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AGNIC - Wildlife terms
Category: Animals and Nature > Wildlife Management
Date & country: 27/09/2013, US
Words: 921


BUPLEURUM
an herb traditionally used in Chinese medicine to treat liver conditions.

BX
see Biopsy.

CADAVER
the body of a dead person.

CADAVERIC DONOR
a recently deceased person who has donated an organ or tissue.

CANCER
a malignant neoplasm or tumor characterized by abnormal cell proliferation. Types include carcinoma (which affects epithelial cells), sarcoma (which affects soft tissues), lymphoma and leukemia (which affect lymphoid tissue), and glioma (which affects brain tissue).

CANITIES
a condition that causes premature graying of the hair.

CAPILLARIES
tiny blood vessels that deliver oxygen and nutrients to and remove waste products from cells.

CARBOHYDRATE
an organic molecule composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates constitutes a major class of nutrients, and are present in foods such as bread and pasta.

CARCINOGEN
an agent that promotes the development of cancer.

CARCINOMA
a malignant tumor of the epithelial cells that line body surfaces and cavities. Carcinoma in situ refers to an early stage of cancer that has not invaded surrounding tissues.

CARDIAC
having to do with the heart.

CARDIOVASCULAR
having to do with the circulatory system (the heart and blood vessels).

CARRIER
a person who does not show symptoms or have active disease, but who carries an infectious organism and can transmit it to others.

CASE STUDY
a description of a specific clinical case, that is, the development of disease and response to treatment in a single individual.

CASUAL CONTACT
non-intimate contact between individuals (e.g., hugging, eating, working together) that does not involve transfer of body fluids and therefore does not pose a risk for transmission of blood-borne diseases.

CATEGORY A, B, C, D, X
an FDA classification for drug safety during pregnancy. Category A drugs have not shown a risk to fetuses in controlled studies. Category X includes drugs which animal and human studies or common experience have shown to cause fetal abnormalities or miscarriages.

CBC
see complete blood count.

CD4 CELL COUNT
the number of CD4 lymphocytes in one cubic millimeter (mm3) of blood. The CD4 count is one indicator of the progression of HIV disease. A CD4 count below 200 cells/mm3 is a diagnostic criteria for AIDS.

CD8 CELL (CD8 LYMPHOCYTE)
a type of white blood cell that helps regulate and/or carry out the body's immune response. CD8 cells include T-suppressor cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

CDC
see Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

CELL
the basic unit of living organisms. A cell contains a nucleus and a cell wall (in plants) or a cell membrane (in animals) which surrounds the cellular material, called cytoplasm.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord.

CEPLENE
see histamine dihydrochloride.

CEREBROVASCULAR
having to do with the flow of blood to the brain.

CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT
see stroke.

CESAREAN SECTION (C-SECTION)
a delivery procedure that involves making an incision through the abdominal wall to remove an infant from the uterus (womb).

cEVR
see complete early virological response.

CFIDS
chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome. See chronic fatigue syndrome.

CHEMOKINE
a chemical, secreted by certain immune system cells, that acts as a messenger between cells and stimulates the activity of cells.

CHEMOTHERAPY
the use of drugs to treat disease.

CHIROPRACTIC
a system of treatment based on manipulation of the spine.

CHOLAGOGUE
an agent (especially an herb) that improves bile flow.

CHOLANGITIS
inflammation of the bile duct, often characterized by jaundice.

CHOLESTASIS
obstruction of the flow of bile between the liver, the gall bladder, and the small intestine.

CHOLESTEROL
a fatty substance in animal tissue that is an essential component of cell membranes, certain hormones, and nerve fiber insulation. Cholesterol is manufactured by the liver, and is also present in certain foods. There are two primary types of cholesterol in the blood, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is considered a risk factor for heart disease; and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which is considered protective.

CHOOSE MYPLATE
a visual diagram showing which foods are part of the daily recommended amounts included in a balanced diet. A healthy diet includes 6 to 11 servings of breads and grains 3 to 5 servings of vegetables; 2 to 4 servings of fruit; 2 to 3 servings of meat, fish, beans, or nuts; 2 to 3 servings of dairy products; and limited fats and oils.

CHRONIC
a long-term or persistent disease. Contrast with acute.

CHRONIC ACTIVE HEPATITIS
a condition in which HCV or HBV continues to replicate and infect new cells after six months.

CHRONIC HBV
a term for lifelong infection of hepatitis B.

CHRONIC HEPATITIS
liver inflammation lasting longer than six months.

CIRRHOSIS
a type of liver damage in which normal liver cells are replaced with fibrous scar tissue. In compensated cirrhosis, the liver is damaged but can still function. In decom

CLEARANCE
removal or elimination, e.g., of a virus or drug from the body.

CLINICAL
relating to the treatment of patients. A clinical observation is based on a person's observed condition and symptoms, as distinguished from laboratory findings.

CLINICAL TRIAL (CLINICAL STUDY)
an organized procedure for determining the effectiveness of a new drug or therapy by administering the agent to volunteers under controlled conditions. In many clinical trials, new treatments are compared against older standard treatments or an inactive substance (placebo).

CLOT
a sticky mass of coagulated blood cells and platelets.

COBALAMIN
see vitamin B12.

COEMZYME Q10
an antioxidant agent that is necessary for the proper activity of certain enzymes.

COFACTOR
a factor that influences the progression of a disease or the action of a disease-causing agent.

COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION
reduction in mental functioning and ability to carry out tasks that require thinking, planning, and memory.

