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Haberman Fabrics - Textile terms
Category: General technical and industrial > Fabrics
Date & country: 09/10/2013, US
Words: 227


Acetate
Generic name for a cellulose-acetate man made fiber. Used in taffeta and satin, or blended with other fibers for sheen. Silky hand, wrinkle-prone. Dry clean only. Dissolves in acetone.

Acrylic
Generic name for a man-made fiber with a soft, light weight, brushed or wooly hand. Lacks the resilience of wool fiber. In addition to apparel, it is used in outdoor furniture for its resistance to sun fading.

Acrylic Craft Felt
A non-woven, compressed fabric of entangled acrylic fibers. Does not ravel or drape. Used for craft projects and costumes.

Alen
A re-embroidered lace, often with floral motifs, woven on a background of various styles of fine netting.

Alpaca
A warm fabric made from the silky fleece of the llama that is used alone or blended with wool. Heavier weights make soft, luxurious coats or lighter weights for dresses or sweaters.

Ambiance
A woven, silky lining made of Bemberg

Angora
Fur of the angora rabbit. Hair of the angora goat is called mohair.

Argyle
A plaid design, derived from a Scottish tartan, with interlinking diamond shapes in a diagonal checkerboard pattern.

Bamboo
A natural woven or knit fabric made from the cellulose fiber pulp of the fast-growing, sustainable bamboo plant. Soft and drapable.

Barathea
Very fine, hardwearing, tightly woven fabric with a soft appearance. Has a slightly pebbled surface texture and often a fine twill weave. Used for suits, ties, skirts. Generally made in silk, worsted, or man-made fibers like viscose or acetate.

Bark Cloth
Originally popular in the 1940-1950

Batiste
A plain weave, light-weight fabric usually made of cotton or cotton blends. Use for blouses, dresses, comfortable lining.

Batting
Non-woven soft, bulky web of often polyester fibers that, depending on its weight/thickness is used for stuffing, quilting, shaping, and wrapping cushions/furniture.

Bengaline
Medium weight, moderate body fabric woven in various fibers, with a corded or rib weft texture. May have watermark/moir

Black-Out Lining
Plain woven drapery lining with a coated or brushed back to block all light penetration.

Boiled Wool
Supple wool with good body that has been shrunk to increase stability. Generally a knitted fabric. Use for jackets, coats, purses, hats. Does not fray.

Bottom Weight
A term used to describe medium to heavy weight fabrics with adequate body for pants or skirts.

Boucl
A highly textured, fabric woven with boucl

Boucl
A boucl

Broadcloth
A plain, tightly woven light weight fabric suitable for tops, dresses, quilts or curtains. Often cotton or cotton-polyester blend. Use pure silk broadcloth for tailored shirts.

Brocade
A crisp, heavier fabric woven on a jacquard loom with strong surface texture and/or contrasting colors, sometimes with additional fill yarns for added dimension. Patterns may be floral or geometric. Fibers vary from silk to cotton, polyester, rayon, acrylic or acetate or blends.

Buckram
A heavy, starched cotton or linen, plain or open weave fabric used for millinery and costumes or wherever needed to add stiff support.

Burlap
A very coarse, rough textured fabric in a plain, somewhat loose weave.

Burn-out (devor
A fabric with a brocade effect created by dissolving one of the fibers used in the fabric, so that only the ground fabric remains. Acid applied to cellulosic (rayon) pile fibers of a silk or polyester background velvet,

Calvary Twill
Medium to heavy weight, sturdy fabric with a pronounced twill (diagonal) weave, more coarse than a gabardine or tricotine twill. Traditionally in worsted wool, but can be other fibers or blends. Excellent for jackets and coats.

Camel Hair
The wool-like hair of a Bactrian camel. The fine, soft, lustrous undercoat fibers are warm and lightweight. Outer hairs are more coarse. Fabric of these fibers may be blend of both. Additionally, may be blended with wool to reduce cost and increase wearability. Camel hair is classified as wool.

