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AGNIC - Wildlife terms
Category: Animals and Nature > Wildlife Management
Date & country: 27/09/2013, US
Words: 921


RANDOMIZED TRIAL
a clinical trial arranged to produce a chance distribution of participants into different arms (e.g., experimental treatment, standard treatment, or placebo). Clinical trial participants are usually randomized by computer to prevent potential bias of investigators. Randomization is done to minimize bias.

RAPID VIROLOGICAL RESPONSE (RVR)
HCV RNA negative at treatment week 4.

RAYNAUD'S PHENOMENON
temporary interruption of blood flow to the extremities (fingers, toes, tip of nose and ears), often associated with exposure to cold temperatures.

RBC
red blood cell. See erythrocyte.

RBV
see ribavirin.

REACTIVATION
the return of a previously latent (inactive) infection to an active, pathogenic state.

REBETOL
Schering

REBETRON
a bundled kit for HCV treatment that packages together Intron-A brand interferon and ribavirin.

REBOUND
an increase in viral load following a previous decrease.

RECEPTOR
a specific binding site on a cell's surface or in its interior. When chemical messengers or drugs bind to receptors, various cellular functions are activated or inhibited. Viruses must bind receptors in order to enter cells.

RECOMBINANT
produced by genetic engineering.

RECONSTITUTION
mixing a substance (e.g., Peg-Intron brand pegylated interferon) with water to return it to a usable form.

RECRUITMENT
the period of time assigned to identify and enroll in a clinical trial.

RECURRENT
returning or occurring repeatedly.

RED BLOOD CELL
see erythrocyte.

REFLEXOLOGY
an alternative healing technique that involves putting pressure on various zones of the body.

REFRACTORY
resistant to treatment.

REGENERATION
regrowth.

REGIMEN
a specific treatment protocol, including what drugs are taken and at what dosages.

REIKI
a healing technique in which energy is channeled through the hands of the healer.

REITER'S SYNDROME
see reactive arthritis.

RELAPSE
recurrence of disease symptoms following a period of improvement. In HCV, relapse can refer to an increase in viral load after it has been suppressed.

RELAPSER
a person who becomes HCV RNA negative at end of treatment, but becomes HCV detectable within 24 weeks from the end of treatment (EOT).

RENAL
having to do with the kidneys.

REPLICATION
multiplication or reproduction, specifically used when referring to a virus.

RESECTION
see hepatic resection.

RESISTANCE
the mutation of a microorganism in such a way that it loses its sensitivity to a drug; a resistant organism can function and replicate despite the drug's presence.

RESOLVE
when referring to a condition, to clear up or heal.

RESPONDER-RELAPSER
a person who initially responds well to a treatment, but then experiences a relapse. In chronic HCV infection, this refers to a person who initially has a positive response to treatment (e.g., normal ALT, undetectable HCV RNA), but does not sustain this response once treatment is stopped.

RESPONSE TO TREATMENT
see treatment response.

RESPONSE-GUIDED TREATMENT
Response-guided therapy uses HCV RNA testing during treatment to predict response and guide treatment duration for patients with chronic hepatitis C.

RETINOPATHY
disease of the retina of the eye.

RETROSPECTIVE STUDY
a study based on medical records, looking backward in time at events that happened in the past. Contrast with prospective study.

RETROVIRUS
a class of viruses that have their genetic material in the form of RNA and use the reverse transcriptase enzyme to transcribe their RNA into DNA within the host cell.

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA)
an autoimmune condition characterized by joint inflammation and destruction of connective tissue; other organs, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, and skin, may also be affected.

RHEUMATOID FACTOR
a type of antibody (IgM) that reacts to abnormal IgG antibodies produced by people with autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis.

RHEUMATOLOGY
the study and treatment of conditions of the joints, muscles, bones, and connective tissues.

RIBA
a type of antibody test; RIBA is often used to confirm HCV antibody positivity detected on an ELISA II test.

RIBASPHERE
Kadmon Pharmaceutical

RIBAVIRIN (RBV)
an antiviral medication approved for use in combination with interferon to treat chronic HCV infection.

RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA)
a single-stranded nucleic acid that encodes genetic information. The presence of viral RNA in the blood indicates that a virus is actively replicating. Hepatitis C and HIV are examples of RNA viruses.

RIBOZYME
an RNA molecule that cleaves (cuts) RNA strands at a specific site. A ribozyme directed against a specific region of the HCV genome is currently under study as a treatment for HCV.

RIMANTADINE (brand name FLUMADINE)
a drug used to treat influenza that is also under study as a treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

RISK/BENEFIT RATIO
a measurement used to evaluate whether potential benefits outweigh potential risks (e.g., in a clinical trial).

RNA
see ribonucleic acid.

ROFERON-A
brand name of interferon-alpha-2a, produced by Roche Laboratories.

