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AGNIC - Wildlife terms
Category: Animals and Nature > Wildlife Management
Date & country: 27/09/2013, US
Words: 921


GENERIC NAME
a common name used to identify a drug, as opposed to a brand name used by a particular company for marketing (e.g., pegylated interferon is the generic name of the drug marketed under the brand names Peg-Intron and Pegasys).

GENETIC ENGINEERING
manipulation of an organism's genetic material to modify the proteins it produces.

GENETIC MATERIAL
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), the molecules that carry hereditary information.

GENOTYPE
the genetic makeup of an organism. HCV has six major genotypes (designated by the numbers 1 through 6). In the U.S., genotype 1a/b is most prevalent, and also more difficult to treat. See also quasispecies.

GI
see gastrointestinal.

GLOBULIN
see immunoglobulin.

GLOMERULONEPHRITIS
an inflammatory disorder of the glomeruli, often due to the build-up of cryoglobulins.

GLOMERULUS (plural GLOMERULI)
a small capillary bed in the kidney where blood filtration takes place.

GLUCONEOGENESIS
the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver.

GLUCOSE (BLOOD SUGAR)
a form of sugar that is the body's primary fuel. The liver stores glucose after meals and releases it again as needed. Abnormally low or high levels of glucose in the blood may indicate a metabolic disturbance (e.g., diabetes).

GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORS
Inhibitors of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), α-glucosidase has been shown to inhibit viral replication and secretion.

GLUTATHIONE
a natural antioxidant found in the body.

GLYCINE
an amino acid; one of the building blocks of glutathione.

GLYCOGEN
a carbohydrate stored in body tissues. The liver converts glucose from food into glycogen and stores it for later use. When needed, the liver converts glycogen back into glucose.

GLYCYRRHIZIN
see licorice root.

GM-CSF
see granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

GRAFT
a transplanted organ or tissue.

GRANULOCYTE
a type of immune system white blood cell (e.g., neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil) that releases toxic chemicals to kill invading microorganisms and mediate allergic reactions.

GRANULOCYTOPENIA
an abnormally low number of granulocytes in the circulating blood, which may lead to an increased risk of bacterial infection. In practice, the term is used to refer to neutropenia.

HALF-LIFE
the time required for half of the original amount of a drug to be eliminated from the body, or for a drug to decrease to half its original concentration in the blood.

HAS
see hepatic arterial stenosis.

HAT
see hepatic arterial thrombosis.

HBcAb
Hepatitis B core antibody is produced by the body and indicates that someone has been or is currently infected with hepatitis B.

HBeAb
Hepatitis B

HBeAg
Hepatitis

HBeAg SEROCONVERSION
A marker used to indicate successful treatment of chronic HBV with the loss of HBeAg (

HBIG
Hepatitis B immune globulin provides short-term protection for people exposed to hepatitis B. It is also given to infants born to HBV-infected mothers along with the infant vaccine to reduce the risk of chronic infection.

HBsAb
Hepatitis B surface antibody is an antibody produced by the body that indicates a person is protected from becoming infected with hepatitis B.

HBsAg
Hepatitis B surface antigen is a protein of the virus that is the first to appear after infection. Continued presence of HBsAg for 6 months indicates chronic infection.

HBV DNA
Hepatitis B deoxyribonucleic acid is the type and name of the virus. HBV DNA or viral loads are measured in international units or copies.

HBV RESISTANCE
Development of HBV mutations during HBV drug treatment that allows HBV to replicate and evade the effects of the HBV medications.

HCC
see hepatocellular carcinoma.

HCT
see hematocrit.

HCV RNA
the genetic material of the hepatitis C virus. A detectable level of HCV RNA on a viral load test indicates that HCV is actively replicating.

HELICASE INHIBITOR
a drug that inhibits the action of a virus' helicase enzyme, thus preventing the viral genetic material from unwinding, and interfering with viral replication.

HEMATOCRIT (HCT)
the percentage of red blood cells in a given amount of whole blood; the hematocrit reflects the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. A normal hematocrit is 40 to 54% for adult men and 37 to 47% for adult women.

HEMATOLOGICAL
having to do with the blood.

HEMATOPOIESIS
the production of blood cells in the bone marrow. Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to all types of red and white blood cells.

HEME
the iron-based pigment in red blood cells, a component of hemoglobin that is released when red blood cells are broken down.

HEMOCHROMATOSIS
iron overload disease; a disease in which iron is not properly metabolized and builds up in tissues throughout the body, especially in the liver.

HEMODIALYSIS
is a process in which a machine filters toxins and waste products from the blood; it is used when the kidneys are no longer able to filter the blood.

HEMOGLOBIN (Hgb)
the red, iron-based pigment in red blood cells that enables them to transport oxygen. Also refers to a test of the amount of hemoglobin in red blood cells.

HEMOLYSIS
the breakdown or destruction of red blood cells.

HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
a low red blood cell count due to excessive cell destruction.

HEMOPHILIA
a hereditary disease in which a person does not produce sufficient blood clotting factors and is prone to prolonged bleeding.

HEMORRHAGE
bleeding.

HEPACIVIRUS
a genus of viruses that includes HCV.

HEPATIC
having to do with the liver; also, an herbal remedy used to treat liver conditions.

HEPATIC ARTERIAL STENOSIS (HAS)
narrowing of the hepatic artery.

HEPATIC ARTERIAL THROMBOSIS (HAT)
the formation of clots in the hepatic artery.