Canvas
A plain weave, basic cotton, linen or synthetic fabric. Heavy, durable, firm. Generally heavier, coarser than

Cashmere
A luxury fiber from the soft fleecy undercoat of the kashmir goat. Most often used in sweaters, suits, coats, shawls and dresses. Additionally may be blended with wool to reduce cost and increase wearability.

Cellulose fiber
Fiber (like rayon) reconstituted from, or chemically derived (like acetate) from, naturally occurring raw material found in the organic woody substances of most plants.

Chalkcloth
Fabric made by applying dull, weighty finish to a base fabric. Used for creating chalk-writable board or wall coverings or other d

Challis
A lightweight, soft plain weave fabric with a slightly brushed surface. It

Chambray
A plain weave fabric with colored warp and white weft (fill) yarns. Most often in cotton. Lighter weights are used for shirts; heavier weights for pants and skirts.

Chantilly Lace
Soft lace with a delicate appearance, has floral motifs embroidered on a net ground. May be outlined in heavier threads. Originally from Chantilly, France. Used in bridal gowns and other apparel.

Charmeuse
A soft, lightweight lustrous satin weave fabric with a dull back. Excellent drape, but not hard-wearing. Generally woven in silk, rayon, or polyester fibers.

Cheesecloth
Plain weave, soft and fragile cotton fabric. Low thread count yields its open weave. Also called gauze.

Chenille
Fabric made of chenille yarn, which has a caterpillar-like appearance, with soft pile protruding on all sides. Fabric may be entirely chenille or may use the chenille yarn in a jacquard weave for raised, textured motifs on a plain ground. Chenille is used for mid to heavyweight apparel, and for upholstery and drapery fabrics.

Chiffon
A lightweight, sheer, plain-weave fabric made with fine, highly twisted yarns. Soft and drapeable. Made of silk, rayon, or synthetics. Polyester chiffon tends to have more strength and less drape than silk chiffon.

China Silk
A plain weave silk often very lightweight, used mostly for linings and underling without adding bulk. Heavier weights may be used for blouses.

Chintz
Medium weight, plain weave cotton fabric with a glazed finish often used for slipcovers and curtains. Available in solid colors or prints.

Cir
Fabric with a high gloss, wet look finish. Depending on fabric

Cloqu
A soft, lightweight fabric with a raised, blister effect surface pattern caused by using two fibers with different shrinkage characteristics. Raised designs appear after weaving when the fibers relax.

Corduroy
A durable, cut pile fabric, woven with an extra set of filling (warp) yarns to create vertical cords, ranging from very thin to wide and heavy. Most often in cotton or cotton-blend; classified by the number of wales or cords to the inch.

Cotton
Fiber from the cotton plant seed pod, made into versatile fabric that is cool, absorbent, comfortable, durable and washable. It is also insect resistant, but flammable and gradually weakens in sunlight exposure. Cotton is woven or knitted in light to heavy weights for apparel and home d

Cotton Blend
Fabric made of a blend of cotton and other fibers, like linen or synthetics.

Cotton Flannel Interlining
Soft, bushed cotton plain weave fabric that

Cotton Net
Open mesh fabric made of cotton fiber.

Cotton Velvet
Velvet material that is double woven with short pile. Pile is then cut producing two separate, single face velvet layers. Not as luxurious as other velvets, but more durable.

Coutil
Strong, close textured cotton twill or herringbone weave fabric used mostly for corsetry or strong lining.

Crepe
Nicely draping, light to medium weight fabrics with a pebbly or crinkly surface, achieved by using hard twist yarns, or some form of chemical, construction, embossing or surface treatment. Crepes are available in a wide range of fibers and blends, natural and synthetic, and in may different constructions. Varieties include crepe back satin, crepe de chine and georgette.

Crepe de Chine
A fine, nicely draping, lightweight crepe with a dull luster. Woven in pure silk or synthetics, like polyester.

Crepe Marocain
Heavier crepe with a pronounced pebbly texture, woven in various fibers. Used used for evening wear and bridal.

Crepe Wool
Crepe woven using wool fibers.

