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AGNIC - Wildlife terms
Category: Animals and Nature > Wildlife Management
Date & country: 27/09/2013, US
Words: 921


IDU
see injection drug user.

IFN
see interferon.

IG
immunoglobulin; see antibody.

IL28B
see interleukin 28B

IMMUNE CLEARANCE
A phase of chronic HBV that is marked by increased levels of ALT and HBV DNA (viral load). During this phase there is more damage occurring in the liver.

IMMUNE GLOBULIN
see antibody.

IMMUNE RESPONSE
the activity of the immune system, for example against an outside invader (e.g., bacteria, virus), cancerous cells, or the body's own tissues (autoimmune response).

IMMUNE SYSTEM
the body's defense system that protects against foreign invaders (e.g., bacteria, viruses). Some immune defenses are nonspecific (e.g., phagocytosis), while others are directed against specific invaders (e.g., antibody production). Organs of the immune system include the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and tonsils.

IMMUNE TOLERANT
A phase of chronic HBV when HBV DNA levels are high, but ALT levels are low. This indicates that there is little liver damage occurring.

IMMUNITY
resistance to disease; the body's ability to recognize and defend against outside invaders and cancerous cells. Immunity may be either natural or acquired (for example, artificially induced through a vaccine).

IMMUNIZATION
the process by which a person is protected against illness caused by a pathogen (e.g., bacteria, virus). Active immunization (vaccination) involves exposing a person to antigens to prompt the body to mount an immune response (e.g., production of antibodies). Passive immunization involves the injection of an antibody preparation (e.g., gamma globulin).

IMMUNOCOMPETENT
capable of mounting an immune response.

IMMUNOCOMPROMISE
see immunodeficiency.

IMMUNODEFICIENCY
inability of the immune system to work properly, resulting in increased susceptibility to disease.

IMMUNOGLOBULIN
see antibody.

IMMUNOMODULATOR
an agent that influences the body's immune response.

IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
see immunodeficiency.

IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE
a drug or other agent that decreases immune system function.

IMPDH INHIBITOR
see inosine monophosphate dehyrogenase inhibitor.

IN UTERO
in the uterus; refers to events that occur in the womb before birth.

INACTIVE CARRIER
A phase of chronic HBV that is marked by low HBV DNA, and ALT levels indicating less damage occurring in the liver.

INCIDENCE (also INCIDENCE RATE)
the number of new cases of a disease or condition in a specific population during a given period of time. The incidence rate is determined by dividing the number of new cases by the total population. Contrast with prevalence.

INCIVEK (generic name telaprevir)
an HCV protease inhibitor (taken in combination with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin) approved by the FDA to treat people with HCV genotype 1.

INCLUSION CRITERIA
conditions that a person must meet in order to be eligible for a clinical trial. Contrast with exclusion criteria.

INCUBATION PERIOD
the period of time between initial exposure to an infectious microorganism and the development of disease symptoms.

IND
acronym for Investigational New Drug.

INDUCTION THERAPY
the initiation phase of a particular treatment. Typically induction therapy uses higher or more frequent doses of a drug. Contrast with maintenance therapy.

INFECTION
a condition in which the body is invaded by an infectious organism (e.g., bacteria, virus, fungus).

INFECTIOUS
a disease or condition that can be transmitted from one person to another.

INFECTIOUS HEPATITIS
see hepatitis A.

INFERGEN
brand name of interferon alfacon 1 consensus interferon, distributed by Kadmon Pharmaceuticals.

INFLAMMATION
the body's response to tissue injury or infection, typically characterized by redness, swelling, heat, and pain.

INFORMED CONSENT
a mechanism designed to protect subjects in clinical trials. Before entering a trial, participants must sign a form stating that they have been given and understand important information about the trial (including possible risks and benefits) and voluntarily agree to take part.

INFUSION
direct injection (e.g., of a drug, nutrients) into the bloodstream.

INHIBITOR
an agent that inhibits or blocks an activity.

INJECTION DRUG USER (IDU)
a person who uses an illegal drug (e.g., heroin, cocaine) administered with a needle and syringe. The terms intravenous drug user (IVDU) and people who inject drugs (PWID) are also sometimes used.

INSOMNIA
inability to sleep.

INSULIN
a peptide hormone produced in the pancreas that enables cells to use glucose. Lack of or insensitivity to insulin results in diabetes.

INSULIN RESISTANCE
a condition in which the body's tissues cannot properly use insulin, leading to blood sugar imbalances.

INTENT-TO-TREAT ANALYSIS
a method of analyzing the results of a clinical trial in which all participants who were originally assigned to an arm are analyzed, including those who dropped out due to treatment failure or side effects. Contrast with as-treated analysis.

INTERFERON (IFN)
a cytokine (messenger protein) that plays a role in immune response. The three major classes of interferon are alpha, beta, and gamma.

INTERFERON-ALPHA
a naturally occurring protein produced by the immune system that interferes with viral replication. Interferon-alpha (brand names include Intron-A, Roferon-A) is standard treatment for HCV and is also approved for HBV. Side effects may include flu-like symptoms, fatigue, loss of appetite, depression, and anxiety.

INTERLEUKIN (IL)
a cytokine (chemical messenger), secreted by immune system blood cells, that regulates a range of immune functions.

INTERLEUKIN 28B (IL28B)
a variation of interleukin that directs an immune response to the hepatitis C virus. IL28B is categorized into genotypes CC, TT, and C/T. IL28B CC genotype produces that strongest immune response against hepatitis C.

INTERNATIONAL UNIT (IU)
a standard unit of measurement.

INTOLERANCE
inability of the body to tolerate a drug, resulting in adverse side effects.

