Copy of `AGNIC - Wildlife terms`

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AGNIC - Wildlife terms
Category: Animals and Nature > Wildlife Management
Date & country: 27/09/2013, US
Words: 921


MAXIMINE
see histamine dihydrochloride.

MEDICAID
in the United States, a program that is funded by federal and state governments that pays for medical care for those who can

MEDICARE
in the United States, a program that pays for certain health care expenses for people 65 and older.

MEDITATION
a technique for relaxation and clearing and focusing the mind.

MEGAKARYOCYTE
a large precursor blood cell that gives rise to platelets.

MELD
an acronym for Model End Stage Liver Disease. A severity score or calculation used for adults with liver disease to rank candidates for liver transplantation.

MEMBRANE
a thin sheet or layer of tissue that serves as a semi-permeable covering.

MEMBRANOUS NEPHROPATHY
a disease of the kidneys where HCV antibodies and viral particles are deposited in the kidneys.

MENOPAUSE
the cessation of menstruation.

MENSTRUATION
a stage of the female reproductive cycle. An ovum (egg) matures and is released every month. Hormones prepare the uterus for possible implantation. If pregnancy does not occur, the uterine lining (blood and tissue) is shed and expelled (the menstrual period).

MESSENGER RNA (mRNA)
a piece of ribonucleic acid that carries genetic information from DNA to ribosomes in order to synthesize new proteins.

METABOLISM (adjective METABOLIC)
the processes of building the body's molecular structures from nutrients (anabolism) and breaking them down for energy (catabolism). Also, the chemical processing or breakdown of food, drugs, and toxins.

METHADONE
an oral opiate-like drug used for pain management and to treat opiate (e.g., heroin) addiction. Methadone maintenance therapy prevents withdrawal symptoms by administering small doses of the drug on a regular basis.

METHIONINE
see s-adenosylmethionine.

MHC
see major histocompatibility complex.

MINERAL
an inorganic element that promotes chemical reactions within the body and is necessary for proper cellular metabolism. Essential minerals include calcium, iodine, iron, magnesium, potassium, and zinc.

MISCARRIAGE
a pregnancy that ends prematurely and is not carried to term.

MITOCHONDRION (plural MITOCHONDRIA)
a rod-shaped organelle in the cytoplasm of a cell that produces energy.

MOLECULE
a small unit of matter made up of atoms. A molecule is the smallest unit of a substance that retains its unique characteristics.

MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
a preparation consisting of identical antibodies active against a specific pathogen.

MONOCYTE
a large white blood cell that plays a role in immune defense. Monocytes circulate in the bloodstream; when they migrate to the tissues, they mature into macrophages.

MONOGAMY (MONOGAMOUS)
having a single spouse; more often used to refer to having a single sexual partner.

MONOTHERAPY
use of a single drug for treatment. Monotherapy for HCV (interferon alone) is no longer considered standard treatment. Contrast with combination therapy.

MOOREN CORNEAL ULCERATION
a condition affecting the eyes causing pain, inflammation, tearing and loss of sight.

MORBIDITY
sickness; the state of being affected by disease.

MORTALITY (also MORTALITY RATE)
death. The mortality rate is the rate of death in a given population.

MOXA
the herb mugwort.

MOXIBUSTION
in traditional Chinese medicine, the burning of an herb (moxa) to generate heat and stimulate the flow of qi.

MRI
see magnetic resonance imaging.

mRNA
see messenger RNA.

MU
abbreviation for million units.

MUCOUS MEMBRANE (MUCOSA)
a moist layer of semi-permeable tissue lining the openings of the body (e.g., the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts).

MULTIFOCAL
occurring at more than one site.

MULTIPLE MYELOMA
a form of cancer of the bone marrow that causes anemia, infections, and bleeding.

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
a statistical analysis that takes into account several different factors or variables.

MULTIVITAMIN
a nutritional supplement that contains several different essential vitamins and minerals.

MUTATION (verb MUTATE)
a change in the character of a gene that is perpetuated when a cell divides or a virus replicates.

MYALGIA
muscle pain.

MYELIN
a white fatty substance that forms a sheath around the axons of neurons (nerve cells) and provides the insulation necessary for the proper transmission of electrical impulses.

MYELOSUPPRESSION
inhibition of the bone marrow, resulting in decreased blood cell production.

MYELOTOXIC
poisonous to or destructive of the bone marrow.

MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
blockage of the arteries serving the heart, often leading to angina pectoris and/or heart attack.

MYOPATHY
muscle inflammation, damage, or disease.