Crepe-Back Satin
A reversible crepe weave with a shiny, satin face on one side and a matte finish crepe on the other. Referred to as both crepe-back satin or satin-back crepe. Both contrasting textured sides can be used together in a garment as a design element. With good drape, color range and affordability, it

Cross-Dyed
Fabric whose different colors in the warp and weft fibers produce an interesting, attractive iridescent appearance.

Cuddle
Finer generation of micro-fibre polyester fleece. Available in silky single-sided solids and prints, or plush double-face solid colors in light to high loft heavy weights. Use heavy weight for the warmest robes and blankets; lighter weights for apparel, stuffed toys and throws and baby blankets.

Damask
A reversible fabric woven on a jacquard loom that creates simple to ornate patterns on a flat fabric. Available in many fibers from cotton, linen, silk or other natural fibers to synthetics. Used often table linens, slipcovers, and drapery, also for shirting.

Denim
A densely woven, crisp twill-weave cotton or cotton/blend fabric with colored threads in warp and white threads in the weft (fill). Weights vary from lightest weight 6-ounce to 16-ounce bull denim. Handling ease depends on weight. Denim is firm, washable, durable, and comfortable to wear. Natural fibers will fade with successive laundering. Frequently blended with spandex in stretch denim for additional comfort and shape retention.

Dotted Swiss
Lightweight fabric, often lawn or batiste, in cotton or cotton blend, with a small embroidered, flocked or clipped dot pattern.

Double Cloth / Double Weave
A double layer reversible fabric that can be separated into two pieces of cloth with identical or completely different weaves, colors, or patterns. Often a wool or a wool blend, these fabrics range from lightweight, soft fabrics to heavy, crisp materials. Excellent for structured jackets and coats.

Double Face
Reversible fabrics with two useable sides on a single weave cloth. Doubleface fabrics cannot be separated into two pieces of cloth as with double weave fabric.

Double Knit
Medium to heavy-weight warp knit fabrics with good body and comparatively little stretch. Often knitted in wool, wool blend, rayon or polyester fibers, they have good shape retention and do not run or ravel.

Drapery Lining
Plain weave cotton or cotton blend fabrics used to line draperies and protect the fabric from sun damage. Backed lining can be used to block light.

Duchesse Satin
Lustrous, smooth, very finely woven fabric with good body and minimal bulk. Used to create volume in bridal or eveningwear. Duchesse satin is generally silk or a silk/rayon blend. Also seen in polyester.

Duck
A plain weave, firm, medium to heavy weight fabric. Similar to, but generally less coarse than canvas. Can be cotton, linen, synthetic or blend.

Dupioni Silk
A crisp, softly lustrous, plain weave fabric made with double uneven silk filament yarns to create a unique textured, thick and thin, slubbed surface, seen in shantung and pongee silks. Now also made using man-made fibers. May have a coarser, hand-woven appearance or smoother machine woven texture. Excellent for dresses, suits, bridal gowns.

Eco or Eco friendly fabrics
Fabrics produced in ways to do little or no harm to the environment. May use sustainable fibers. Examples: Bamboo, hemp, soy, natural cotton and linen.

Embroidered
Fabrics that are embellished with decorative thread, yarn, beads, crystals, sequins, ribbons, and cording. May be sewn or glued on a variety of background fabrics such as lace and net, chiffon, taffeta and satin, cotton and wool. Embroidery may cover the fabric (all-over design) or feature border patterns or individual motifs.

English Net
Cotton net used in sheer sections of eveningwear or as bodice as underlining. The net has a hexagonal weave, and dyes well.

Faille
A light to medium weight, low luster fabric with flat cross grain ribs, finer than grosgrain. Drapes well. Used for dresses. Originally made of silk fibers, now in man-made fibers too. Heavier weights have good body for suits and light coats. Pronounced

Faux Fur
Low to high pile fabrics on a woven or knitted ground, designed to look like fur. Pile is generally acrylic or modacrylic synthetic fiber.

Faux Leather
Synthetic leather with or without stretch. Surface design mimics textures of various leathers from patent leather to ostrich. Often a polyurethane laminate. Fabrics have no grain and do not fray, but retain pin holes.