COHORT
a group of individuals in a study who share a demographic, clinical, or other characteristic.

COINFECTION
concurrent infection with more than one disease-causing organism (e.g., HCV and HIV).

COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR (CSF)
a cytokine responsible for regulating the production of white blood cells. Types include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).

COLOSTRUM
breast fluid produced during the first few days after a baby's birth (prior to milk production) that contains proteins, immunoglobulins, and immune cells.

COMA
a state of deep unconsciousness; a vegetative state.

COMBINATION THERAPY
use of two or more drugs together to improve the effectiveness of treatment. In HCV treatment, the term most often refers to the use of interferon plus ribavirin. Contrast with monotherapy.

COMPASSIONATE USE
an FDA classification that allows individuals to use experimental drugs prior to their approval for a serious illness for which there is no other suitable treatment.

COMPENSATED CIRRHOSIS
see cirrhosis.

COMPLEMENTARY THERAPY
an alternative therapy that is used in conjunction with a standard Western treatment.

COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT (CBC)
an inventory of the cellular components of the blood, including red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin, white blood cell count, and platelet count.

CONGENITAL
present from birth.

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE
heart dysfunction that leads to a build-up of fluids in the body.

CONJUNCTIVITIS
inflammation of the conjunctiva, a membrane that covers the eye and lines the eyelid.

CONSENSUS INTERFERON
a preparation that contains a variety of different types of interferon.

CONTRACEPTION
birth control; a device or method that prevents conception (fertilization), implantation, or successful gestation.

CONTRAINDICATION
any circumstance or condition that makes a drug or other method of treatment inadvisable in a particular case.

CONTROL ARM
a comparison group in a clinical trial that is used to verify an experimental result. A control group is typically given an older standard treatment or a placebo rather than the new experimental treatment under study.

CONTROLLED TRIAL
a clinical trial in which a group receiving an experimental treatment is compared to a control group that is given a standard treatment or a placebo.

COPEGUS
Genentech/Roche

CORE
the inner part of a virus that contains its genetic material.

CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
damage to or blockage of the arteries that provide blood to the heart muscle.

CORTICOSTEROID
a steroid hormone (e.g., prednisone, cortisone) produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland or manufactured synthetically. Corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, and are used to treat a variety of conditions.

CREATININE
a metabolic byproduct produced by muscles; high levels in the blood may indicate kidney dysfunction.

CREST SYNDROME
a type of scleroderma characterized by a variety of different symptoms (primarily calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia).

CRYOGLOBULIN
an abnormal immune protein.

CRYOGLOBULINEMIA
a condition in which cryoglobulins form in the blood. When the blood is cooled, the cryoglobulins clump together, causing the blood to thicken and restricting blood flow. Essential mixed cryoglobulinemia occurs in many people with HCV, although most do not experience symptoms.

CRYOSURGERY
removal of damaged or cancerous tissue by freezing.

CT SCAN
see computed tomography scan.

CULTURE
a method of growing a microorganism in a laboratory.

CUNNILINGUS
oral sex on a woman; contact between the mouth and the vulva or vagina.

CUTANEOUS
relating to the skin.

CYSTEINE
an amino acid; one of the building blocks of glutathione.

CYTOKINE
a chemical messenger (e.g., interferon, interleukin, tumor necrosis factor) produced by white blood cells. Cytokines coordinate several aspects of the immune response, including stimulating antibody production and activating killer T-cells.

CYTOPENIA
low levels of blood cells.

CYTOPLASM
the material that makes up the interior of a cell.

CYTOPROTECTIVE
an agent that protects cells from damage.

DAA
see direct-acting antivirals.

DACLATASVIR
formerly BMS-790052) is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of hepatitis C. It is being developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb. Daclatasvir's mechanism of action involves inhibition of the HCV structural protein NS5A. Recent research suggests that it targets two steps of the viral replication process, enabling rapid decline of HCV RNA.

DATA (singular DATUM)
factual information, especially results of an experiment or clinical trial.

DECOMPENSATED CIRRHOSIS
see cirrhosis.

DECOMPENSATION
a failure of the liver to compensate for damage or injury; decrease or breakdown of liver function.

DEHYDRATION
loss or lack of water in the body. Dehydration may result from prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, and may disrupt many bodily processes.

DELIRIUM
a state of mental confusion, typically acute and rapid in onset that may be caused by factors including disease, drug use, or high fever.

DELTA HEPATITIS
see hepatitis D.

DEMENTIA
chronic loss of mental capacity. Dementia may involve progressive deterioration of thinking, memory, and motor function, and may also be associated with personality changes and psychological symptoms such as depression.

DEMOGRAPHICS
the characteristics of a population (e.g., sex, race, age).

DENTAL DAM
a flat square of latex or plastic, traditionally used for dental surgery, that can be used to protect against the spread of sexually transmitted diseases during oral sex.

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA)
a double-stranded nucleic acid that encodes genetic information. DNA is made up of four chemical building blocks (nucleotides)

DEPRESSION (DYSTHYMIA)
a mood disorder characterized by prolonged sadness or grief.

DETOXIFICATION
removal of toxic (poisonous) substances. Detoxification of the blood is an important function of the liver.

DIABETES MELLITUS (DM)
a disease caused by insufficient insulin production or lack of responsiveness to insulin. Type 1 (insulin-dependent or juvenile-onset) diabetes results from an inability of the body to produce insulin. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) diabetes occurs later is life and is associated with decreased insulin production or insulin resistance.