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AGNIC - Wildlife terms
Category: Animals and Nature > Wildlife Management
Date & country: 27/09/2013, US
Words: 921


DIAGNOSIS
the determination of the existence of a disease or condition. Diagnosis generally involves an evaluation of a person's medical history, clinical symptoms, and laboratory test results.

DIALYSIS
a method for filtering waste from the blood that replaces the function of the kidneys that are not working properly.

DIARRHEA
frequent, loose bowel movements. Diarrhea may be caused by a variety of factors, including microorganisms and as a side effect of certain drugs. Persistent diarrhea can lead to dehydration and inadequate nutrient absorption.

DIDANOSINE (ddi, DDI)
an HIV medication (brand name VIDEX and VIDEX EC). It is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used in combination with other antiretroviral drug therapy as part of active antiretroviral therapy (ART). Ribavirin should be avoided if DDI is being used to treat HIV due to the risk of developing lactic acidosis.

DIETITIAN
a medical professional specializing in dietetics, the study of nutrition and the use of special diets to prevent and treat disease.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
the organs (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus) associated with ingestion and digestion of food.

DIRECT-ACTING ANTIVIRALS (DAA
there are at least 4 categories of direct antivirals

DISCORDANT
not having the same serostatus, for example a couple in which one partner is HCV positive and the other is HCV negative.

DIURETIC
an agent that increases loss of water from the body through urination.

DM
see diabetes mellitus.

DNA
see deoxyribonucleic acid.

DOSAGE
the amount of a drug that is given at one time.

DOSE-RANGING TRIAL
a clinical trial in which different doses of a drug are compared to determine which dosage has the best balance of effectiveness and acceptable side effects.

DOSHA
one of the three bodily humors (vata, pitta, and kapha,) recognized in Ayurvedic medicine.

DOUBLE-BLIND
see blinding.

DRUG RESISTANCE
the loss of drug effectiveness of a drug that had previously been able to control or kill an organism such as a virus.

DRUG-DRUG INTERACTION (DDI)
a reaction that can occur when multiple drugs are taken together or drugs are taken with certain herbs or foods. Drug interactions may enhance or reduce the action of a drug and may increase its side effects, and could potentially cause life-threatening reactions.

DX
abbreviation for diagnosis.

DYSFUNCTION
lack or loss of normal function.

DYSPLASIA (adjective DYSPLASTIC)
abnormal cell or tissue growth.

DYSTHYMIA
see depression.

EARLY VIROLOGICAL RESPONSE (EVR)
2 log10 drop in HCV RNA at treatment week 12.

ECZEMA
a type of skin rash.

EDEMA
swelling caused by accumulation of fluid in body tissues.

EFFICACY
effectiveness; the ability to achieve a desired result.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA
the criteria of a clinical trial that includes inclusion and exclusion criteria.

ELISA/ELISA II
see enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

EMBOLISM
a blood clot that travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel, causing a blockage.

EMPIRICAL
information based on data, not on a theory.

ENCEPHALOPATHY
disease of the brain. See also hepatic encephalopathy.

END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE (ESRD)
kidney failure.

ENDOCRINE
endocrine glands are ductless glands that regulate bodily functions via hormones secreted into the bloodstream. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal glands, and gonads (ovaries and testes).

ENDOSCOPY
a method of examining the interior of a body cavity or hollow organ (e.g., esophagus, stomach) using an endoscope, a narrow, flexible fiber optic instrument that conducts light.

ENDOTHELIUM (adjective ENDOTHELIAL)
a layer of cells that lines blood and lymph vessels, the heart, and various body cavities.

ENDPOINT
a marker of disease progression or treatment outcome. Endpoints may be clinical manifestations (e.g., disease symptoms, death) or laboratory results such as ALT level or viral load (sometimes called surrogate markers). An endpoint of a clinical trial is the outcome

ENROLLMENT CRITERIA
factors used to determine whether a person is eligible to participate in a clinical trial. See also inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria.

ENTECAVIR (Brand name BARACLUDE)
A nucleoside analogue produced by Bristol-Myers Squibb that is used to treat chronic hepatitis B. It is recommended as a first line of treatment except in people who have developed lamivudine resistance.

ENTERIC
having to do with the intestines.

ENTERIC HEPATITIS
see hepatitis E.

ENVELOPE
the outer coat of a virus.

ENZYME
a protein that induces or accelerates a chemical reaction.

EOT
see end-of-treatment response.

EPIDEMIOLOGY
the study of the frequency, distribution, and behavior of a disease within a population.

EPIVIR
see lamivudine.

EPO
see erythropoietin.

EPOGEN
see erythropoietin.

ERADICATION (verb ERADICATE)
the complete elimination of an organism from the body.

ERYTHROCYTE
a mature red blood cell. Erythrocytes transport oxygen to the tissues of the body.

ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPOIETIN, EPO)
a hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells. Genetically engineered EPO (brand names Procrit, Epogen) is used to treat certain types of anemia.

ESOPHAGUS (adjective ESOPHAGEAL)
the swallowing tube; the portion of the digestive tract between the mouth and the stomach.

ESRD
see end-stage renal disease.

ESSENTIAL MIXED CRYOGLOBULINEMIA
see cryoglobulinemia.

ESTROGEN
the primary female sex hormone or a synthetic analog. Estrogens stimulate the development of female secondary sex characteristics and regulate the reproductive cycle in women.

ETIOLOGY
the cause of a disease.

EVR
see early virological response.

EXACERBATE
to worsen or make more severe.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA
conditions that disqualify someone from participating in a clinical trial. Contrast with inclusion criteria.

EXPANDED ACCESS
the distribution of an investigational medication to those who are in highest need and who may not qualify for the drug in clinical trials.

EXPERIMENTAL ARM
the group of participants in a clinical trial that receives the new experimental treatment under study.

EXPERIMENTAL DRUG
a new drug that is being tested as a treatment for a specific condition and has not yet been approved by the FDA for use.

EXTRAHEPATIC
outside the liver.

FACTOR VIII
a protein synthesized by the liver that is necessary for proper blood clotting.

FAILURE TO THRIVE
a condition in which an infant loses or fails to gain weight and develops at a slower rate than expected.

FALSE-NEGATIVE
a negative test result in a person who has the disease or condition being tested. Contrast with false-positive.

FALSE-POSITIVE
a positive test result in a person who does not have the disease or condition being tested. Contrast with false-negative.

FASCICULATION
an involuntary muscle contraction.

FAST TRACK
a designation by the Food and Drug Administration to help facilitate the development and to expedite the review process for an experimental drug that has the potential to address an unmet medical need for a serious or life-threatening condition.

FAT-SOLUBLE
capable of being dissolved in fat. Contrast water-soluble.

FATIGUE
unusual, prolonged, or excessive tiredness.

FATTY ACID
an organic molecule made up of a hydrocarbon chain and a carboxylic acid group. Fatty acids may be saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated.

FDA
see Food and Drug Administration.

FEBRILE
having a fever or increased body temperature.

FECAL-ORAL ROUTE
a route of transmission of infectious organisms which involves the transfer of fecal matter to the mouth

FECES (adjective FECAL)
excrement; excreted waste matter.

FELLATIO
oral sex on a man; contact between the mouth and the penis.

FEMALE CONDOM
see condom.

FIBRINOGEN
a factor produced by the liver that is necessary for proper blood clotting.

FIBROMYALGIA (FIBROMYOSITIS)
a condition characterized by pain throughout the body, often accompanied by fatigue.

FIBROSIS (adjective FIBROTIC)
liver damage in which fibrous tissue develops and replaces normal cells.

FILGRASTIM
see granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION BIOPSY
a type of liver biopsy in which a tissue sample is withdrawn using a very fine needle.

FLARE (FLARE-UP)
a sudden, acute worsening of disease symptoms.

FLATULENCE
excessive intestinal gas.

FLAVIVIRUS
a group of viruses, several of which cause diseases in humans. HCV is related to flaviviruses, and some taxonomists consider the Hepacivirus genus to be part of the Flaviviridae family.

FLUMADINE
see rimantadine.

FOLIC ACID (FOLATE)
a vitamin necessary for red blood cell production and proper neurological function; folic acid also helps prevents neural tube defects in fetuses.

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA)
the U.S. federal agency responsible for regulating the development, use, and safety of drugs, medical devices, cosmetics, and related products. The FDA approves new experimental drugs based on the results of clinical trials.

FRIBROMYOSITIS
see fibromyalgia.

FULMINANT
an unusually severe or aggressive form of a disease.

FULMINANT HEPATITIS
a severe, life-threatening form of hepatitis.

GALL BLADDER
an organ beneath the liver where bile is stored.

GAMMA GLOBULIN
a preparation of antibodies injected to prevent or treat infection. Gamma globulin is used as post-exposure prevention for hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSPEPTIDASE (GGT)
a liver enzyme. Elevated GGT levels may indicate bile obstruction and liver damage. A normal GGT level is 30 to 60 IU/L.

GAN CAO
see licorice root.

GASTROENTERITIS
inflammation of the stomach and intestines.

GASTROINTESTINAL
having to do with the digestive system, especially the stomach and intestines.

GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
the digestive tube consisting of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.

GB VIRUS C (GBV-C)
see hepatitis G virus.

GENE THERAPY
an approach to preventing or treating disease by replacing, removing, or introducing genes, or otherwise manipulating genetic material.

GENERIC DRUG
a drug that is not protected by a patent and may be produced by any manufacturer.