broadcloth.

Print
Fabric with a figured design applied, rather than woven or knitted into it.

Protex
Non-woven high loft fabric brushed on both sides, used to protect table surfaces under table cloths.

Quilting
The construction technique that holds layers of down or synthetic fiberfill in place between layers of fabric by hand or machine stitching or sealing in an all-over pattern on the fabric.

Ramie
Sustainable, linen-like fabric made from a strong natural woody fiber that is similar to flax. It is more stiff, brittle, absorbent and lustrous than flax/linen. Used alone for rope and net, it is blended with other fibers as a flax substitute.

Rayon
Rayon is made from cellulose fiber and like cotton, a natural cellulose fiber, in many ways. It is soft and smooth, drapes well and dyes vibrantly, is absorbent, and comes in many weights and qualities. It does wrinkle easily and shrinks when wet. Viscose rayon, a higher performance rayon, wrinkles less and is woven into light and heavy weight fabrics. When the fabric is washed before clothing construction, rayon clothing will be washable after construction without much shrinkage.

Rip Stop Nylon
Lightweight, plain fabric that is wind and water resistant, and has ribs in the cloth that block tears.

Russian Veiling
Net with large diamond shaped openings, made in silk or synthetic fiber. Used mainly for millinery.

Sateen
Fabric that is smooth and soft with low luster made of long staple cotton fibers, and sometimes other fibers. It

Satin
Satin is a weave of fabric that comes in very lightweight single face to heavy, double-face. Although tighter weaves are more durable, longer weft floats over the warp fibers, creates better drape and more luster. This fabric is generally woven in silk, rayon, acetate, or polyester.

Satin Chiffon
A very fine, sheer fabric with a satin finish on the face for added luster. Made of silk or sometimes synthetic fibers.

Satin Gabardine
A fine weave of wool gabardine with satin floats on the face for a slightly lustrous appearance.

Satin Organza
Lightweight, semi-sheer silk organza with a satin face and dull back. May be solid color or printed. More body and firmer than silk organza. Use for structured dresses, tops, skirts.

Seersucker
A permanently crinkled cotton fabric. Crinkle is produced in the weave and is not destroyed by heat.

Shantung Silk
This plain weave silk fabric is heavier than pongee, and has similar slubbed yarn which gives it a ribbed effect in the warp direction. Less textured than Dupioni silk.

Sheer
Very lightweight, transparent fabrics with soft or crisp hand.

Silk
Fabric woven using the natural filament cocoon fibers of silk worms. Luxurious, resilient, absorbent, and strong, dyes well, retains shape. Silk is available in many fabrications from sheer chiffon or organza, crepe, dupioni, noil, and shirting to crisp taffeta and heavy satin.

Silk and Wool Worsted
Lustrous fabric with good body in a blend of silk fibers and worsted wool fibers. Used for elegant structured evening suits and dresses.

Silk Brocade
Brocade fabric woven in pure silk. See

Silk Charmeuse
Light weight silk satin. Lustrous on the face, dull on the back. Extremely good drape. Used in blouses, dresses and lingerie.

Silk Illusion Net
Very fine, hexagonal patterned tulle, made in 52

Silver Cloth
Brushed flannel treated with tarnish preventer for use in lining silverware drawers and cases, and custom silver serving piece bags.

Soy
Sustainable fiber made from the soybean waste in tofu production. Soy fiber has excellent warmth retention and moisture wicking, and the same moisture absorption as cotton fiber. It resists bacteria. It has a silky luster that makes it popular for underwear, scarves, bedsheets and yoga apparel.

Spandex
A man-made elastic fiber with excellent resilience and shape recovery. Blended with other fibers or used alone in garments requiring stretch, from dance and swimwear to eveningwear, jeans and jackets.

Stretch Cotton
Cotton fabric with a blend of cotton and spandex or other elastic fibers for comfort, wearing eased and shape retention.

Stretch Lining
Apparel lining that blends rayon, polyester or silk with spandex or other elastic fibers for comfort and shape retention.

Stretch Satin
Fabrics with spandex or other elastic fibers added to silk, or most often polyester or other synthetic fibers, for wearing ease and shape retention in evening wear.