Copy of `AGNIC - Wildlife terms`

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AGNIC - Wildlife terms
Category: Animals and Nature > Wildlife Management
Date & country: 27/09/2013, US
Words: 921


PANCYTOPENIA
an abnormally low level of all types of blood cells, typically due to bone marrow damage.

PARACENTESIS
a procedure to remove fluid that has accumulated in the abdominal cavity

PARACETOMAL
see acetaminophen

PARENTERAL
nutrients given by injection into a vein, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.

PATHOGEN (adjective PATHOGENIC)
any disease-causing agent, especially a microorganism (bacteria, virus, fungus, parasite).

PATHOGENESIS
the development and progression of a disease.

PATHOLOGY (adjective PATHOLOGIC)
the study of disease, including the causes, development, and progression of disease, and how the body is affected.

PCR
see polymerase chain reaction.

PEAK LEVEL
the highest level of drug reached in the body after a dose is taken. Contrast with trough level.

PEER REVIEW
a review of the scientific merit of a clinical trial by independent experts.

PEG-INTRON
brand name of pegylated interferon-alpha-2b, produced by Schering-Plough.

PEGASYS
brand name of pegylated interferon-alpha-2a, produced by Genentech Inc.

PEGINTERFERON
see pegylated interferon.

PEGYLATION
a process in which polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules are attached to proteins in order to extend their activity in the body.

PEI
see percutaneous ethanol injection.

PERCUTANEOUS
through the skin.

PERCUTANEOUS ETHANOL INJECTION
a treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma in which ethanol (alcohol) is injected into the tumor.

PERIHEPATITIS
inflammation of the lining of the liver.

PERINATAL
the period around the time of birth.

PERINATAL TRANSMISSION
see vertical transmission.

PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY
damage to the peripheral nerves, usually involving the feet and hands.

PERITONEUM
the thick membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the visceral organs.

PERITONITIS
inflammation of the peritoneum.

PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
a type of anemia caused by the inability of the intestine to absorb vitamin B12, which is needed to produce red blood cells.

PHAGOCYTE
a scavenger cell that engulfs and destroys invading pathogens (phagocytosis).

PHARMACEUTICAL
having to do with the development and manufacture of drugs, or to a manufactured drug.

PHARMACOKINETICS
the action of drugs in the body, including the processes of absorption, metabolism, distribution to tissues, and elimination.

PHARMACOLOGY
the science of drugs, their sources, and how they work.

PHASE I TRIAL
the first stage of human testing of a new treatment. Phase I trials evaluate drug pharmacokinetics, safety, and toxicity at different dose levels, typically in a small number of healthy volunteers or in those who have the condition or disease.

PHASE II TRIAL
the second stage of the evaluation of a new treatment in humans. Phase II trials evaluate safety and preliminary efficacy in a larger number of participants than Phase I studies.

PHASE III TRIAL
the third stage of human testing of an experimental treatment. Phase III trials are designed to determine the safety and efficacy of a treatment, often by comparing it to an existing standard therapy or a placebo.

PHLEBOTOMY
withdrawal of blood from a vein.

PHOTOSENSITIVITY
an increased sensitivity to light, which may lead to easy sunburning and other adverse effects.

PHYLLANTHUS
tropical plant species that traditionally have been used to treat liver conditions.

PIGMENT
a substance responsible for the color of bodily tissues.

PLACEBO
an inert, inactive agent (e.g., pill, injection) that has no treatment value.

PLACEBO ARM
the group of participants in a clinical trial that receives an inactive substance (placebo).

PLACEBO EFFECT
a change in symptoms or disease progression associated with the treatment process itself, rather than the actual therapeutic value of a treatment.

PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL
a clinical trial in which a group receiving an inactive substance or mock therapy (placebo) is compared to a group receiving the experimental treatment.

PLACENTA
the organ that connects the fetus and the mother's uterus and enables the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products.

PLASMA
the fluid, non-cellular portion of circulating blood. See also serum.

PLASMAPHERESIS
a procedure in which certain components are removed from the blood plasma.

PLATELET
see thrombocyte.

PLATELET COUNT
The number of platelets in the blood. People with advanced liver disease may have reduced platelet counts, resulting in easy bleeding. A normal platelet count is 130,000-400,000/mcl.

PNEUMONITIS
lung inflammation.

PO
taken by mouth.

POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)
a highly sensitive test that uses an amplification technique to detect small amounts of genetic material (DNA or RNA) in a blood or tissue sample.

POLYMERASE INHIBITOR
an agent that inhibits viral replication by interfering with the polymerase enzyme.

PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA
a condition in which porphyrins build up in the body leading to symptoms including increased photosensitivity, skin damage, and discoloration.

PORPHYRIN
a metabolic byproduct of hemoglobin production.

PORTAL HYPERTENSION
high blood pressure in the portal vein that carries blood to the liver, caused by the development of fibrous scar tissue (cirrhosis) in the liver.

PORTAL SYSTEM
a series of veins from the small and large intestines, stomach, and spleen that join into the portal vein and are carried into the liver.

PORTAL VEIN
the blood vessel that carries oxygen-poor blood from the intestines to the liver for filtering.

POST-MARKETING STUDY
see Phase IV trial.

POSTNATAL (POSTPARTUM)
the period following birth.

POTASSIUM
an element and electrolyte responsible for the body

POWER
a statistical term used to describe the ability of a clinical trial to detect a particular result. Generally the power of a study increases as more participants are included or as the trial continues for a longer period of time.

PRANA
in Ayurveda, the body's vital energy.

PRECLINICAL RESEARCH
laboratory and animal studies on an experimental treatment prior to clinical trials in humans.

PRENATAL
the period preceding birth, during which the fetus develops in the uterus.

PREVALENCE (also PREVALENCE RATE)
the number of individuals with a condition in a specific population. The prevalence rate is determined by dividing the number of people with the condition by the total population. Contrast with incidence.

PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIAN
a physician who is responsible for the overall long term health maintenance of a patient.

PRINCIPLE INVESTIGATOR
the chief researcher conducting a clinical trial.

PRIOR PARTIAL-RESPONDER
a person who has a 2 log10 drop in HCV RNA by treatment week 12, but who does not become HCV RNA negative by end of treatment. (Example 2 log10 drop

PROCRIT
see erythropoietin.

PRODRUG
a compound that is converted to an active drug within the body.

PROGESTERONE
a female hormone with anti-estrogen effects. Progesterone prepares the uterus for the development of the fertilized ovum and maintains the uterus throughout pregnancy.

PROGNOSIS (adjective PROGNOSTIC)
a forecast of the probable course or outcome of a disease.

PROGRESSION
development of a disease over time.

PROKINE
see granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

PROPHYLAXIS
a measure taken to prevent a disease or condition.

PROSPECTIVE STUDY
a clinical trial in which participants are selected and their progression is followed over time. Contrast with retrospective study.

PROTEASE INHIBITOR
an agent that inhibits viral replication by interfering with the virus' protease enzyme. HCV protease inhibitors include boceprevir and telaprevir.

PROTEIN
a complex organic compound consisting of a sequence of amino acids folded in a specific configuration. Proteins are major components of living cells and are essential for bodily growth and repair.

PROTHROMBIN
a protein synthesized by the liver that is necessary for proper blood clotting.

PROTHROMBIN TIME (PT)
a measure of blood clotting time. People with advanced liver disease may have a slower than normal PT. A normal PT is 10-12 seconds.

PROTOCOL
a written plan for a clinical trial, which typically includes details such as the hypothesis to be tested, who can participate, length of the trial, how the treatment under study will be administered, endpoints, and potential risks and benefits.

PRURITUS (adjective PRURITIC)
itchiness.

PSORIASIS
a skin condition characterized by scaling and red patches, due to the overproduction of skin cells.

PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS
a form of rheumatoid arthritis associated with psoriasis.

PSYCHOSIS
a serious mental illness.

PSYCHOSOCIAL
a term used to refer to factors that affect the psychological or social realm. Psychosocial factors (e.g., socioeconomic status, education, family situation) can have an important effect on disease risk and progression and are an essential aspect of a person's well-being.

PSYCHOTHERAPY
treatment of mental problems with non-medical therapies, in particular counseling.

PSYCHOTROPIC
a drug that affects psychological or mental functioning or behavior.

PT
patient.

PULMONARY FIBROSIS
the development of fibrous tissue in the lungs.

PURPURA
see thrombocytopenic purpura.

PURULENT
characterized by the accumulation of pus.

PUS
a thick, greenish-yellow fluid composed of dead white blood cells, killed microorganisms, and other cellular debris.

PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOID
a hepatotoxic component found in plants of the Crotalaria, Senecio, and Heliotropium families.

QI (CHI)
the vital energy believed to be responsible for health and disease in traditional Chinese medicine.

QIGONG
a form of traditional Chinese exercise that promotes the healthy flow of qi.

QUALITATIVE
relating to, or expressed in terms of, quality. A qualitative viral load test measures the presence of a virus.

QUALITY OF LIFE STUDY (QOL)
a clinical trial that measures how a condition affects the daily life of a person with a chronic illness. A clinical trial of an investigational medication may have a quality of life component to find out the effects of the study drug on QOL and if successful treatment improves QOL.

QUANTITATIVE
relating to, or expressed in terms of, quantity. A quantitative viral load test measures the amount of viral genetic material.

QUASISPECIES
individual genetic variants of HCV. Within a single genotype there may be multiple quasispecies.

RA
see rheumatoid arthritis.

RADIATION THERAPY (RADIOTHERAPY)
the use of radiation to treat disease (especially cancer).

RADIOGRAPHY
the use of X-ray pictures, for example for diagnosis.

RADIOLOGIST
a physician who uses x-rays or other imaging procedures for diagnosis and treatment.