INTRACELLULAR
within a cell.

INTRAVENOUS (IV)
injected directly into a vein.

INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN (IVIG)
an antibody preparation administered intravenously to treat illness in a person whose own immune system does not produce sufficient antibodies.

INTRON-A
brand name of interferon-alpha-2b, produced by Schering-Plough.

INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG (IND)
an FDA classification for experimental drugs that are undergoing clinical trials to assess their safety and effectiveness prior to marketing approval.

INVESTIGATOR
a clinical researcher who is involved with a clinical trial protocol and its implementation. The Principal Investigator is ultimately responsible for the conduct of the trial.

IRES INHIBITOR
see internal ribosome entry site inhibitor.

IRON
an important trace element needed for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. High levels of iron can be toxic to the liver.

IRON-DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
the most common type of anemia, caused by a lack of iron.

ISCHEMIA
reduced blood supply to bodily tissues.

ISLET CELL
a cell in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas that produces insulin.

IU
see international unit.

IV
see intravenous.

IVDU
see injection drug user.

IVIG
see intravenous immunoglobulin

KAYSER-FLEISCHER RINGS
see Wilson

KETONE
a byproduct of fat metabolism. When the body does not have enough glucose, the liver converts fatty acids into ketones, which are used as fuel by the muscles.

KIDNEY (adjective RENAL)
one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back part of the abdominal cavity. The kidneys filter waste material from the blood and excrete urine.

KIDNEY STONE (NEPHROLITHIASIS)
an accumulation of substances (e.g., drug crystals, minerals) in the kidneys, leading to blockage and pain.

KUPFFER CELL
a type of macrophage that resides in the liver and ingests bacteria absorbed from the intestines.

LACTATION
production of breast milk.

LAMIVUDINE (Brand name EPIVIR-HBV)
A nucleoside analogue medicine used to treat chronic hepatitis B and HIV produced by GlaxoSmithKline. Lamivudine is not recommended as a first line of HBV treatment because of the high rate of drug resistance.

LAPAROSCOPIC LIVER BIOPSY
a type of liver biopsy using a laparoscope.

LAPAROSCOPY
a procedure in which a lighted instrument is inserted through an abdominal incision for the purpose of diagnosis, biopsy, or surgery.

LAXATIVE
an agent that promotes bowel evacuation (defecation).

LECITHIN
a fatty compound required for proper metabolism.

LESION
a tissue injury or wound.

LEUKINE
see granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

LEUKOCYTE
an immune system white blood cell (e.g., T-cell, B-cell, neutrophil).

LICHEN PLANUS
an inflammatory disease of the skin and mucous membranes characterized by red or purple bumps or blotches. The cause of lichen planus is not known, but it appears to be an autoimmune condition.

LIPID
a fat.

LIPODYSTROPHY
a syndrome that involves abnormal lipid metabolism and redistribution of body fat.

LIPOGENESIS
production of lipids (fats).

LIVER
a large organ on the upper right side of the abdomen that plays an important role in the metabolism of sugars and fats, synthesizes several proteins, and filters toxins from the blood.

LIVER BIOPSY
a medical procedure that removes a piece of liver tissue which is then examined under a microscope for inflammation and damage.

LIVER CANCER
malignant proliferation of cells in the liver. The most common type of liver cancer in people with chronic hepatitis is hepatocellular carcinoma.

LIVER CELL
see hepatocyte.

LIVER ENZYME
see aminotransferase.

LIVING DONOR
a person who donates an organ or part of an organ while alive to another person.

LOBE
one of the four anatomical divisions of the liver; lobes are further divided into lobules.

LOBULE OF LIVER
a structural unit consisting of hepatic (liver) cells shaped like a hexagon with six portal triads surrounding a central vein.

LOG
a measure based on the logarithmic scale that refers to quantities in factor of ten. A log change is an exponential, or 10-fold, increase or decrease (e.g., a change from 10 to 100 is a 1-log increase; a change from 1,000,000 to 10,000 is a 2-log decrease). Viral load is sometimes expressed in logs.

LUPUS
see systemic lupus erythematosus.

LYMPH NODE (LYMPH GLAND)
a small, bean-sized organ located throughout the body, with concentrations in the neck, groin, and armpits. Lymph nodes filter out antigens and are the site of immune cell activation.

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
a network of organs and vessels that help maintain the fluid environment of the body and coordinate immune responses. The lymphoid organs include the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and adenoids.

LYMPHOCYTE
a type of white blood cell (e.g., T-cell, B-cell, natural killer cell) that plays a role in the body's immune defense.

LYMPHOCYTOPENIA
a deficiency of lymphocytes.

MACROPHAGE
a large scavenger white blood cell that ingests and processes foreign invaders and cellular debris. Specialized macrophages protect the skin, lungs (alveolar macrophages), brain (microglia), liver (Kupffer cells), and other tissues.

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)
a sensitive, non-invasive method for viewing soft tissues of the body using a magnetic field.

MAINTENANCE THERAPY
therapy that follows successful initial treatment of an illness; generally maintenance therapy continues for a long period of time (possibly for life) to prevent disease recurrence. Contrast with induction therapy.

MALAISE
a generalized feeling of illness and discomfort; a flu-like feeling.

MALIGNANCY
a cancer, neoplasm, or tumor that grows in an uncontrolled manner, and may invade nearby tissue and metastasize, or spread, to other areas of the body.

MALIGNANT
a condition that is severe, harmful, or resistant to treatment. Contrast with benign.

MALNUTRITION
lack of the minimum amount of nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, etc.) necessary for good health. Malnutrition may result from poor diet, lack of appetite, or inadequate absorption of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract.