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British Urological Institute - Urology terms
Category: Health and Medicine > Urology
Date & country: 01/10/2013, UK
Words: 120


Acidosis
a condition where the acidity of body fluids and tissues is abnormally high. It can arise because of a failure of the mechanisms responsible for maintaining a balance between acids and alkalis in the blood

Adenocarcinoma
a type of cancer that involves cells from the lining of the walls of various different organs of the body. Breast cancer is a type of adenocarcinoma

Adenoma
a benign tumour of epithelial origin that exhibits clearly defined glandular structures or is derived from glandular tissue or .

Adenopathy
general term for glandular disease

Adjuvants
substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents contain bacterial antigens and some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific (i.e. affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens). The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity

Adrenalectomy
excision of either one or both adrenal glands.

BCG
Bacille Calmette Guerin

BPH
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Brachytherapy
radiation therapy in which radioactive materials are placed in direct contact with the tissue being treated.

Bradykinin
a powerful vasodilator which causes contraction of smooth muscle. It is thought to play an important role as a mediator of inflammation.

Calix (calyces)
the collecting ducts of the kidney open into eight cup-shaped minor calyces. They are recognised as the first element in the duct system of the kidney, the minor calyces empty into two or three larger major calyces, draining the superior, middle and inferior portions of the kidney.

Cholecystectomy
surgical removal of the gall bladder (usually for gallstones).

CIS
carcinoma in situ

Condyloma
a papilloma with a central core of connective tissue in a treelike structure covered with epithelium. It usually occurs on the mucous membrane or skin of the external genitals or in the perianal region

Creatinine
a substance derived from creatine phosphate and creatine in muscle. It is excreted in the urine.

CT
computed tomography

CVA
cerebral vascular accident

Cystectomy
surgical removal of the urinary bladder. This is necessary in the treatment of certain bladder conditions, notably cancer, and makes subsequent urinary diversion necessary: the ureters draining the urine from the kidneys are reimplanted into the colon or into an isolated segment of intestine which is brought to the skin surface as a spout. Alternatively, in bladder replacement, a segment of ileum or colon is reconstructed to form a pouch which is anastomosed to the urethra and acts as a reservoir for the urine. Emptying is achieved by abdominal straining or intermittant self-catheterisation.

Dehiscence
a splitting open (e.g. of a surgical wound)

Detrusor
the muscle of the bladder wall

DHT
dihydrotestosterone

Diverticular disease
a condition in which diverticula (a sac or pouch formed at weak points in the walls of the alimentary canal) appear in the colon and cause lower abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habit.

DMSA
dimercaptosuccinic acid labelled with technetium-99. It is used as a tracer to obtain scintigrams (diagrams showing the distribution of radiactive tracer in the body) of the kidney. It is particularly useful to show scarring from infection and to assess the relative function of each kidney.

DRE
digital rectal examination, click here to read more

Dysplasia
abnormal development of skin, bone or other tissue.

Dysuria
difficult or painful urination.

Enuresis
involuntary discharge of urine (after the age at which urinary control should have been achieved). It is often used with specific reference to involuntary discharge of urine during sleep at night (bed wetting, nocturnal enuresis).

Epispadias
congenital abnormality in which the opening of the urethra is on the dorsal surface of the penis.

Exstrophy
severe congenital abnormality where the bladder fails to close during development. It is associated with epispadias, total urinary incontinence and undescended testis.

Extracapsular
outside of a capsule, especially the capsular ligament of a joint.

Fournier's gangrene
A life-threatening infection, usually of the genital region, resulting in death of tissue and profound collapse (due to the toxins released by the dead tissue)

Frenulum
The thin bridge of skin on the under-surface of the penis joining the head of the penis to the inside of the foreskin

FSH
follicle stimulating hormone

GnRH
gonadotropin-releasing hormone test

GSI
genuine stress incontinence

Haematocrit
packed cell volume

Haematuria
blood in the urine.

Hematoxylin
a basophilic stain that produces a blue colour. It is commonly used in conjunction with eosin that stains the cytoplasm pink or red. Various modifications of haematoxylin have been developed.

Hemiparesis
paralysis affecting only one side of the body.

Hilum (hila)
a hollow on the surface of an organ e.g. kidney or spleen where blood vessels, nerve fibres and ducts enter or leave it.

Histochemistry
the study of the identification and distribution of chemical compounds within and between cells.

HST
higher surgical training

Hydronephrosis
dilatation and distension of the pelvis of the kidney. It is due to an obstruction of the free flow of the urine from the kidney. An obstruction at or below the neck of the bladder will result in hydronephrosis of both kidneys.

Hyperlipidaemia
a general term for elevated concentrations of any or all of the lipids in the plasma (e.g. cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins).

Hyperplasia
an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue

Hyperreflexia
exaggeration of reflexes

Hypertonia
increased rigidity, tension and spasticity of the muscles.

Hyperuricaemia
increased uric acid level in the bloodstream, often seen in association with chemotherapy. Hyperuricaemia is considered a risk factor for the development or gout and may lead to renal disease. Also called uric acidaemia and previously known as lithaemia.

Hypoplasia
underdevelopment of an organ or tissue.

IC
interstitial cystitis

Idiopathic
of the nature of an idiopathy, self originated, of unknown causation.

Infarct
an area of tissue death due to local lack of oxygen.

IPSS
international prostate symptom score

Ischaemia
an inadequate blood flow to a part of the body, caused by constriction or blockage of the blood vessels supplying it

IVP
intravenous pyelogram

Juxta-glomerular apparatus (JGA)
A specialised cluster of blood vessels which secrete hormones that govern blood pressure & salt balance in the body

Ketonuria
the presence of ketone (acetone) bodies in the urine. It may occur in diabetes mellitus, starvation or after persistant vomiting. It results from the partial oxidation of fats.

Laparotomy
a surgical incision into the abdominal cavity, often to examine the abdominal organs to help diagnosis.

Leukoplakia
firmly attached thick white patches on the tongue and other mucous membranes (e.g. genitalia). It often occurs as a pre-cancerous growth. Leukoplakia develops on the oral mucosa in response to chronic irritation (for example ill-fitting dentures, smoking, chewing tobacco).

LH
lutenising hormone

Lymphadenopathy
swelling of the lymph nodes.

Lymphocyte
a type of white blood cell, also present in the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, gut wall and bone marrow.

Metaplasia
the change in the type of adult cells in a tissue to a form which is not normal for that tissue.

Metastasis
the spread of a malignant tumour from its site of origin. This occurs by three main routes either through the bloodstream, through the lymphatic system and/or across body cavities.

Micturition
the periodic discharge of urine from the bladder through the urethra. It is initiated by voluntary relaxation of the sphincter muscle below the bladder and then maintained by reflex contraction of the muscles of the bladder wall.

MSU
mid-stream specimen of urine

Neoplasm
new and abnormal growth of tissue that may be benign or cancerous

Nephrectomy
surgical removal of a kidney.

Nephrolithiasis
the presence of calculi in the kidney or collecting system. The calculi are usually small (2-12mm) solid, crystalline, concretions that develop in the kidney and eventually pass through the genitourinary tract. Stones can be composed of calcium, phosphate or uric acid.

Nephrolithotomy
the surgical removal of a stone from the kidney by an incision into the kidney substance. It is normally performed with an incision into the renal pelvis.

Neutrophil
a variety of granulocyte (type of white blood cell) capable of ingesting and killing bacteria.

Nocturia
excessive urination at night

Oedema
the presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body. Oedema may be localised, due to venous or lymphatic obstruction or to increased vascular permeability or it may be systemic due to heart failure or renal disease. Collections of oedema fluid are designated according to the site, for example ascites (peritoneal cavity), hydrothorax (pleural cavity) and hydropericardium (pericardial sac). Massive generalised oedema is called anasarca.

Oliguria
the production of an abnormally small volume of urine. This may be a result of copious sweating associated with intense physical activity and/or hot weather. It can also be due to kidney disease, retention of water in the tissues, loss of blood, diarrhoea, or poisoning.

Opsonisation
a process where opsonins (serum components) render bacteria more attractive to phagocytes by attaching to their outer surface and altering their physical and chemical compositions.

Orchidectomy
surgical removal of the testis. A recognised form of treatment for prostate cancer

Orchiectomy
the surgical removal of the testicles

Palliative
a medicine that gives temporary relief from the symptoms of a disease but does not actually cure the disease.

Parenchyma
the functional part of an organ (in contrast to its supporting tissue)

Parenteral
a substance or drug administered in any way but the mouth, e.g. by injection

Percutaneous
performed through the skin, as injection of radiopacque material in radiological examination or the removal of tissue for biopsy accomplished by a needle

Perineum
the region between the thighs.

Perioperative
pertaining to the period extending from the time of hospitalisation for surgery to the time of discharge

PET scan
(positron emission tomography) a scanning device which uses low-dose radioactive sugar to measure brain activity

PIN
prostate intraepithelial neoplasia

Polycythaemia
increase in the haemaglobin concentration of the blood

Priapism
persistent abnormal erection of the penis, usually without sexual desire and accompanied by pain and tenderness. It is seen in diseases and injuries of the spinal cord and may be caused by vesical calculus and certain injuries to the penis.

Prophylaxis
the prevention of disease, preventive treatment

Prostatectomy
the surgical removal of the prostate gland

Proteolysis
cleavage of proteins by proteases. Limited proteolysis occurs where proteins are functionally modified (activated in the case of zymogens) by highly specific proteases.

PSA
prostate specific antigen

PUJ
pelvic ureteric junction

Purulent
consisting of or containing pus.

Pyelogram
X-ray study of the kidney, especially showing the pelvis (urine-collecting basin) of the kidney and the ureter

Pyelonephritis
obstruction and infection of the kidney resulting in pus formation. A kidney stone is the usual cause of the obstruction, and the kidney becomes distended by pus and destroyed by the inflammation, which extends into the kidney substance itself and sometimes into the surrounding tissues.

Pyrexia
a fever or a febrile condition, abnormal elevation of the body temperature

Quality of Life Score (QoL)
A means of assessing the impact of symptoms on the overall day-today activities of patients

Renal acidosis
kidney failure results in excessive loss of bicarbonate or retention of phosphoric and sulphuric acids. Patients with diabetes mellitus suffer from a form of acidosis in which sodium, potassium and ketone bodies are lost in the urine.

Schistosomiasis
a disease (bilharzia) caused by digenetic trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, the adults of which live in the urinary or mesenteric blood vessels. Eggs shed by the female worms pass to the outside in the urine or faeces, but many also lodge in and obstruct the blood flow in the liver.

Sepsis
the destruction of tissues by bacteria or their toxins.