NAC
see n-acetyl-cysteine.

NAIVE
inexperienced. Often used to describe an individual who has never taken a certain drug, or to an undifferentiated immune system cell.

NARCOTIC
see opiate.

NATURAL HISTORY STUDY
a study of the natural development of a disease over time.

NATURAL KILLER (NK) CELL
a type of white blood cell that attacks and kills tumor cells and cells infected with microorganisms.

NATUROPATHY
a system of natural healing based on the philosophy that the body has the ability to cure itself.

NAUSEA
stomach distress characterized by an aversion to food and an urge to vomit.

NDA
see new drug application.

NECROINFLAMMATION
tissue inflammation and death.

NECROSIS
cell or tissue death.

NEONATE (adjective NEONATAL)
a newborn, especially within the first days or weeks after birth.

NEOPLASM (NEOPLASIA)
a tumor or growth; tissue that develops abnormally or cells that proliferate more rapidly than normal. A benign neoplasm (e.g., a wart) is localized and does not spread to other tissues; a malignant neoplasm (cancer) can spread to other parts of the body.

NEPHROLITHIASIS
see kidney stone.

NEPHROTOXICITY
the property of being poisonous or harmful to the kidneys.

NEUPOGEN
see granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

NEURALGIA
nerve pain.

NEUROPATHY (adjective NEUROPATHIC)
nerve damage or disease.

NEUTROPENIA
an abnormally low number of neutrophils, resulting in increased susceptibility to infection.

NEUTROPHIL
the most common type of immune system white blood cell. Neutrophils are phagocytes that engulf and destroy invading organisms such as bacteria and fungi.

NEW DRUG APPLICATION (NDA)
an application made by a drug manufacturer to the FDA to request marketing approval for a new drug.

NIACIN
see vitamin B.

NIAID
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. See National Institutes of Health.

NIDDK
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. See National Institutes of Health.

NIH
see National Institutes of Health.

NK CELL
see natural killer cell.

NNRTI
see non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

NON-A/NON-B HEPATITIS
see hepatitis C.

NON-HODGKIN
cancer of lymphoid tissues.

NONINVASIVE
a device or procedure that does not require puncturing the skin.

NONOXYNOL-9
a chemical formerly used as a spermicide and microbicide. Recent studies have shown that nonoxynol-9 causes tissue damage and may increase the risk of STD transmission.

NONRESPONDER
person who does not show improvement while undergoing treatment. In HCV, a nonresponder does not achieve normal ALT levels or an undetectable viral load.

NRTI
see nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

NS5a INHIBITOR
an agent that inhibits viral replication of the hepatitis C virus

NSAID
see nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

NUCLEOSIDE ANALOG
see nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

NUCLEOTIDE
a genetic building block.

NULL RESPONDER
a person who does not achieve a 2 log10 drop of HCV RNA by treatment week 12.

NUTRIENT
an agent that promotes proper growth and metabolism.

NUTRITION
the process by which living organisms digest and metabolize food to use for maintenance and growth of tissues.

OFF-LABEL
use of an FDA-approved drug for an indication other than that for which it was approved.

ONCOGEN
an agent that promotes neoplastic cell growth, or cancer.

ONCOGENESIS
the development and growth of cancer.

ONCOLOGIST
a physician who specializes in the treatment of cancer.

ONCOLOGY
the study and treatment of cancer.

OPEN-LABEL
a drug trial which is not randomized and not blinded; both participants and investigators know what drug is being tested and what dosages are being used.

OPIATE (NARCOTIC)
a class of drugs (e.g., heroin, codeine, methadone) that are derived from the opium poppy or produced synthetically and have opium-like effects. Opiate drugs relieve pain, dull the senses, and induce sleep.

ORAL
relating to the mouth; taken by mouth.

ORGANIC FOOD
food that is grown naturally without the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, or other artificial intervention.

ORPHAN DRUGS
an FDA category of drugs developed to treat conditions that rarely occur. The FDA offers financial incentives to offset the predicted lower rate of return on the investment in clinical development.

OSTEOARTHRITIS
degenerative joint disease.

OTC
see over-the-counter.

OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC)
drugs that are available without a prescription.

OXIDATIVE STRESS
increased levels of free radicals in the body, potentially leading to cell damage and death.

PALLIATIVE
offering symptomatic relief and comfort care (e.g., alleviation of pain) rather than a cure.

PALLOR
paleness.

PANCREAS
a digestive gland in the abdominal cavity that secretes digestive enzymes.

PANCREATITIS
inflammation of the pancreas.