HEPATIC ARTERY
the blood vessel that delivers oxygen-rich blood to the liver.

HEPATIC COMA
loss of consciousness due to advanced liver disease. When the liver is damaged, it cannot remove toxins from the body; these toxins build up in the bloodstream causing brain damage and other symptoms. Hepatic coma is an indication of advanced liver failure.

HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY
impaired brain function due to advanced liver damage; this occurs when the damaged liver can no longer effectively filter toxins from the bloodstream.

HEPATIC PANEL
see liver function tests.

HEPATIC RESECTION
surgical removal of part of the liver; may be done to treat liver cancer.

HEPATIC VEIN
the blood vessel that carries filtered blood from the liver to the heart.

HEPATITIS
inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis may have various causes, including viruses, toxins, and heavy alcohol consumption.

HEPATITIS A (INFECTIOUS HEPATITIS)
a viral disease of the liver that is primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Symptoms may include fever, fatigue, nausea, and jaundice. Hepatitis A typically resolves on its own and does not become chronic. There is no standard treatment for hepatitis A, but an effective vaccine is available.

HEPATITIS A VIRUS (HAV)
the virus that causes hepatitis A.

HEPATITIS B (SERUM HEPATITIS)
a viral disease of the liver. Hepatitis B is a blood-borne disease, but may also be transmitted sexually or vertically from mother to child. Symptoms may include fever, fatigue, abdominal pain, jaundice, and elevated liver enzymes. Hepatitis B becomes chronic in about 5 to 10% of infected adults. Standard treatments for hepatitis B are interferon and lamivudine; an effective vaccine is available.

HEPATITIS B IMMUNOGLOBULIN (HBIG)
a preparation of antibodies administered as postexposure prophylaxis to prevent illness in people exposed to the hepatitis B virus.

HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV)
the virus that causes hepatitis B.

HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV)
the virus that causes hepatitis C.

HEPATITIS D (DELTA HEPATITIS)
a viral disease of the liver. Hepatitis D is caused by a blood-borne virus that only causes disease in people already infected with hepatitis B.

HEPATITIS D VIRUS (HDV)
the virus that causes hepatitis D.

HEPATITIS E (ENTERIC HEPATITIS)
a viral disease of the liver. Hepatitis E is spread through the fecal-oral route. The disease is rare in the U.S., but common in Africa and Asia. It is usually mild, but may be severe and possibly fatal in pregnant women.

HEPATITIS E VIRUS (HEV)
the virus that causes hepatitis E.

HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA (HCC)
a type of primary liver cancer seen in some people with long-term liver damage due to chronic hepatitis C or hepatitis B.

HEPATOCELLULAR NECROSIS
concerning localized liver cell tissue death.

HEPATOCYTE
a liver cell.

HEPATOLOGY (also HEPATOLOGIST)
the medical specialty that deals with the liver; a hepatologist treats liver disease.

HEPATOMEGALY
enlargement of the liver.

HEPATORENAL SYNDROME
pertaining to the kidney failure in the presence of liver disease.

HERBALISM (HERBAL THERAPY)
the medicinal or therapeutic use of plants or plant products.

HERPES
a common viral infection that can cause fever blisters, genital sores, and shingles.

HGB
see hemoglobin.

HISTAMINE
a cellular compound that is released in response to an allergen and causes the symptoms of allergic reactions.

HISTOLOGICAL RESPONSE
an improvement in liver tissue condition (e.g., reduced inflammation) in response to treatment.

HISTOLOGY (adjective HISTOLOGICAL)
the study or examination of body tissues. In people with HCV, histological improvement refers to improved liver tissue health, including decreased inflammation and reduced fibrosis or cirrhosis.

HIV
see human immunodeficiency virus.

HIV DISEASE
infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, which attacks the body's immune system. AIDS is the late, symptomatic stage of HIV disease.

HODGKIN
tumor or cancer of the lymphatic system.

HOMEOSTASIS
the state of equilibrium of the body to maintain a stable internal environment.

HORMONE
a chemical messenger (e.g., adrenaline, testosterone) involved in the regulation and coordination of bodily or cellular functions. Hormones may act locally or be secreted into the bloodstream.

HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY (HRT)
the administration of hormones to replace those that the body is unable to produce; typically refers to estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women.

HOST CELL
a cell infected with a virus or other microorganism.

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)
a slow-acting retrovirus associated with AIDS. HIV is transmitted through blood-to-blood contact, sexual activity, or from mother to child.

HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
an excess level of bilirubin in the blood, characterized by jaundice, pale-colored stools, and dark urine.

HYPERCHOLESTEREMIA
a high level of cholesterol in the blood.

HYPERGLOBULINEMIA
an abnormally high level of immunoglobulins (antibodies) in the blood.

HYPERGLYCEMIA
high blood sugar.

HYPERTENSION
high blood pressure.

HYPERTHYROIDISM
increased thyroid gland activity and thyroid hormone overproduction

HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY (HCM)
a disease of the heart where enlargement and thickening develops in one part of the heart.

HYPOALBUMINEMIA
a low level of the blood protein albumin.

HYPOTHESIS
an assumption or theory used to guide a scientific investigation.

HYPOTHYROIDISM
decreased thyroid gland activity and reduced thyroid hormone production.

IBUPROFEN
a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to relieve pain and reduce fever. Advil, Aleve, and Motrin are common brand names.

ICTERUS
see jaundice.

IDIOPATHIC
a term used to describe a disease or condition of unknown cause or origin.