Copy of `AACR - Cancer terms`

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AACR - Cancer terms
Category: Health and Medicine > Cancer Research
Date & country: 27/09/2013, American Association for Cancer Research
Words: 207


translocation
An abnormal rearrangement of the DNA in a chromosome.

tumor
An abnormal mass of tissue that results from excessive cell division. Tumors perform no useful body function. They may be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

tumor suppressor gene
A gene that normally inhibits excessive cell proliferation. Mutations that permanently disable tumor suppressor genes can cause a cell to grow uncontrollably, leading to tumor development. Examples of tumor suppressors are pRB and p53. pRB (retinoblastoma protein) regulates the cell cycle at cell cycle checkpoints. p53 regulates the activity of certain molecules involved in the cell cycle. It also prevents DNA replication and cell division in normal cells with damaged DNA.

tyrosine kinases
A large group of enzymes important in cell growth, differentiation and development.

vaccine
A substance or group of substances meant to cause the immune system to respond to a tumor or to microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses.

virus
A very small infectious agent that carries proteins and nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) in a protective coat. After infecting a cell (also called a host cell) and injecting its genetic material inside the host, a virus may lie dormant (inactive) for a length of time. Viruses depend on the host cells to survive; infected cells act as virus-making factories. Viruses contribute to the etiology of certain cancers. See infection. They are also used as vectors (vehicles or tools) to deliver drugs or carry genes for gene therapy.

white blood cells
A variety of cells that fight invading germs, infection and allergy causing agents. Also called leukocytes.