RX
treatment

SAFER SEX
sexual activities that reduce or eliminate the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, typically by blocking contact with semen and/or vaginal fluid.

SALVAGE THERAPY
emergency treatment with experimental drugs for an illness that does not respond to standard therapy.

SAM-E
see s-adenosylmethionine.

SAMPLE SIZE
the number of participants in a clinical trial.

SARCOIDOSIS
an autoimmune condition characterized by granulomas (small nodules of cells); the condition may affect the lungs, skin, eyes, liver, and other organs.

SARGRAMOSTIM
see granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

SCHISANDRA (WU WEI ZI)
a plant used in traditional Chinese and Russian medicine to treat liver conditions.

SCLERODERMA
an autoimmune condition characterized by hardened skin and connective tissue.

SEIZURE
a burst of abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

SELENIUM
a trace mineral that acts as an antioxidant.

SEMEN
male ejaculatory fluid containing sperm and various proteins.

SENSITIVITY
the ability of an organism to respond to a drug or other agent. Sensitivity also refers to a statistical measure of the accuracy of a screening test, that is, how likely a test is to label as positive those who have a disease or condition. Contrast with specificity.

SEPSIS
infection.

SEROCONVERSION
the development of antibodies against a pathogen; the change in a person's antibody status from negative to positive.

SERONEGATIVE
lack of antibodies against a pathogen in the blood.

SEROPOSITIVE
presence of antibodies against a pathogen in the blood.

SEROSTATUS
the presence or absence of antibodies against a pathogen in the blood.

SERUM
the fluid, noncellular portion of blood that remains after coagulation; lymphatic fluid. See also plasma.

SERUM HEPATITIS
see hepatitis B.

SGOT
serum oxaloacetic transaminase. See aspartate aminotransferase.

SGPT
serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase. See alanine aminotransferase.

SHEDDING
release of infectious particles (e.g., bacteria, viruses) into the environment.

SHO-SAIKO-TO
a traditional herbal liver formula containing bupleurum.

SIALADENITIS
Sialadenitis is an inflammatory disease that causes dry mouth and eyes and is associated with hepatitis C infection. Sialadenitis destroys the salivary glands.

SIDE EFFECT
see adverse reaction.

SILIBIN
an active component of milk thistle.

SILYMARIN
see milk thistle.

SINUSOIDS
cavities through hepatic or liver tissue allowing exchange of nutrients and other substances between blood and hepatocytes (liver cells).

SJ
an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks fluid-producing exocrine glands, leading to dry eyes, mouth, vagina, etc.

SOC
see standard of care

SODIUM
an element and electrolyte and a component of salt that helps to regulate cell fluid balance.

SPECIFICITY
a statistical measure of the accuracy of a screening test. Specificity measures the proportion of negatives which are correctly identified (e.g., the percentage of healthy people who are correctly identified as not having the condition). Contrast with sensitivity.

SPIDER ANGIOMA
a mass of visible veins on the skin surface; may be a symptom of chronic liver damage.

SPLEEN
an immune system organ located in the abdominal cavity. The spleen produces blood cell in the fetus, and later removes old red blood cells and platelets from circulation.

SPLENOMEGALY
enlargement of the spleen.

SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONTIS
bacterial infection of ascitic fluid in the abdominal cavity.

SQ
see subcutaneous.

SSRI
see selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

STAGE I
the earliest stage of liver damage, characterized by liver inflammation without fibrosis or cirrhosis.

STAGE II
a stage of liver damage characterized by fibrosis in a single area of the liver.

STAGE III
a stage of liver damage characterized by fibrosis in adjacent areas of the liver.

STAGE IV
the most advanced stage of liver damage, characterized by cirrhosis and loss of normal liver architecture.

STANDARD INTERFERON
the type of interferon-alpha traditionally used to treat HCV. Brand names include Intron-A and Roferon-A. Also see pegylated interferon.

STANDARD OF CARE
the level of care that all persons with a particular illness should receive; the level below which care would be considered substandard.

STANDARD THERAPY
the best or most widely used currently available treatment for a disease.

STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
the probability that a clinical trial result is not due to chance alone. In general, a result of a clinical trial is considered statistically significant if there is a less than 5% probability that the difference observed would occur by chance alone if the treatments being compared were equally effective.

STD
see sexually transmitted disease.

STEATOSIS
buildup of fat tissue in the liver.

STENOSIS
narrowing or tightening of an opening or passage in the body.

STEROID
a family of substances that share a similar chemical structure, including certain hormones (e.g., testosterone) and various drugs.

STI
see sexually transmitted disease.

STROKE (CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT)
interruption of the normal flow of blood to the brain due to a blood clot or hemorrhage. Lack of blood flow can lead to brain damage (resulting in symptoms such paralysis) and death.

SUBCLINICAL
disease symptoms that are too subtle to be noticed by a patient, but may be apparent in laboratory results.