Faux Suede
Synthetic fabrics, mostly polyesters, that mimic the texture of suede either on the surface or throughout. With or without stretch. May be single face or double face texture. No obvious grain, do not fray.

Felt
A non-woven, compressed fabric made of man-made fibers for crafts, costumes, table covers, OR made of wool or wool blends for hats, garments, tailoring interfacing. Does not ravel or drape.

Fibranne
A French term for spun rayon/viscose fibers and fabric made of them.

Flannel-Back Sateen
Sateen lining with brushed flannel on the back face for added warmth. May be rayon, acetate or other man made fibers.

Flannelette
Cotton or cotton blend, light weight fabric, with a napped finish for softness.

Flax
Strong, absorbant natural vegetable fiber from the stalk of the flax linum plant. Woven into linen fabric of various weights. Cool and comfortable to wear, though has poor elasticity.

Fleece
A deep-pile knit or woven, heavily napped, insulating, often double face fabric in many weights. Originally natural wool fibers. Now used as a generic term for polyester fleece which comes in solid colors or prints. Polyester fleece is warm and durable, doesn

Foulard
Lightweight, fine twill fabric printed with small figures on a contrasting color background. Originally silk, fine cotton or worsted; now also in fibers like acetate, viscose/rayon, triacetate and polyester.

French Terry
A single knit fabric with loops on one side that are brushed to create fleece for warmth. Generally made of cotton fibers.

Fris
Fabric made with mohair, rayon, silk or synthetic fiber loops on a cotton or jute background. Loops may be cut or not to create patterns. Generally used for upholstery.

Gabardine
a tightly woven fabric with a fine twill (diagonal) weave on the right side of the fabric and medium body. It can be woven in wool (worsted) for year-round suiting. Durable and resists wrinkles. Also made in other natural fibers or man-made fibers. Firm weave makes shaping and easing when tailoring more of a challenge.

Galloon lace
Lace with finished decorative designs on both selvedges. These edges can be removed and applied to garments as trim on garment hems or bodice edges.

Gauze
Very lightweight, sheer to translucent, plain-weave fabric. May have crinkle texture. Generally woven in cotton or wool.

Gazar
A silk organza. Often with a fine, slightly open basket weave texture.

Glen Plaid (Wool)
A twill fabric woven in wool fibers in a pattern of large and small broken checks. Glen plaids can be made in other natural and in man-made fibers also.

Greige
A term for fabrics in their original state prior to being dyed, bleached or finished.

Grosgrain
A fine, crisp, low luster fabric with cross-grain (weft) ribs. Originally in silk; now also in synthetic fibers. Used for eveningwear, facings, and ribbons.

Grospoint
Very durable upholstery fabric with tightly woven un-cut loops of the right side.

Guipure
An open-work lace with heavy embroidered patterns connected by

Habotai
Originally a very light weight plain weave silk fabric used for lining. Now available in light to medium weight, plain or twill weave for casual clothing.

Handkerchief Linen
A very lightweight, plain weave linen.

Harris Tweed
Coarse, hairy textured, hand woven wool fabric made in the Scottish Outer Hebrides islands. Originally 27

Hemp
Bask fiber of the hemp plant, similar to linen. Coarser fibers are used for making twine; finer fibers for weaving fabric. Hemp is often combined with other fibers, for a more comfortable fabric. Resists easing, frays and wrinkles in handling.

Herringbone
A broken twill weave with a zig zag effect pattern. Often made of wool fibers, but can be other natural or man-made fibers.

Hopsack
A plain weave with paired/double fibers interwoven in both the warp (vertical) and weft (cross) directions. Fabric stability depends on the tightness of the weave. Also called basket weave.

Horse Hair
Hair from a horse

Houndstooth
A broken check pattern in a twill weave fabric. Often made of wool fibers, but can be other natural or man-made fibers.

Ikat
Fabric woven with a traditional technique for creating variegated designs, in which fibers are tied and dyed before weaving.

Interfacing
Fabric inserted between the fashion fabric and the lining for support, shaping and reinforcement. May be sewn to the fashion fabric or ironed on (fused). May be woven, knit or non-woven .